Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

5
votes
1answer
56 views

How was gene therapy able to cure diseases through the transformation of actively dividing cells?

I thought that gene therapy, when performed on target cells that regenerate themselves constantly, can be effective for a limited time only. I.e., the effect gradually wears off after a while, ...
5
votes
1answer
287 views

What is the difference between a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and a plasmid?

Is it just that a BAC is generally larger and artificially constructed? Or are there any other differences?
5
votes
3answers
279 views

What is a genetic marker?

In DNA sequencing and analysis, what is a genetic marker? I've heard that microsatellites are genetic markers? Those are repetitive strands of bases such as GCAGCAGCAGCA etc. Why are they markers and ...
5
votes
1answer
50 views

How can the phenotypic effects of a tumor suppressor mutation be silenced?

I've been reading a little about the "two-hit" hypothesis for tumor suppressor genes here, which mentions that some genes exhibiting haploinsufficiency are exceptions to the hypothesis. I've read ...
5
votes
1answer
353 views

Are there ways to speed up the growth of plants?

I'm interested in what humans can do to speed up the rate of growth in a plant. I'm interested in both the context of home gardening and large-scale, institution-backed projects. Obviously, optimal ...
5
votes
1answer
101 views

Is probability for double crossing over included in distance cM? [task]

We got this task: There are 3 genes (acb) on one chromosome (linked inheritance). Distance a-c = 12cM, a-b=16cM. Probability for double crossing-over (CO) is 0,6%. Find ratio of genotypes of ...
5
votes
1answer
75 views

What method would you use to genotype SNPs in low quality samples?

What method would you use to genotype SNPs in low quality samples? I ideally want to genotype hundreds of SNPs in hundreds of scat samples (very low amount of target DNA, potentially degraded and ...
5
votes
1answer
670 views

Are there eukaryotes without introns?

This question on the function of introns in eukaryotic genes made me think: I know that more basal organisms have smaller introns and fewer alternatively spliced exons compared to mammals. But are ...
5
votes
3answers
635 views

What is the inbreeding coefficient for the female offspring of a sib-mating in a haplodiploid system?

The inbreeding coefficient of a sibling mating for a diploid organism is 0.25 (each allele has a 25% of being identical by descent in the offspring). In haplodiploid organisms, males result from ...
5
votes
2answers
184 views

Non Coding DNA and its effect on evolution

I had a discussion with a friend of mine; from his understanding, bacteria and other small organisms have higher amounts of "coding" DNA and, as such, are able to evolve much faster than organisms ...
5
votes
0answers
384 views

Genetic expression in interspecific hybrids

Referring to interspecific hybrids, I have the following two questions:- Quoting from wikipedia:- The offspring of an interspecific cross are very often sterile; thus, hybrid sterility ...
5
votes
0answers
88 views

effect of background selection on promoter regions compared to distant enhancers?

Has anyone looked at the effect of background selection on the levels of conservation of promoter regions compared to distant enhancers? Do promoter regions have a higher conservation due to ...
4
votes
2answers
635 views

Why is the strength of genetic drift inversely proportional to the population size?

I saw a concept on the Internet that says "the strength of genetic drift is inversely proportional to the population size". I don't know why they are inversely proportional? Can somebody explain? ...
4
votes
4answers
221 views

Gametes of two different species

I always wondered why gametes from two different species dont fuse together to form an offspring. eg a donkey (sperm) and a female dog (egg) I know this is not possible but I'm just curious.
4
votes
3answers
115 views

How to create a collection of anonymous sequences for teaching and testing? [closed]

I am looking for a large collection (>1000) of sequence files (eg. FASTA) from any real organism or a tool to create such a collection. The sequence files would be used for teaching and for testing ...
4
votes
3answers
3k views

Are Italians genetically separated from other Europeans?

I was reading this Wikipedia article about the genetic history of Italy, and I found it interesting. There are however a few things that puzzle me, because they seem to contradict each other. For ...
4
votes
2answers
79 views

Is there a term for when a detrimental gene can be positively selected for because of linkage to a very fit gene?

Let's say that some piece of DNA would be subject to extreme negative selection if it were independently inherited, but it is very closely linked to an extraordinarily fit gene, and so the complex it ...
4
votes
5answers
585 views

If a gene is located on the X chromosome, does that mean males are never heterozygous for these genes?

As said in the title I am a little confused on the idea of traits located on the sex chromosomes. The example we worked on in class was haemophilia, a recessive trait located on the X chromosome. Does ...
4
votes
1answer
756 views

What phenotypes can arise from gender-related aneuploidy?

Humans normally have 46 chromosomes (two copies - one from each parent - of each of the 24 chromosomes: [1:22] + [XX or XY]). Aneuploidy is an abnormal number of chromosomes - Down's syndromes is an ...
4
votes
2answers
727 views

What are the major causes of mutations in DNA?

I know that point mutations can change the base sequence of a gene by altering a specific codon that codes for a particular amino acid. Are these mutations purely random events that occur when DNA is ...
4
votes
3answers
3k views

Why is mRNA needed in the Protein translation?

The original question was to predict the basic requirements for information storage. Then the discussion moved to why is it necessary to include mRNA in the protein translation process. Why can't ...
4
votes
2answers
103 views

Turning publicly available genome data into proteins

I'm a computer scientist who is starting to dabble with biology. My eventual goal is to model different kinds of cells with a computer program. As of right now, I'm just trying to take some smaller ...
4
votes
3answers
92 views

Can genes that activate transcription factors also called be called transcription factors?

If the sole known function of a gene is to activate a transcription factor, would that gene also be considered a transcription factor, or is there a word for such genes that are further upstream on ...
4
votes
3answers
2k views

Chromosome 2 fusion?

I read this article by Jeffrey Tomkins and Jerry Bergman claiming to debunk chromosome 2 fusion. Is there anything wrong with these conclusions? " 1.The reputed fusion site is located in a peri-...
4
votes
1answer
583 views

Pedigree Analysis: Problem

I'm struggling to arrive at the answer to the following question, which appeared on a pre-test of mine and which I am now using to study the material we've learned. According to this helpful video, I ...
4
votes
2answers
209 views

Do mutant alleles result from mutation of the wild type?

The allele that encodes for the most common form of a phenotype in natural population is called a wild type allele and all the rest of the alleles encoding forms other than the wild type are called ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

explanation of meaning of high-throughput

Almost all of the papers about bioinformatics, I faced with the high-throughput word, but I could not find any explanation about it (I think it is so easy to understand and thats why anyone explains ...
4
votes
4answers
234 views

Theoretically, what technique would one use to modify a virus so that it only affected a subset of the population?

I'm writing a novel and i would like to know some of the equipment and techniques involved with modifying a virus. Is it feasible for a virus to be engineered to only affect certain people? It doesn'...
4
votes
2answers
590 views

Hershey and Chase experiment

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3QJ4CjFsflA This is a link to Hershey and Chase experiment. According to this experiment, we conclude that DNA is the genetic material. But how do we conclude that DNA ...
4
votes
2answers
107 views

How do proteins and genes participate in learning?

I am a computer scientist that studies biology and bioinformatics. In the last weeks, I have been trying to study new research directions, and I would like to deepen my knowledge on the role and ...
4
votes
1answer
245 views

What do the letters 'p' and 'c' mean in mutation descriptions?

Example: NM_000525.3(KCNJ11):c. 67A>G ( p. Lys23Glu) AND Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus Does "p" stand for "polymorphism"? What does the letter "c" stand for?
4
votes
1answer
146 views

Are males taller than females?

Is there any scientific evidence that males are taller than females? And the reason why they are taller (please include genes or hormones that accounts for human growth and how they are affected in ...
4
votes
1answer
84 views

Are there examples of selection on males influencing female phenotypes?

I've been studying selection on female body color in a sexually dimorphic species and am intrigued by the possibility that selection on males, whether it be through sexual or natural selection, may ...
4
votes
2answers
847 views

Are these cats calico?

Calico cats are cats that have 3 fur colors and are always female or males two X chromosomes. I've seen many cats that will have 2 fur colors (one of them is usually white) and another, third, color ...
4
votes
1answer
362 views

Genetic engineering for insulin production

In order to put human DNA inside a bacteria in order to have it create Insulin, from what type of cell would you need to take the gene for insulin? I thought it should be from any somatic cell, since ...
4
votes
2answers
97 views

How are there multiple varieties of the potato?

The potato appears to propagate by growing an 'eye'/'bud' which eventually grows into a new plant. So there would probably be single representative of the potato species in the world with all others ...
4
votes
1answer
210 views

What exactly is meant by the expression “differentially expressed”?

As far as I've seen, this expression is almost always used in relation to gene expression profiling. Unfortunately, I have no background in this area. Can someone please explain this in layman terms?
4
votes
2answers
548 views

How many copies of a gene?

I am studying mathematical models of transcription and translation and I am wondering: In a particular genome, how many copies of a gene coding for one particular protein should one expect? Are they ...
4
votes
1answer
312 views

How significant is the genetic component of homosexual behaviour?

From some basic googling, I found that nobody has ever proven that people are born gay and that environment plays a great part in homosexuality. I wish to know if there is a genetic component to ...
4
votes
2answers
201 views

A photosynthesizing mouse?

N. Shubin's Your Inner Fish makes the point several times that there is a lot of functional similarity between some seemingly remote gene cousins. If that needed reinforcing we have the spider-goat, ...
4
votes
3answers
384 views

Could a sperm be altered to contain a female's genetics?

while discussing with a friend a while back on the likelihood a Funtari (a woman with both fully developed and functioning sets of genitalia) existing in real life we got into a discussion of weather ...
4
votes
1answer
3k views

Why are hybrids infertile?

Let's take a quote from Wikipedia about zebroids. Donkeys are closely related to zebras and both animals belong to the horse family. These zebra donkey hybrids are very rare. In South Africa, they ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

How do I calculate the change in allele frequency in a haploid population under selection?

From this book For simplicity, let us consider a haploid organism and assume that the frequencies of alleles $A_1$ and $A_2$ are given by $x$ and $y=1-x$, respectively. We also assume that the ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Double mutant analysis with null mutants

My professor was talking about double mutant analysis with null mutants, and how double mutant analysis won't work with hypomorphs. I really don't understand the concept of double mutant analysis. ...
4
votes
2answers
459 views

Are identical twins exactly the same?

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=identical-twins-genes-are-not-identical According to this article some identical twins show differences with respect to their copy number variants. ...
4
votes
3answers
195 views

Results of a complete DNA sequencing - are they 100% reusable?

Is that correct that a complete DNA sequencing (the whole genome) need only to be done once (per person)? After that is done, it the complete genome can be stored and once the new genes (and their ...
4
votes
1answer
18k views

Pedigree Probability of Autosomal Recessive Trait

Here is a pedigree: The trait is autosomal recessive. The question is: What is the probability that the bottom 2 people (4 and 5) have a child with the trait? I tried doing ...
4
votes
2answers
85 views

How to safely conserve my current DNA methylation marks?

I read the Wikipedia article on DNA methylation Let's say I want to extract and then stock my current DNA methylation marks somewhere so that I can use it safely 20 years in the future for a medical ...
4
votes
1answer
63 views

Is complete genetic linkage possible?

Linkage is the tendency of genes on the same chromosome to remain together during the process of inheritance. Is it possible that two genes will remain linked generation after generation without any ...
4
votes
1answer
109 views

Bayes theorem for mutations

MEN 2A is a dominant inherited disease caused by a mutation in the RET proto-oncogene. The probability of being sick when you have the mutation of the RET proto-oncogene varies with age and is assumed ...