Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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HIV and open reading frames

In Wilk et al. 2001 I saw that HIV has 3 open reading frames. In the Watts et al. 2009, I noticed they mentioned HIV has 9 open reading frames. I don't understand this very well. e.g. ...
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What is the Genetic Cause of Homosexuality? [duplicate]

So, I'm just wondering about this because I read the following in my Biology textbook about fruit fly genes: "Normal male and female flies express distinct forms of the fru gene. When females are ...
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9k views

Is diabetes mellitus a sex-linked disease?

There are two types of diabetes mellitus. a. Type 1 diabetes mellitus b. Type 2 diabetes melliuts Is either of them a sex linked disease? Can either one be inherited? My book says, "this disease is ...
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When performing mutagenesis for an assay, how do you decide on the sample size of individuals to be mutated such that all genes are covered?

If I want to study, say, gustatory response of salmons to a bile acid, I need to mutagenize a sample of salmon males. However, given that there are many genes involved in this response, what is ...
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Can genes change as we age?

Let's say you're a 23 year old man who impregnates a woman. Will your genes be the same if you were to impregnate another woman at age 35? Will your genes in those 12 years have changed/mutated/become-...
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Please explain this disrepancy about ageing

We read that ageing is related to cell death when we run out of telomeres at the end of our DNA molecules. Humans live roughly for 70 years - the traditional three-score years and ten. This compares ...
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1answer
122 views

What does it mean to clone a gene?

When I look up information related to the identification of disease genes, texts will often refer to the gene being "first cloned." What does "clone" mean in this context? Is it simply a synonym for ...
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134 views

How was the cama's life expectancy computed?

A cama is a hybrid between a male dromedary camel and a female llama. The first cama was born on January 14, 1998, yet on the Wikipedia page it is said that a cama's life span is 30–40 years. How was ...
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185 views

Why are hybrid offspring mostly sterile? [closed]

Hybrid infertility is a common trait in cross-species offspring. Most are sterile, as they do not produce viable gametes. Examples of this can include Ligers and Mules. Could modern advancement in ...
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51 views

Sexual selection and genotypes [closed]

I have question about genetics and sexual selection. This is re-worded from a problem that was posed to help me and others understand what is going on here. Say you have a fictional species on an ...
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29 views

Why are we supposed as unable to change our intrinsic behaviour? [closed]

People say that habit can be changed but not the intrinsic behavior of an individual. One can control it for a certain period but eternal control or refrain is not possible. Is that true? If yes why?
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48 views

Math backbone in biology/genetic

Are there any good books, that shows some advanced models in genetics particularly? The problem is i don't see any good math model in genetics interactions exept combinatorics. I'd like to know what ...
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18 views

Amputation of part of the cytoplasm of the amoeba? [closed]

We ampute a part of the cytoplasm of the amoeba many times and we observe that amoeba is not divided This experience allows to deduce the cause of the division of amoeba Do that have relation with ...
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1answer
116 views

How often does bacterial transformation happen?

I have been reading: M. Dröge, A. Pühler, W. Selbitschka, "Horizontal gene transfer among bacteria in terrestrial and aquatic habitats as assessed by microcosm and field studies", Biol. Fertil. ...
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1answer
39 views

genetic complementation problem

I've attached the picture of the problem. SO, based on the information I managed to assemble two large cistrons. (if the combination of two mutants yield (-) mutations are on the same chromosome) A)...
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2answers
839 views

What is the instructional language of DNA?

DNA carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses (Wikipedia). Is it already know how ATCG's sequences ...
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1answer
48 views

Difference between micro RNA and short-interfering RNA and CRISPR Cas 9 system?

I read this article https://www.quantamagazine.org/20150206-crispr-dna-editor-bacteria/ and am slightly puzzled as to why the CRISPR/Cas 9 system is seen as being so revolutionary. It seems like the ...
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1answer
1k views

recombination frequency problem

Three loci C, D and E are located on the same chromosome in this order. We found that the frequency of recombinants between C and D is 10% and that between D and E it is 20%. Assuming that ...
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2answers
191 views

Why can't this be 1st meiotic division non-disjunction as well?

The child has gotten 2 "sick" chromosomes from his dad and 1 healthy from his mom, leaving it with trisomy 13. I can see how this can happen in the second meiotic division of the father but I can ...
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33 views

Gel Electrophoresis

we add Etbr within the agarose gel but we do not add Etbr directly in native PAGE ?when we make agarose gel, we add Etbr before its solidification but we do not add Etbr when the native PAGE gel is in ...
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1answer
50 views

Coefficient of Inbreeding - implementation issue

The formula for the coefficient of inbreeding is as follows... I have a family tree going back 9 generations. Say I find a common ancestor X in the 4th generation on the mothers side and in the 5th ...
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1answer
213 views

Why does size decrease across the sequence of human chromosomes?

The following graph shows a decrease in the amount of base pairs per chromosome across the sequential set of human chromosomes: Is this because chromosomes were originally numbered by their size on ...
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Fur genetics - what are the causes of fur colour decision?

This Australian Shepherd puppy's father is a black-tri; mother is a blue merle. What would cause this dog to have so much white color? Are there any general explanations as to why this might ...
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346 views

Can bacteria release free DNA into their environment?

Natural transformation AKA natural competence involves the uptake of DNA into a competent bacterium (for horizontal gene transfer or as a food source). My question is about where this extracellular ...
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198 views

Electroporation vs gene guns [closed]

What are the pros and cons of using electroporators (left) and gene guns (right) for transformation in terms of: Price Target organism Efficacy Ease of use Maintenance
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1answer
32 views

Calculating the frequency of a recessive allele in case of three segregating alleles

Is it correct to say: A. f(A) = p; f(a) = q B. p = f(AA) + ½ f(Aa)=$\sqrt{f(AA)}$? Also, For a gene locus segregating more than two alleles, the frequency of each allele is the frequency of ...
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55 views

How to find name of the gene

Considering the kegg page, this page contains the description of the gene Edwardsiella tarda EIB202: ETAE_0074 . Now this gene has a name given in the page as : wabG. Now considering another gene 1 ...
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Human Endogenous Retroviruses

I am reading this paper, which shows that a Human Endogenous Retrovirus (HERV) K provirus is present at the orthologous position of gorilla and chimpanzee genomes but absent in the human genome. If ...
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45 views

Animal gene in plants

Usually only microbes, specifically bacteria are used to express genes of other species for various functions. But, it is possible to try and express an animal gene into a plant. Bacteria like ...
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2answers
124 views

Question about proto-oncogenes and oncogenes?

My textbook says: Growth-promoting genes are called proto-oncogenes. Some can be changed into oncogenes by a point mutation that alters the ability of the proto-oncogene to be switched off. They ...
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1answer
80 views

When does a chromatid become a chromosome?

When chromosomes lie on the metaphase plate, they have the characteristic X shape. But these are actually two chromatids that are held together at the centromere. If separation fails and both ...
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1answer
322 views

Inheritance of Huntington's disease

People with Huntington's disease have HTT genes with more than 37 copies of CAG repeat. The risk of extra copies being generated is higher during sperm formation than during ovum formation. Why is it ...
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1answer
49 views

Using evolution of bacteria against themselves

We know that mutations happen regularly in bacteria and also that one bacteria might get the mutation and become stronger than the others and thus survive, causing antibiotic resistance as well. Can ...
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1answer
96 views

Is intelligence (or mental ability) genetically transferred (inherited characteristic) from the parent to the offspring or is it an acquired trait?

The question is simple- whether our mental ability i.e. ability to acquire and store knowledge and comprehend and analyse the stored bits, an inherited trait (i.e. genetically transmitted from the ...
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102 views

What does the “*” in haplogroup I2A1* mean?

I have been told that the "asterisk" in the Haplogroup 12A1* means it doesn't move down stream? What exactly does that mean in layman's terms?
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1answer
47 views

Can we create custom gene/protein?

Does it possible to create any custom gene or protein we want with current technology? I have a protein sequence or a gene sequence about 4000 bp write down on my computer, is there anyway to "print" ...
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669 views

Possible Genotypes — Linked Genes

Please consider the following question: Genes A and B are located on the same chromosome. If two individuals with the genotype shown below are crossed, which genotype could be formed? Let / ...
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247 views

How does Cro protein expressed by lambda phage kill its host?

I read that the DNA segment of lambda phage integrated in host DNA could switch between lysogenic state where cI represses the expression of Cro and lytic state where Cro expression takes over and ...
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1answer
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difference in genetic instuctions between male and female [duplicate]

I'm a computer science graduate so please bear with me the following computer program : mov ecx, -1 INC ecx consist of 2 instructions (mov,inc) each working on specific data , can genetics ...
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1answer
199 views

Which of the two chromosomes in a pair is expressed?

I have completely dummy question. I have 23 pairs of chromosomes in the cells 23 single coming from my mother and 23 single from my father. So how my cell choose which chromosome, mother's or father'...
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2answers
53 views

Do eukaryote cells contain DNA that isn't part of a chromosome or located in the mitochondria?

I specify eukaryote in the title, but I'm also interested if this question isn't applicable to eukaryote cells in general but is to humans. I was reading "RNA-seq: An assessment of technical ...
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1answer
46 views

Query from a ppt slide

I came across this slide: Now I haven't understood what the last two grey colored lines mean. Can't ORFS be of any size? What is overlapping frames here?
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1answer
37 views

How long does it take for a genetic trait to dissipate if its no longer selected for?

Have their been any studies or experiments done that provide insight into the persistence of genetic traits if an environmental shift suddenly causes that trait to be neutrally selected for? Does it ...
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1answer
252 views

Problem on Probabilty of a restriction enzyme cutting a random DNA sequence

I think its a silly question to ask here. When I came to this site all I could see were the questions which asked detailed explanation behind a phenomenon and reasoning was there at first place. I am ...
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1answer
179 views

What is the reason for having an extra recognition site for a restriction enzyme?

Can the size of a supercoiled plasmid DNA be determined by using standard DNA size fragment electrophoresed in parallel? 2. An unknown DNA molecule was cleaved using several restriction enzymes ...
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Why do men have nipples?

I'd be tempted to call nipples in men vestigial, but that suggests they have no modern function. They do have a function, of course, but only in women. So why do men (and all male mammals) have them?
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Do recessive alleles really exist?

This question may seem illogical to some, but I seriously have this doubt. I searched google for some proofs but they were extremely complex and I couldn't understand anything. I was just wondering ...
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2answers
8k views

Possible genotypes for blood types?

If I am blood type B, what are all the possible genotypes that could be expressed by my parents? I think it might be 16 but I was reading online and saw this: Similarly, someone who is blood type ...
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107 views

Horizontal gene transfer from humans

It is known that some viruses embed themselves in the human genome. Is there a mechanism by which human genes can be transferred to other animals or plants by means of viruses shuttling them from ...
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Why are female not competitive for reproduction like males?

I have wondered if competition for mate among males and the race among sperm cells would result in healthy offspring, why no such mechanisms exist among females and egg cells? (Even females are ...