Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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What are these strings used to describe animals?

For example, what's a $dt^{sz}$ hamster? (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1144494/). What's a Rgs9-Cre/+;gtROSA/+ mouse? ...
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Gametes of two different species

I always wondered why gametes from two different species dont fuse together to form an offspring. eg a donkey (sperm) and a female dog (egg) I know this is not possible but I'm just curious.
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Turning publicly available genome data into proteins

I'm a computer scientist who is starting to dabble with biology. My eventual goal is to model different kinds of cells with a computer program. As of right now, I'm just trying to take some smaller ...
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285 views

Do recessive alleles really exist?

This question may seem illogical to some, but I seriously have this doubt. I searched google for some proofs but they were extremely complex and I couldn't understand anything. I was just wondering ...
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182 views

Why is the strength of genetic drift inversely proportional to the population size?

I saw a concept on the Internet that says "the strength of genetic drift is inversely proportional to the population size". I don't know why they are inversely proportional? Can somebody explain? ...
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119 views

Are there more descriptive ways of naming genes and gene interactions?

I couldn't help but notice just how non-descriptive the gene names that modern genetics is using. Currently I'm reading "The new science of Evo Devo" by Sean B. Carroll and here are some examples of ...
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87 views

Does a phenotype include the presence of a recessive gene

I am trying to understand what exactly a phenotype is to try and understand a genetics database. (Ie I don't really know very much about genetics at all) I've been reading through wikipedia on what a ...
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122 views

Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium problem

In a small tribal population, the frequencies of two alleles A and a at a particular locus were 0.3 and 0.7, respectively. However, not all the individuals with genotype aa could live up to the ...
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72 views

What is doubling of genetic material invented in flowering plants?

David Attenborough in his Kingdom of Plants 3D said, that flowering plants made two inventions: (1) doubling of genetic material and (2) symbiosis with animals. What was meant by "doubling of genetic ...
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200 views

How come most animals never seem to evolve over millenia?

People often say, including those with extensive knowledge in biology, that a certain species of animal will evolve in one way or another: 1.From changing environments. 2.Mutations. 3.Possibly even ...
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Definition of species - location of gene

I know that species have been classified on basis of reproduction , DNA similarity , niche, etc. Has there been a classification based on locus of genes ? What are the drawbacks/shortcomings of ...
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81 views

Evolution after the development of sexual reproduction

My understanding of evolution is that genetic mutation occurs in individual members of a species, and they become a new species. Isn't a definition of species a group of genetically similar organisms ...
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61 views

Is it theoretically possible to treat filaggrin deficiency with a dietary supplement?

http://f1000.com/prime/reports/m/3/2/ "Filaggrin is a highly abundant protein expressed in the uppermost part of the epidermis that is critical to the formation and hydration of the stratum ...
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52 views

Could someone clearly define what a gene variant is with an example

Could someone clearly define what a gene variant is with an example. I am totally confusing myself with SNPs, alleles, variants and how the major and minor allele are defined. A clear example with ...
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100 views

Can retroviral delivery systems “overwrite” genes?

As the question states, what are the limits of retroviral genetic delivery systems? Are they limited to adding additional gene sequences to a cell, or can they actually overwrite specified segments ...
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119 views

Prenatal Marketing

This is for a short story idea. Is it possible to modify the DNA of a child to make their metabolism more susceptible (physical response, addiction, etc) to a certain type of chemical i.e. a chemical ...
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79 views

Is DNA mutation locally energetically stabilizing the DNA molecule

I am no biologist, but as a physicist, a spontaneous mutation (seen as a chemical transformation) should lower the energy of the system, at least locally. So I wonder if any research has been done ...
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131 views

Ancestral Allele explanation

I'm having some trouble understanding the concept of ancestral allele. What exactly does it mean? What does it have to do with Identity by descent/state? What does it have to do(if anything) with ...
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150 views

Is tongue rolling genetic?

Is the ability to roll your tongue or not truly inherited or genetic? What I have gathered from school has been contradicting with evidence I found elsewhere.
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705 views

Primer design for Gibson assembly

I'm trying to design a primer for Gibson assembly. My gene of interest is on a plasmid, and I want to copy that gene, and put it into a different plasmid. I am unsure how to design my primers for ...
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48 views

methods for targetted deletion of genomic regions?

I would like to know what are currently used methods for targeted deletion of genomic regions in mammalian organisms or cell lines. I have heard of Zinc-Finger nucleases as a recent genetic ...
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32 views

Does the most common definition of “allele” include a change in phenotype?

I'm prepping an activity for my biology students on cystic fibrosis. There are about 2000 different mutations of the CFTR gene that cause CF. Since the final phenotype is pretty much the same, can I ...
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37 views

What does “regulatory genomics” mean?

I have read about basics of molecular genetics ,although its not a thorough in-depth knowledge. I would like to know about "regulatory genomics". What is it actually?
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52 views

What does chromosome CHR_Un, CHR_MT in the ftp site of NCBI mean?

I am not a biologist. But need some genetic data. So I searched internet and reached NCBI's website. I came to know from the FAQ page that I can the complete genome data of organisms from ...
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Can someone who is color blind recover color vision by surgical means?

I am currently studying color blindness, and there is no medicine that can help it. Is it possible nonetheless for someone who is color blind to have their eyes restored to normal color vision by ...
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66 views

Why are hybrids infertile?

Let's take a quote from Wikipedia about zebroids. Donkeys are closely related to zebras and both animals belong to the horse family. These zebra donkey hybrids are very rare. In South Africa, they ...
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36 views

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless?

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless? Please explain the broad principles and not the technicalities.
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How does gene expression work in an adult organism? Is everything encoded everywhere?

The color of a person's eyes are genetically predetermined. If I knew how and in which gene(s) colors are encoded, I could change these genes in the ovary and sperm and thus change the eye color of ...
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Functioning of BRCA2

I know that BRCA2 interacts with RAD51 to repair DNA damage. But how exactly does it function ? What are the other proteins that interact with it ?
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Quantitative Differences : DNA and Gene

After HGP, we are not having many databases which consist of several notepad files of ATCG.... Can we distinguish quantitatively a given A,T,C and G stretch as DNA or Gene?
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172 views

Promoter in the lac operon

Here is the question: Suppose an experimenter becomes proficient with a technique that allows her to move DNA sequences within a prokaryotic genome. If she moves the promoter for the lac operon to ...
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52 views

Connection between genes and pathways

I am reading about a paper about inferencing pathway information in cancer cells. Authors refer to ERBB2 as a gene and a pathway. I don't have solid biology background. What exactly means when we ...
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36 views

What is mRNA expression level?

I cannot find clear explanation of what is mRNA expression level, and how to measure it. I would appreciate if someone explained it or gave a reference. Thanks!
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93 views

How does smoking, an environmental factor, cause cancer, fundamentally a genetic disease?

If cancer is fundamentally a genetic disease, how might an environmental factor such as smoking cause cancer?
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132 views

Accuracy of a particular genetics test

I am a newbie in biology and I am simply trying to discover the field of genomics. Consider the question - Are genetic tests accurate? I don't believe they are as the genes may not provide the ...
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310 views

What do rs id, allele coded 0 and allele coded 1 mean?

So, for a project I've been working on (different story), I've been looking at the HapMap Project, and their free online files. In their README file, they talk about how for each legend file for each ...
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94 views

What are Haplogroups?

What exactly does the term Haplogroup or Haplotype means? How is it claimed that people belonging to the same haplogroups have common ancestors?
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49 views

Could an annual plant be genetically modified to be a perennial?

My chives, asparagus, oregano, and rhubarb come back every year like clockwork. Suppose I want my bok choy to join the party - is there an "I'll be seeing you next year!" gene that can be modified to ...
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28 views

Valid comparison of gene expression between several genes in several cell lines

We have gene expression data (Affimetrix mRNA gene expression results) for several cell lines, over a set of genes. Our goal would be to be able to compare relative gene expression for genes over the ...
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In genome research, what is the problem in Mapping that may be caused by reads being too short?

In the following scenario: You were given short sequence reads of plant RNA obtained from a next-generation sequencing machine (fragments of 20–30 nucleotides in length). You attempt to map them back ...
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41 views

List of heritability estimates in humans?

Many people on this site ask questions that directly or indirectly have to do with heritability in human. Do you know a list of estimates of heritability of various traits in humans? Or could you try ...
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1answer
87 views

What is the standing genetic variation?

I am reading this review. In the first part, the author introduces Standing Genetic Variation, described as: STANDING GENETIC VARIATION Allelic variation that is currently segregating within a ...
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41 views

How usable is the Human Metabolic Model to predict biomass?

In order to use the Human Metabolic Model for Flux Balance Analysis of specific cancer cell lines, we would like to know what sort of flux values have been determined for the Human Metabolic Model. ...
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45 views

Determining whether X chromosome from sperm or egg

Is there any way of determining which X chromosome a female inherited from her father and which from her mom ?
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112 views

How can Southern blotting be used to establish gene copy number?

I am reading a paper on a certain marine microorganism that can eat alkanes and therefore might be useful for cleaning up oil spills, etc. This sentence struck me as odd (although I am sure that the ...
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96 views

Do genes play a role in the athleticism and shape of a person?

I am an Indian with a small thin stature with some deposition of fat around my belly.I was wondering if genes play a role in fat deposition in the body for Indian, Chinese, European or African people. ...
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123 views

Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium after 5 Generations

1 There is a population not at HWE where red eye = $a^+$ (dominant) and white eyes = $a^-$. if $a^+/a^+ = 0.6$ $a^-/a^+ = 0.1$ $a^-/a^- = 0.3$ what are the frequencies of the $a^+$ and $a^-$ ...
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126 views

How does electroporation mediated recombination work?

For yeast and other organisms, DNA can be readily taken up into the cell naturally or through membrane disruption. What does applying a voltage to cells do exactly that allows more recombination to ...
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1k views

What is genomic imprinting?

What is a genomic imprint? How does genomic imprinting take place? If I say that "this" allele is maternally imprinted does it mean that the allele of the gene is passed only by the mother? If a ...
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435 views

Difference between viral and human genetic material

I have heard that there is a difference between viral and human genetic material. What is that difference? If I take my cells and take DNA out of them and insert only a small part of it having a ...