Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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how do I find the number of bp in chromosome 3 by knowing number of bp in chromosome 1?

If i have a number of bp in chromosome 1 for example(298,295,559 bp) can I use this number to find the number of bp in chromosome 3.
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“structural and regulatory elements of genes” [closed]

Can anyone please explain a little about these two elements of genes? My main problem is with "which ‘switch on’ instructions". genes have structural elements (which code for a particular protein) ...
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meaning of “usually greater than 200 base pairs”

From "Risks from GMOs due to Horizontal Gene Transfer", by Paul Keese: Homologous recombination. All cellular organisms have molecular functions dedicated to recognizing and recombining DNA ...
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Why are multiple copies of the 35S enhancer used for overexpression in plants?

I know that the CaMV 35S promoter is widely used for transgenic plants, and I also know that it can be used as an enhancer element for overexpression. I noticed that it is always used as a ...
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120-year-old gene regulation problem independently solved by a computer. How?

My Background: I'm a mathematics graduate student with a physics background. I have a very little biology knowledge and a little knowledge of machine learning and statistics. Topic: I recently ...
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710 views

How do two parents, recessive and dominant genes and two complimentary nucleotides end up in one DNA? [closed]

In the basic school, I was taught that half of genome is received from father and another half comes from mother in the form of double-helix DNA, whose first helix consists of dominant nucleotide ...
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Does one parent transmit more DNA to the offspring than the other one?

Does one parent transmit more DNA to the offspring than the other one? Or do both parents always transmit the same amount of genetic material to their offspring? In other words, can a baby be ...
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If dog's DNA and human's DNA are almost same then can it be said that dogs evolved from humans? [closed]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IbY122CSC5w In this video it is said our DNA matches almost the dog's then it can be also said that dogs evolved from humans. Is it?
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1answer
127 views

Is the fixation rate always equal to the mutation rate for neutral alleles?

Background A classical result of population genetic is that the rate of fixation of netreual alleles is the mutation rate $\mu$. The reason is that each generation $PN_e\mu$ mutations enter the ...
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335 views

Splice in with CRISPR/Cas

I need to splice a gene into a human cell genome, with highest rate possible. I mean, doesn't really matter where the gene enters, nor does it matter if some cells die as a result of this. CRISPR ...
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1answer
62 views

Virus-to-virus gene transfer via “sequences integrated into a common host organism”

From "Risks from GMOs due to Horizontal Gene Transfer", by Paul Keese: In addition to direct HGT between organisms as depicted in Figure 1, forms of indirect HGT have been observed, which involve ...
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Calculating the recombination factor of four point genetic cross?

So, I'm trying to work out the recombination factor (RF) from this set of data: Which shows the 16 phenotypes of progeny of a cross of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. I know how to go about a three ...
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139 views

How do eukaryotes terminate transcription? (clarification on Campbell Biology)

I'm having trouble understanding how eukaryotes terminate transcription. Studying Campbell Biology (pg. 342, 10th ed.), I read: In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II transcribes the polyadenylation ...
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1answer
70 views

How to interpret the simple sequence repeat (SSR) on the coding sequence, but not the related protein sequence?

I have predicted some SSR repeat on the gene of interest using SSRLocator program, which the result creates a question for me. Please consider the below sequence, which is part of gene sequence of ...
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1answer
141 views

Layman definition of genetic polymorphism?

I am reading an article about Genetic Polymorphism and there are lines in the article about genetic polymophism that I don't quite understand like. In this area, there are six different chemotypes ...
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0answers
48 views

How does intron retention make the alternative transcript non-coding?

I faced with a non-coding transcript that specified as one the isoform of BIN1. It sounds that this isoform generated as a result of alternative splicing with a intron retained; am I right? However, ...
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1answer
74 views

Disease causing variants and Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

Is it true that many disease causing variants/mutations do not follow Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium? If so, then please elaborate on why this may be true (or not) and provide examples. I am interested ...
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What's the aim of genetically modifying of foods/organisms?

On news, articles etc. experts talking about Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms often mentions about their disadvantages like, their potential to harm human health allergies may become more ...
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3answers
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Are Italians genetically separated from other Europeans?

I was reading this Wikipedia article about the genetic history of Italy, and I found it interesting. There are however a few things that puzzle me, because they seem to contradict each other. For ...
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1answer
65 views

Plasmid copy number and Rop protein

If i want to transform a bacteria (E. coli) with a particular plasmid (in my case pBR322) will the presence of the Rop gene affect the production of it ? Is it desirable to use a plasmid without that ...
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2answers
128 views

Do transposons usually jump from one chromosome to another?

If it is usual occurrence, does it mean that my one gene can change its location from one chromosome to another?
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1answer
125 views

Catenation and decatenation by DNA Gyrase

Decatenation is done for the replication of DNA and why is Catenation done and is it related to Crossing over
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1answer
222 views

Heterochromatin v Euchromatin. Which is more abundant?

So I was just reading that whether heterochromatin or euchromatin is more abundant in a particular human cell depends on how active that cell is. But considering that most of the 25,000 or so genes in ...
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45 views

Genetics of epilepsy

Is epilepsy genetically inheritable? If yes, is it dominant?
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1answer
89 views

Recombination fraction( frequency) in Homozygotes

I have a question about the recombination frequency I hope you have time to answer. Background: If we look at homozygous individual A/A B/B which has been formed from the gametes AB and AB, this ...
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1answer
34 views

gene duplicated on genome but is different

I've been looking at a miRNA cluster on a genome and I found it three times. The first two are right next to each other and look exactly the same, the third sequences is on a different scaffold of the ...
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5answers
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Can the third sex be categorized as Male or Female?

Hijra are people who have a penis (not sure if sexually active) but look much like a female (perhaps for some feminine biological property). Wikipedia says they are "physiological males who have ...
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2answers
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It's right to say coding sequence is part of exon sequence?

Some basic ambiguities making me confused. I downloaded 5'UTR, CDS, 3'UTR, and exon sequences, separately from Biomart for a gene P4HA2 (Homo sapiens) and found some simple sequence repeat (SSR) on ...
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1answer
60 views

IBD-value in pedigree with inbreeding

I have a question about IBD. Please see the figure below. How many pairs of alleles are IBD for X and Y, or what is the IBD value for X and Y. Is it four (4)? I have seen it to be maximally 2, but ...
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226 views

Why does all life use the same macromolecules in their genetic code?

There is no biochemical constraint of any sort, so why doesn't some other code work? Why is it specifically RNA/DNA?
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1answer
168 views

In human females one X chromosome is inactivated forming Barr Body. Then How exactly Haemophilia is dominant? check description for details

Suppose a female has one X chromosome normal and one chromosome with Haemophilic gene. Now suppose if the X chromosome which is normal is inactivated will the female show haemophilia?
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81 views

Overcoming Inbreeding Depression

When inbreeding depression occurs, a genetically unrelated individual is mated with the animal to introduce genetic variability and remove homozygosity. In this case either outbreeding or ...
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2answers
290 views

In which phenomena does one gene pair hide the effect of other unit?

This question was asken in an exam, The answer they are saying is "Epistasis". But I think "Dominance" fits better, because it is not mentioned whether genes of same allele are to be considered or ...
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2answers
486 views

What exactly is extreme heterozygosity and how does it work?

What does the concept of "extreme heterozygosity" mean? I first encountered this concept in "The Drunken Botanist". They describe that when planting a seed from, say, a 'red delicious' which was ...
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1answer
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Nature of Dengue Fever Genetic Material

Once the genetic material for Dengue Fever is inserted into the human DNA, would the Dengue Fever molecular material be in the form of its own isolated DNA fragment or will it be inserted directly ...
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Evolution of a Population

Scientists observe a newly established population of sexually reproducing plants growing on the shore of a small island. An observable trait of the plant has two possible phenotypes. It is determined ...
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1answer
377 views

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Question

I have four questions concerning H-W Equilibrium: (i) In a population of mice, the presence of black spots is the result of a homozygous recessive condition. If the frequency of the allele for this ...
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2answers
42 views

Is it possible to amplify every single piece of DNA through PCR?

Is there a way to perform non-specific PCR amplification for the purpose of amplifying every piece of DNA present?
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Why is mRNA needed in the Protein translation?

The original question was to predict the basic requirements for information storage. Then the discussion moved to why is it necessary to include mRNA in the protein translation process. Why can't ...
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Function and Mechanism of Height Genes

I have an inquiry regarding the exact function of height genes. To my knowledge, although they are heavily regulated by epigenetic factors, height genes can have either an "on" or an "off" allele, ...
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There are 6 classifications of CFTR mutations. Is a causal relationship to the sweat test known?

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene for the protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The CFTR mutations are classified in 6 classes. The sweat test is ...
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142 views

How is genetic speciation defined?

What determines speciation at a molecular level? At what point does a scientist determine two lineages are different enough to be considered separate species? Does it have a margin of error?
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122 views

Definition of “essentially diploid”

While researching the F12 cell culture medium (Ham, 1965), I came across the term "essentially diploid Chinese hamster ovary cells". The terms "subdiploid" and "near diploid" were also used to refer ...
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Chromosome 17-Ancestry question

I did the 23andme genotyping and was going over my ancestry. I mostly have ancestors that came from the UK which dominates most of my chromosomes. However, just a little bit (~1.4%) of my DNA is ...
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1answer
176 views

Why do almost all SNPs have two alleles?

Reading the Wikipedia page for SNPs I find the sentence "Almost all common SNPs have only two alleles." This is consistent with terminology elsewhere, such as the therm "Minor allele frequency", which ...
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274 views

How much salt [NaCl] is too much in DNA precipitation?

In DNA extractions, how much is too much salt in a CTAB extraction buffer? Protocols hover around 2.5 molar; if you go over this (e.g. 25 molar), will you saturate your solution, and precipitate the ...
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1answer
31 views

Fruit Fly Hybrids

I have a food waste bin in which I put fruit scraps. The fruits come from all over the world, mainly Europe though. I'm in the UK. I assume the fruit Fly eggs are already in the fruit, in which ...
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1answer
201 views

Math behind the Genetic Relationship Matrix

The genetic relationship matrix (GRM) can estimate the genetic relationship between two individuals (j and k) over m SNPs and i representing a specific SNP. What I dont understand from their ...
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148 views

How can a chromosome translocation in somatic cells lead to disease?

Looking at this picture... ...I get the impression that the part of chromosome is attached to other chromosome, but it is not mutated. When we assume that all genes in the translocated part are ...
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1answer
158 views

Explanation about cytogenetic notation

What is the correct meaning of cytogenetic notation "inv(4)(p13q22)" ? Inversions at chromosome 4, at the p arm 13 is inverted AND at q arm 22 is inverted OR Inversions at chromosome 4, the ...