Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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What triggers DNA to produce proteins?

What is the trigger for DNA to produce proteins or RNA? I have found enough material to study the inner workings of the cell and DNA; but, I can't find an explanation of the mechanics the cell uses ...
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114 views

Is there any source for raw data of SNP genotype frequency?

On sites like SNPedia, some pages contain the frequency of the SNP in question in different populations, based on published research. I'm trying to write a script that takes 23andme data and compares ...
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Terminology question: the scope of an allele in an organism

Let us consider a gene FOO with novel type foo. If I were discussing an organism that has inherited foo in every cell during classical zygote formation, then I would ordinarily just say that the ...
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100 views

In a vertebrate chimera, are particular organs homogenous genetically?

I have read that a chimera is an organism with two or more sets of DNA, with every cell having one of the sets. Is it possible and common for the two or more sets to be present in the cells of a ...
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417 views

T7 promoter leakiness

Can a gene be expressed under the T7 promoter in an E. coli strain (e.g. DH5 alpha), which does not have the T7 polymerase gene encoded in its genome? In other words, is T7 promoter leaky? To be ...
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Double stranded is more 'durable' than single stranded stuff?

I'm struggling with a question I've been asked. "Why is double stranded genetic material more 'durable' than single stranded one?" I know that double stranded genetic material is more stable due to ...
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Mechanisms of genotype*sex interactions [closed]

I'm looking for suggestions of the mechanistic level at which genotype*sex interactions can occur. These give different phenotypes from the same genotype dependent on the sex they are expressed in. ...
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76 views

What is the frequency of double-hets between parent and child?

Say both parent and child are genotyped for all SNPs. In this setup we are only looking at variant positions between one parent and child - so neither parent nor child are homozygous reference (no ...
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45 views

Determine which gene is in the middle complementation [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Crossing mutant strains on minimal media problem I'm studying this problem for my genetics final: My Attempt: The answer for part B is met2 and the answer for part C ...
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188 views

Why and how does complexity usually tends to increase through time?

The question of complexity is classic in the very first lectures of evolutionary biology where the teacher usually tries to tell the students that complexity does not necessary increases and that ...
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Can the third sex be categorized as Male or Female?

Hijra are people who have a penis (not sure if sexually active) but look much like a female (perhaps for some feminine biological property). Wikipedia says they are "physiological males who have ...
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Evolutionarily speaking, why do humans have 46 chromosomes

In humans, each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. Monkeys, chimpanzees, and Apes have 24 pairs (twenty-four pairs), for a total of 48. What caused humans to have 46? ...
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418 views

How can fruit flies and mice share the same gene that says to build an eye if they evolved separately?

I saw a documentary where they inserted the gene of a mouse that basically is the starting "build an eye" command into a fruit fly, and a fruit fly eye grew. My question is, if eyes of different types ...
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397 views

How come most animals never seem to evolve over millenia?

People often say, including those with extensive knowledge in biology, that a certain species of animal will evolve in one way or another: 1.From changing environments. 2.Mutations. 3.Possibly even ...
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159 views

Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium problem

In a small tribal population, the frequencies of two alleles A and a at a particular locus were 0.3 and 0.7, respectively. However, not all the individuals with genotype aa could live up to the ...
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75 views

Can genes that activate transcription factors also called be called transcription factors?

If the sole known function of a gene is to activate a transcription factor, would that gene also be considered a transcription factor, or is there a word for such genes that are further upstream on ...
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922 views

Difference between mice and rats

What is the actual biological difference between mice and rats? Are they actually the same thing with two different names depending on appearance (are they all mice for instance and we call the larger ...
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29 views

RNA polymerase question

In this question we are examining a bacterial RNA polymerase that elongates at 20 codons per second. Question 1: How long will this RNA polymerase take to transcribe the Lac Z gene at 3510 base pairs? ...
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206 views

Why isn't the insertion of a single nucleotide destructive for DNA?

As far as I know proteins are built by sequentially reading triplets of nucleotides. But if at a certain point a nucleotide is inserted in the sequence, the following sequence of triplets is ...
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247 views

Why has grey hair evolved?

A vast majority of humans get at least some grey hair as they age. As far as I know this applies to both genders and all races. Presumably this means that at least some grey haired humans have ...
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What does the gene name “lexA” stand for?

It is an important gene expressed in E. coli that represses the SOS response and also the expression of lambda lytic phase genes. UV light and damage to DNA is responsible for its breakdown and hence ...
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805 views

How to calculate relatedness in haplodiploid organisms (mainly full sisters and full brothers)?

I have tried to calculate the relatedness for haplodiploid organisms, but cannot understand the calculations behind full sister and full brother. (taken from Wikipedia: haplodiploidy I have managed ...
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576 views

Is there variation of AT/CG ratio along species?

Chargaff's rules say that the number of Adenine of the number of Thymine in a genome are equal (nA=nT) and similarly nC=nG. This makes obvious sense knowing that C binds to G and A to T. But what ...
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400 views

What hair color will result in someone inheriting both blond and ginger genes?

Both the genes for blond hair and ginger hair are recessive, so they need both parents to give the same gene for it to take affect. What happens when a person has 1 copy of a recessive gene and ...
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257 views

Macroevolution vs. microevolution

Where is the line usually drawn between macroevolution and microevolution? I thought that, although similar processes govern both, the line was at the species level, with macroevolution being changes ...
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132 views

Possible genotypes for blood types?

If I am blood type B, what are all the possible genotypes that could be expressed by my parents? I think it might be 16 but I was reading online and saw this: Similarly, someone who is blood type ...
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99 views

How Much Longer For The Gene For Blue Eyes?

In the year 1900 roughly 50% of the people in the United States were homozygous for the gene for blue eyes. By 1950 the number had dropped down to 30%. Just now, (2013) barely 12% of the people living ...
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160 views

Number of genes required to sustain life

Are there estimates of the minimum number of genes required to sustain life? In what I mean by life here, I don't include viruses.
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138 views

Which part of a female mantises's DNA causes her to be a few times larger than a male mantis?

Which part of a female mantises's DNA causes her to be a few times larger than a male mantis? Do other species have that part of DNA?
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Could a sperm be altered to contain a female's genetics?

while discussing with a friend a while back on the likelihood a Funtari (a woman with both fully developed and functioning sets of genitalia) existing in real life we got into a discussion of weather ...
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140 views

Help explain multi alleles in terms of actual genetic code

I understand that someones genetic makeup at an allele is usually denoted as (AA,Aa,aa). That means that instead of an A-T pair you get a C-G pair on none, 1 or 2 copies. Now, what exactly happens ...
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136 views

What is the most genetically simple organism except viruses?

What is the most genetically simple organism (except viruses) on this planet? By simple I mean the least number of genes.
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535 views

What species have had their genomes sequenced/are being sequenced?

The human genome project released it's first complete genome nearly ten years ago. Since then many species have also been sequenced. I am trying to find a list of completed (and possibly ...
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99 views

When can I assume individuals marrying into a pedigree are non-carriers?

If I'm not told that they're non carriers, and if I don't have proof of their geneotype based off of progeny, when can I assume they're non carriers for a trait?
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How common is bacterial mediated transformation? In plants? In animal cells?

The most common method to transform plants is by soaking plant tissue in cultures of agrobacteria (this is not their current classification) which transfer DNA into the plants. Is lateral gene ...
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How can GMO contaminate biologic plants?

Let consider two use cases : I am the only farmer within a 200km radius. I first grow GMO plants. A few cycles later I decide to grow bio plants, so I uproot all of the GMO plants and plant fresh ...
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136 views

What is biological dark matter?

I recently stumbled upon the Biological Dark Matter wiki page. Its pretty light on details, but it appears to be genetic material found in humans that doesn't fall into currently classifications. ...
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43 views

If hermaphrodite C. elegans can reproduce with females?

C. elegans can self fertilize, or they can mate with males. But are they able to mate with females? Or is there some kind of morphological barrier that prevents that?
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101 views

XXY (Klinefelter's) & Trisomy 21 & X-inactivation

I read that X-inactivation doesn't tend to happen in males, but then when someone is XXY, they are a male because of the Y. However these individuals tend to live. So does that mean that ...
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124 views

Do there exist publicly available Genome sequences of a family?

I would like to explore the genome sequence of a publicly available genome sequences of a family (like mother, father, son, daughter...). If such human genome sequences are not publicly available at ...
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139 views

Question about Autosomal Recessive Alleles

I had a homework question that I could not figure out. It states: A woman has cystic fibrosis in her family and did not want to have a child that suffered from the disease. She and her spouse ...
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102 views

Why is Turner syndrome rarer than Klinefelter syndrome?

Turner syndrome occurs in 1-1000 to 1-5000 females, and Klinefelter syndrome occurs in 1-500 to 1-1000 males. Why is Turner so rare even though they both are caused basically by the same mechanism?
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Are identical twins exactly the same?

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=identical-twins-genes-are-not-identical According to this article some identical twins show differences with respect to their copy number variants. ...
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361 views

Detecting Introns and Exons

I know that when RNA is transcribed from the original strand of DNA it contains introns and exons, and that the introns are spliced out of the strand to provide genetic diversity. However, what I ...
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278 views

How might gene clusters like the lac operon evolve?

The obvious answer for a gene cluster is gene duplication and mutation of one or both genes. But the genes in the lac operon seem not be so functionally/structurally similar (as compared to the Hox ...
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76 views

Microbiome Data

How is it possible to access microbiome data like that found here? I'd like to perform analyses on similar type of data, but cannot find OTU data like that at the Human Biome Project. Thanks for any ...
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255 views

Extreme examples of protein translation/use coupling/decoupling?

What are known extreme examples of protein translation/effect coupling/decoupling? For example, examples of proteins that are immediately used at the time the have been translated and vice versa, ...
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31 views

How to determine genotype?

In humans, the ability or inability to roll the tongue is a single gene trait. The allele for tongue rolling (R) is dominant to the allele for not being able to roll the tongue (r). Whether ...
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47 views

Fixation rate at neutral loci

It is a classical result that the expected time for a neutral mutation to occur and to get fixed is $2 N \mu \frac{1}{2N} = \mu$, where $N$ is the population size and $\mu$ is the neutral mutation ...
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Do human visual functions degenerate due to genetic factors or by external factors?

Does eyesight primarily deteriorate 'naturally' due to genetics (genomic/epigenomic factors), or due to external factors such as normal wear and tear, or disease? By normal wear and tear I include ...