Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Why is the DNA codon table “equal” to the RNA codon table

Before anything else please pay attention of the double quotes on the "equal" in the title - I know they are not equal, but you will understand in a bit. If I look at the DNA codon table here or in ...
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45 views

During bridge amplification of DNA sequences, why aren't sequences amplified in both orientations?

During bridge amplification, when sequences attached to adapters on the surface form "bridges" and are replicated, it seems like sequences with either end attached to the surface will be created. For ...
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88 views

How to identify genes required for biofilm formation

This is just a homework question: Q: Let’s assume that there is an unknown set of E. coli genes that are required for biofilm formation. Describe a genetic experiment you could perform to try to ...
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108 views

Will genetically modified food affect our health?

It's a popular public sentiment that - GM foods like tomatoes (flavr savr) will affect our health.. Is there any logical scientific explanation behind this?
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42 views

regarding genetic disorders related to protein production

I am not completely familiar with biology, but i had a genetics course in college along with practicals. Forgive me if there is something wrong with my question. Is there a genetic disease which ...
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1answer
44 views

What is this bizarre in-growth in this red bell pepper?

I just chanced upon a rather strange red bell pepper (or capsicum?): The green formation is bulbous to touch, just the like the outside of the bellpepper, and it has the same smell as one. I'm no ...
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997 views

Book Recommendations: GRE Subject Test In Biochemistry, Cell And Molecular Biology

There are probably a lot of really good answers that may vary significantly in terms of content. I'm looking for a set of books that I can read in preparation for the GRE Subject Test In ...
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Is it possible to genetically modify a plant at home?

Would I be able to genetically modify a plant at home? What equipment will be necessary? I think it might be a fun change from the 'norm' of regular hybridisation, to try some inter-family gene ...
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206 views

Paralogous genes in genome-wide association studies?

Has anybody tested if paralogous genes are over-represented among the genes identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS)? For example, if a GWAS study finds 200 genes associated to the ...
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1answer
23 views

Centriole genes Knock-out Experiment in Common experimental animals?

Anyone know of any experiments that have knocked out the genes for producing centrioles in a worm, mouse, fish, fly or whatever animal? Are the genes for centrioles even identified? It has been shown ...
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1answer
29 views

Where do I purchase a fly with the collagen tagged?

Where can I purchase a fly with tagged collagen? My senior undergraduate research paper is observing the collagen in larvae with normal diet compared to larvae with an experimental diet. I need ...
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1answer
77 views

Do human visual functions degenerate due to genetic factors or by external factors?

Does eyesight primarily deteriorate 'naturally' due to genetics (genomic/epigenomic factors), or due to external factors such as normal wear and tear, or disease? By normal wear and tear I include ...
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363 views

Why was it so hard to decode the corn genome?

My teachers growing up told me it was impossible to decode the maize genome. But yet its been done. Why was decoding the genome so significant, and what made it so difficult?
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184 views

Need of X or Y chromosome protein after meiosis

After meiosis each spermatid get either the X chromosome or the Y chromosome. I know that the 4 spermatids formed from 1 spermatogonia are connected by cytoplasm and so the proteins made by X or Y ...
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1answer
75 views

Which is better against genetic mutations? Asexual or Sexual Reproduction?

In terms of genetics, which type of reproduction is better against adverse mutations? I understand a bit of Muller's Ratchet—in which asexual organisms accumulate a number of deleterious mutations in ...
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47 views

Word denoting genetic state

Is there a single word, or brief phrase, that denotes the state of the total genetic machinery (genome + transcriptome + proteome + ...) of a cell or organ or organism at a particular point in time?
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165 views

Results of a complete DNA sequencing - are they 100% reusable?

Is that correct that a complete DNA sequencing (the whole genome) need only to be done once (per person)? After that is done, it the complete genome can be stored and once the new genes (and their ...
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445 views

Double mutant analysis with null mutants

My professor was talking about double mutant analysis with null mutants, and how double mutant analysis won't work with hypomorphs. I really don't understand the concept of double mutant analysis. ...
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57 views

Is there are practical lower limit to gene length in E. coli?

Question is rather self-explanatory. Putting aside other post-transcriptional factors like rate of degradation of transcript, what is the smallest gene ever reported to have successfully been ...
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Heterochromatin production limitations

Currently playing with some ideas for a project and needed some guidance. I am wondering, both in Drosophila melanogaster and in general, is the amount of heterochromatin a cell/nucleus can produce ...
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1answer
49 views

Why are the genomes of some trees so large?

For example, the current longest known genome belongs to a tree: http://motherboard.vice.com/read/the-largest-genome-ever-sequenced-belongs-to-a-tree I have heard that this could potentially be ...
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924 views

How do I calculate the change in allele frequency in a haploid population under selection?

From this book For simplicity, let us consider a haploid organism and assume that the frequencies of alleles $A_1$ and $A_2$ are given by $x$ and $y=1-x$, respectively. We also assume that the ...
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1answer
261 views

What is the minimum population size that Hardy-Weinberg calculations can be applied to?

I'm trying to find out if a particular allele is in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, but the data is poor. What's the minimum population number that you can use to get any sort of respectable ...
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122 views

Hill-Roberston effects and effective population size

From this article, first page, middle of the second column: Even if harmful alleles do not become fixed, they can still reduce the efficacy of selection on neighbouring loci through a process ...
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Do men have a higher genetic variance than women?

I've heard that with the distribution of our genetic code women have less variation on the bell curve than men. Is there any basis for this? It was my understanding that women have more genetic ...
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2answers
404 views

Why is the strength of genetic drift inversely proportional to the population size?

I saw a concept on the Internet that says "the strength of genetic drift is inversely proportional to the population size". I don't know why they are inversely proportional? Can somebody explain? ...
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Physiological function of CFTR gene product? [duplicate]

I just need a clarification. If I am to talk about the physiological function of the CFTR gene product? Then what should I do research and talk about? The only physiological function that I can ...
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36 views

Is this a valid definition of independent assortment?

"Allelic combinations separate randomly. I.e. a parent might be Aa and Bb for two traits but that doesn't necessarily mean the gametes will strictly be AB or ab but any of a number of combinations. ...
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261 views

What are non-heritable changes to genomes?

I am told that mutations are heritable changes to the genome. So this begs the question - what are non-heritable changes to genome?
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1answer
67 views

What impacts penetrance of Huntington's disease? [closed]

From Principles of Life by H. Craig Heller, David E. Sadava, Mary V. Price: From what I understand, Huntington's disease exhibits varying degrees of penetrance depending on how many times the ...
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1answer
130 views

XXY (Klinefelter's) & Trisomy 21 & X-inactivation

I read that X-inactivation doesn't tend to happen in males, but then when someone is XXY, they are a male because of the Y. However these individuals tend to live. So does that mean that ...
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182 views

Functions of the CFTR gene?

I am a senior in high school and I am studying cystic fibrosis. I don't quite get the function of the CFTR gene as this is my first time dealing with this type of heavy scientific info. I had ...
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1answer
79 views

How exactly can dsRNA be introduced to a cell?

Is it just by viruses or are there other means by which it gets into cells, such as plasmid uptake?
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49 views

If hermaphrodite C. elegans can reproduce with females?

C. elegans can self fertilize, or they can mate with males. But are they able to mate with females? Or is there some kind of morphological barrier that prevents that?
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95 views

Redundancy of the genetic code

One particular codon codes only for one amino acid, but an amino acid can be coded for by several different codons. Now according to the genetic code, the codon UUU ...
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94 views

Earliest and latest onset of Huntington's Disease(Chorea)?

Huntington's disease can hit at any age, although it tends to hit middleaged people most often. What is the youngest and oldest person that has exhibited Huntington's? Clarification: By oldest I mean ...
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1answer
110 views

DNA methylation on the forward vs reverse strand?

I'm wondering if there are meant to be differences in DNA methylation between the forward and the reverse strand of the gene? I'm wondering because in primer design for bisulfite pyrosequencing one ...
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1answer
87 views

Are all functions of a human cell known? [closed]

Please bear with me as I'm intruding into your world from a computer science background. In programming, once you have created a program, you know all functions of that program. Thus, 100% knowledge ...
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102 views

What kind of technology is required for plant seed DNA printing? [closed]

I'm a programmer so I have little knowledge in the field of biology. However I have an interest in plants, GMOs and DNA (in terms of programming). So, I want to know what kind of technology is ...
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397 views

How does non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) work?

I was reading about non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in my molecular biology of the gene textbook but the explanation provided in the text was rather vague to me, and I was not able to understand it ...
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120 views

Can sealed epiphyseal growth plates theoretically be restored via epigenetic or genetic methods?

I know that epiphyseal growth plates seal up once people become young adults and that it is currently impossible to restore them to actively produce new bone growth but, is it theoretically possible ...
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1answer
230 views

What is the result of meiosis?

Is the result of meiosis ONLY the sex gametes (male and female) which later meet to form a somatic cell? Sometimes I feel as if my book is hinting towards meiosis is the process where sperm cells meet ...
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Incomplete Dominance and Probability

I have a follow-up question about an in-lecture question (this is not a homework question). As you can see I have already answered the question and the question is closed to further submissions. ...
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330 views

Why has grey hair evolved?

A vast majority of humans get at least some grey hair as they age. As far as I know this applies to both genders and all races. Presumably this means that at least some grey haired humans have ...
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1answer
171 views

Why do our epiphyseal plates close up in our late teens or early twenties?

What causes our epiphyseal plates close up in our late teens or early twenties? I realize that one's genetics plays the main role in this. I assume there is a gene that controls the epiphyseal plates ...
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77 views

Chromatids in metaphase?

Please see the following picture: In my book, the author claims that these chromosomes are in metaphase (a metaphase stopped by cholchicin). I don't understand why they don't have two ...
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At what rate do chromosomal rearrangements occur?

How often does chromosomal rearrangements occur? i.e. what is the rate of chromosomal rearrangements? I am interested about these kind of chromosomal rearrangements that are passed on to the ...
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1answer
52 views

How to identify genes?

You and me are different at DNA level. My eye color gene is different from yours. So, my DNA is different from yours. How can a scientist identify a certain gene in a chromosome (and its function) if ...
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1answer
230 views

What is the difference between a fixed substitution and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)?

I recently read a report that stated "We found 430 fixed substitutions […], with an additional 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) fixed within individual patients." What is the difference ...
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Do white Australians have a distinct look?

Background I've heard from many people working in tourism or similar industries that, white Australians can be recognized as Australian solely by their facial features. Being Australian myself I've ...