Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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How does electroporation mediated recombination work?

For yeast and other organisms, DNA can be readily taken up into the cell naturally or through membrane disruption. What does applying a voltage to cells do exactly that allows more recombination to ...
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What is the effective relatedness of inbreeding?

If a human inbreeds with a relative, how distant does the relative have to be before the homozygosity in the child is no higher than if the mate were randomly chosen from the global population?
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85 views

What do the signs +/+ +/- mean in this image?

I don't understand what this graph is supposed to explain, especially what the signs +/+ or -/- mean. I just know it characterises some rats.
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475 views

How does the modern theory of evolution solve these apparent problems? [closed]

I hold to the truth of Evolution, but I've encountered several problems with it, that I can't answer, and I can't find an answer for, despite much research. If would be great if anyone can answer ...
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What determines if a gene is dominant or recessive?

Going back to my high school days we were taught about dominant and recessive genes. We were taught how to calculate the geneotype and pheneotype of potential offspring using a small table (forgotten ...
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Can genes that activate transcription factors also called be called transcription factors?

If the sole known function of a gene is to activate a transcription factor, would that gene also be considered a transcription factor, or is there a word for such genes that are further upstream on ...
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128 views

Why do I have a lot in common with my mother? [closed]

I have not spoken to my mother in 15 years but recently connected with her and her side of the family. I was primarily raised in a different sub-culture after the age of 4. As it turns out I ...
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139 views

Number of genes required to sustain life

Are there estimates of the minimum number of genes required to sustain life? In what I mean by life here, I don't include viruses.
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136 views

Accuracy of a particular genetics test

I am a newbie in biology and I am simply trying to discover the field of genomics. Consider the question - Are genetic tests accurate? I don't believe they are as the genes may not provide the ...
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88 views

What to do with a DNA sequencer? [closed]

My school is very fortunate to have a DNA sequencer, and I want to find an opportunity to learn how to use it. I'm currently taking AP Biology this year, and I hope to do an independent study in ...
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906 views

Genetically speaking, are dogs exactly similar to humans and chimps both?

Richard Dawkins mentions in his book The Greatest Show on Earth that dogs are exactly similar to both humans and chimps. Supposing that a cell contains the genetic similarity between 2 species, he ...
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265 views

Negative value on linear gene expression in microarrays

I am starting to use microarrays and maybe this is a dumb question: Using Illumina microarrays, linear gene expression can be negative? Or maybe some artefacts have been introduced? And, in this ...
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Do apes and humans share 99% of DNA or 99% of genes? What is the difference?

I made an answer on the Scifi.SE that can be read here. It is about how the characters in the story Jurassic Park might have gotten DNA for all the species shown. In my answer, I said this: Apes ...
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30 views

Genotoxic agent and their metabolic pathway

What are the mechanics (set of biochemical reactions) allowing a given genotoxic agent to modify the mutation rate at a given spot? to induce only a given type of mutation (from Gs to Cs for ...
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535 views

Difference between viral and human genetic material

I have heard that there is a difference between viral and human genetic material. What is that difference? If I take my cells and take DNA out of them and insert only a small part of it having a ...
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1answer
90 views

Is “Fight or Flight” distance genetic

If you took a newborn animal and completely isolated it from its species, would it be capable of assuming a fight or flight distance preset by its species, due to their being no basis for what could ...
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171 views

what is knob heterochromatin?

I am reading a paper which discusses Maize Genome Structure. Descriptions of the structure is given in the papers introduction. I know about heterochromatin "heterochromatin stains intensely, ...
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196 views

Possible Genotypes of 4 Alleles of Adh

There are four alleles of Adh which are Adh-1, Adh-2, Adh-3 and Adh-4. Their respective frequencies are 0.11, 0.84, 0.01 and 0.04. What are the Hardy-Weinberg frequencies of the possible 10 ...
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51 views

Does a large effective population size result in faster decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD)?

I am thinking about an invasive species that was introduced into North America just a few (<20) generations ago. Using microsatellite genotypes (105 loci), I have identified almost no significant ...
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Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium after 5 Generations

1 There is a population not at HWE where red eye = $a^+$ (dominant) and white eyes = $a^-$. if $a^+/a^+ = 0.6$ $a^-/a^+ = 0.1$ $a^-/a^- = 0.3$ what are the frequencies of the $a^+$ and $a^-$ ...
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129 views

Are identical twins exactly the same?

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=identical-twins-genes-are-not-identical According to this article some identical twins show differences with respect to their copy number variants. ...
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41 views

Is there are practical lower limit to gene length in E. coli?

Question is rather self-explanatory. Putting aside other post-transcriptional factors like rate of degradation of transcript, what is the smallest gene ever reported to have successfully been ...
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372 views

What is Mendelian Randomization, and how is it used to infer causality in epidemiology?

Studies of human traits and diseases are inherently confined to observational studies, known as epidemiological studies. This can make it very hard to determine what actually causes a particular ...
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108 views

Do spouses begin to share genes over time?

I apologize if this hypothesis sounds strange by I was wondering if any research had been done on a phenomenon which I've seen and have corroborated with many other - the idea that over time spouses ...
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270 views

What hair color will result in someone inheriting both blond and ginger genes?

Both the genes for blond hair and ginger hair are recessive, so they need both parents to give the same gene for it to take affect. What happens when a person has 1 copy of a recessive gene and ...
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46 views

Function of ER in reviewing mutated proteins

At least in the case of Cystic Fibrosis it happens that a mutant protein (which could actually function!) is held in the ER because the ER detects it as misfolded. Does this happen in every type of ...
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83 views

Low complexity region and relaxed selection

I'm reading a text (Wagner, 2007) on identifying positive selection. In paper, the author says that low complexity regions are known to be associated with relaxed selection. I'm trying to understand ...
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What is the genetic basis of blood type (ABO) system?

What is the genetic basis of the A/B/B+/O/etc. blood type system? Are there definitive loci that correspond to each or can multiple different genotypes produce the same antigen profile? Also, is the ...
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86 views

Confusion related to the use of PCA to determine the background network

I was reading this paper related to use of gene expressions for predicting the drug response. I have this confusion, the paper has used PCA on the covariance matrix formed by the genes to get what is ...
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154 views

Are biological systems engineered? They are often reverse engineered at a molecular level!!

Understanding biological systems, molecular biologists need to “reverse engineer” them. Is this evidence that the systems were engineered to begin with?
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61 views

Is there any definition of complexity about gene and protein according their function?

Sorry for such a question,if it is too naive. Is there any definition of complexity about gene and protein according their function?If so,what is the relation between them?
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478 views

What determines the colors and patterns of a clam shell?

Earlier this week I was looking at some bivalve shells that had ornate patterns which ranged in color from a light orange-pink to a deep orange-red. Here is an image I found online that seems to be of ...
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103 views

Can retroviral delivery systems “overwrite” genes?

As the question states, what are the limits of retroviral genetic delivery systems? Are they limited to adding additional gene sequences to a cell, or can they actually overwrite specified segments ...
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394 views

When can a virus modify DNA in every cell of a living organism?

I've recently heard about experiments with brain tissue, where a virus is introduced in a rats brain, causing a "glow when electric charge is present" protein to be created. This protein then helps to ...
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463 views

Smallest unit on which selection can act

Traditionally, the individual was considered to be the smallest unit on which Natural Selection (NS) acts. Today, we usually consider the gene as being the unit of NS. Of course, we should also ...
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279 views

Is there variation of AT/CG ratio along species?

Chargaff's rules say that the number of Adenine of the number of Thymine in a genome are equal (nA=nT) and similarly nC=nG. This makes obvious sense knowing that C binds to G and A to T. But what ...
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356 views

What species have had their genomes sequenced/are being sequenced?

The human genome project released it's first complete genome nearly ten years ago. Since then many species have also been sequenced. I am trying to find a list of completed (and possibly ...
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114 views

How did the activities of protocells become inheritable?

I have learned that first a protocell came to exist and its characteristics came to be passed on by genetic material. So how come genes for all the activities come to incorporate into genetic ...
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44 views

How diverse are dogs in their traits other than appearance?

I've asked this question about dogs not so long ago, and the short answer was - dogs are the most diverse looking species of mammals because they got a small number of genes that have a big impact on ...
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Inheritance of Huntington's disease

People with Huntington's disease have HTT genes with more than 37 copies of CAG repeat. The risk of extra copies being generated is higher during sperm formation than during ovum formation. Why is it ...
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114 views

Suggestions for an experiment? [closed]

I would appreciate suggestions for my year-long AP Biology project. Such a project would consists of a standard experiment, to be done over the period of a year, so it would have >to be fairly ...
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45 views

Genetics - Is this hybridization possible?

Suppose you hybridize two plants - One has a red flower and a long stalk, the other has a pink flower and a short stalk. This resulted in these 4 type of plants, with ratio 1:1:1:1 Long stalk red ...
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Method to inject genes into cells

The famous Hershey and Chase Experiment uses phages to inject genes into cells. In the beginning, Professor Yamanaka injected 24 types of genes into cells to figure out which genes turn a cell into ...
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How can fruit flies and mice share the same gene that says to build an eye if they evolved separately?

I saw a documentary where they inserted the gene of a mouse that basically is the starting "build an eye" command into a fruit fly, and a fruit fly eye grew. My question is, if eyes of different types ...
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43 views

Have novel interactions or pathways been predicted by GRN or PPI data and later confirmed by experiment?

I've been learning about the gene regulatory network (GRN) and protein-protein interaction network (PPI) recently. I've found a huge amount of extremely interesting papers about how biological network ...
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What is genomic imprinting?

What is a genomic imprint? How does genomic imprinting take place? If I say that "this" allele is maternally imprinted does it mean that the allele of the gene is passed only by the mother? If a ...
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325 views

How to compare SNP from genotyping results for multiple people with a known phenotype?

I'm looking at different genotyping profiles available at opensnp.org and am trying to compare profiles for people with different phenotypes. For example, given 10 profiles of people who can roll ...
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133 views

Which part of a female mantises's DNA causes her to be a few times larger than a male mantis?

Which part of a female mantises's DNA causes her to be a few times larger than a male mantis? Do other species have that part of DNA?
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44 views

Determination of gene direction

I have one sequence that composed of sequences of three genes. I should determine the direction of each gene, but two of these genes are disrupted, and I can't determine the initial codon. Does anyone ...
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How does Artificial Selection work?

As far as I know for evolution to work mutations are necessary. Mutations are the raw material on which natural selection works. But mutations are always completely random and human beings have no ...