Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Question

I have four questions concerning H-W Equilibrium: (i) In a population of mice, the presence of black spots is the result of a homozygous recessive condition. If the frequency of the allele for this ...
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42 views

Is it possible to amplify every single piece of DNA through PCR?

Is there a way to perform non-specific PCR amplification for the purpose of amplifying every piece of DNA present?
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227 views

Why does all life use the same macromolecules in their genetic code?

There is no biochemical constraint of any sort, so why doesn't some other code work? Why is it specifically RNA/DNA?
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25 views

Function and Mechanism of Height Genes

I have an inquiry regarding the exact function of height genes. To my knowledge, although they are heavily regulated by epigenetic factors, height genes can have either an "on" or an "off" allele, ...
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There are 6 classifications of CFTR mutations. Is a causal relationship to the sweat test known?

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene for the protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The CFTR mutations are classified in 6 classes. The sweat test is ...
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27 views

Chromosome 17-Ancestry question

I did the 23andme genotyping and was going over my ancestry. I mostly have ancestors that came from the UK which dominates most of my chromosomes. However, just a little bit (~1.4%) of my DNA is ...
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198 views

Why do almost all SNPs have two alleles?

Reading the Wikipedia page for SNPs I find the sentence "Almost all common SNPs have only two alleles." This is consistent with terminology elsewhere, such as the therm "Minor allele frequency", which ...
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292 views

How much salt [NaCl] is too much in DNA precipitation?

In DNA extractions, how much is too much salt in a CTAB extraction buffer? Protocols hover around 2.5 molar; if you go over this (e.g. 25 molar), will you saturate your solution, and precipitate the ...
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95 views

How could one calculate the gene flow between two populations?

Imagine there are two populations X and Y, and for each population you have the genotypes of each individual in that population (e.g. Aa, AA, aa, etc.), but for multiple loci (e.g. AABb). How could ...
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521 views

What exactly is extreme heterozygosity and how does it work?

What does the concept of "extreme heterozygosity" mean? I first encountered this concept in "The Drunken Botanist". They describe that when planting a seed from, say, a 'red delicious' which was ...
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163 views

How can a chromosome translocation in somatic cells lead to disease?

Looking at this picture... ...I get the impression that the part of chromosome is attached to other chromosome, but it is not mutated. When we assume that all genes in the translocated part are ...
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159 views

Explanation about cytogenetic notation

What is the correct meaning of cytogenetic notation "inv(4)(p13q22)" ? Inversions at chromosome 4, at the p arm 13 is inverted AND at q arm 22 is inverted OR Inversions at chromosome 4, the ...
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60 views

Are genes uniformly dispersed throughout the genome?

I think that telomeres and centromeres are regions with a very low gene content (= regions that contain few genes). To the exception of telomeres and centromeres, are genes uniformly distributed ...
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32 views

Fruit Fly Hybrids

I have a food waste bin in which I put fruit scraps. The fruits come from all over the world, mainly Europe though. I'm in the UK. I assume the fruit Fly eggs are already in the fruit, in which ...
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91 views

What is the C765-Gal4 driver? [closed]

What is a gene driver and what does C765 stand for? Is Gal4 a transcription factor? Source: "Dynamics of Dpp Signaling and Proliferation Control"
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45 views

How do catenanes form when DNA replicates?

So I am taking a course in DNA replication and repair. And we are talking about catenanes forming when DNA replicates (two circles of dsDNA interlinked) How is this possible?
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481 views

How many copies of a gene?

I am studying mathematical models of transcription and translation and I am wondering: In a particular genome, how many copies of a gene coding for one particular protein should one expect? Are they ...
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66 views

Are dogs affected by dwarfism?

My husband and I noticed a dog today that looked like a smaller version of a purebred Border Collie, although it didn't appear to be a puppy. It made us wonder if other animal species experience ...
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324 views

Why are female clones more often produced

As a student of biology when ever I come by artificial cloning, I always find examples of females being cloned - Dolly the sheep, CopyCat, Daisy, etc. The only male I could see was Fibro mouse and a ...
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82 views

What happens when a genome is shorter than the other? [closed]

Say there were 2 creatures of the same species. Creature 1 has a longer genome than creature 2, it may be just a few base pairs, but what would happen when the genes were crossed to create creature 3 (...
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73 views

Ancestral Allele and Hapmap

I notice on dbSNP rs6352 has an ancestral allele of G - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/SNP/snp_ref.cgi?rs=rs6352 The hapmap in humans for this allele is very rare, the homozygous version practically not ...
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128 views

Within and Between Allelic Class Diversity

I am reading Charlesworth et al. 1997. They talk about diversity within and between allelic classes. Nucleotide diversities ($π$) at each neutral site were estimated from the mean of $2 \sum z_t (...
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1k views

Why are nitrogenous bases of DNA hydrophobic if they can hydrogen bond?

Why are nitrogenous bases of DNA hydrophobic if they can hydrogen bond? Is it that they are only relatively hydrophobic? This forum explains it but does not give an example of the structure.
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76 views

Genetic Diversity in Mitochondria

As I was studying for my GRE exam, I was reading on Mitochondria. I then remembered that they undergo replication similar to bacteria. So I googled for info and found on Wikipedia that there is a " ...
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357 views

Operators and Enhancers/Silencers

Wikipedia has two images, of a eukaryotic gene and of a prokaryotic gene. They show the difference that the prokaryotic gene also has an operator while the eukaryotic gene does not. Both also have ...
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128 views

Definition of “essentially diploid”

While researching the F12 cell culture medium (Ham, 1965), I came across the term "essentially diploid Chinese hamster ovary cells". The terms "subdiploid" and "near diploid" were also used to refer ...
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85 views

Can a same gene stretch from one chromosome to another separate chromosome?

Can a gene continue on from one chromosome to another separate chromosome? For example, can part of an eye colour gene be on one chromosome and the rest of it be on the next chromosome?
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How do sex biased genes evolve?

I am wondering how do genes become sex-biased? that is, how does a gene evolve expression which is regulated in a sex-specific manner (assuming no effect from sex-limited Y/W chromosomes). I ...
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Is the discovery of dominant and recessive genes the only reason Mendel matters?

We've known that offspring inherit various traits from their parents since (at least) Aristotle. In The Elements of Plant Hybridization, Gregor Mendel treats that fact as common knowledge. Clearly, we ...
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Is it possible to merge the genomes of photosynthesizing and electron-transporting bacteria to make an electric cell?

I had an idea of making electric current from bacteria. There are some bacteria that can photosynthesize, and some others are capable of transmitting electrons through each other. Is it possible that ...
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50 views

How does the MET gene work and what happens when the promoter region gets mutated?

I am doing research on inherited risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders(ASD) due to common Copy Number Variants(CNVs) One of the mutations is the 'CC' variant of Rs1858830 in the promoter region of the MET ...
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242 views

How to calculate the percentage of heterozygous cells based on a gene map

I've encountered the following question and am quite stumped by it. A female with genotype AABBCC has been hybridized with a male that has the genotype aabbcc. The first generation (F1) has been ...
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432 views

Why does a gene have two alleles? [closed]

Why does a gene have two alleles? When there is a gene for producing the color pigment for a flower, why are there there two alleles, producing either same color or different color (homozygous and ...
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67 views

Color vision across species

Is it true that color vision is sex-linked for all species with binary sexes? Is there an evolutionary significance to the fact that color vision is X-linked in humans? E.g., only female humans can be ...
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177 views

Sense and anti sense strand

Why the sense strand is only involved in transcription though the antisense strand just has the compliment strand of the sense strand?
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37 views

DNA dependent RNA polymerase

How does a RNAP locate a specific gene? For instance, growth hormone has to be produced and the RNAP has to locate the gene. But the promoter (TATA box) will also be present infront of all cistrons. ...
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218 views

What are some (bioinformatic) methods to characterize potentially novel gene transcripts?

I am working with a few novel transcripts of genes- before I confirm their existence experimentally, I would like to perform some bioinformatic analysis. I have already considered coding potential, ...
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23 views

why not classify organisms based on genetic distance? [duplicate]

When learning about "families of animals" in mid-primary school, my son asked me if there is not a better way to classify animals than by looking at them (they were taught that animals are grouped ...
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55 views

Do genetic modifications exist to enhance the taste of tomatoes?

GM tomatoes seem less tasty. Has there been any research on GMOs with regard to taste? Can scientists introduce a gene to, let's say, tomatoes, which would enhance the flavour? If not, why?
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Genetic linkage greater than 50 centimorgans

Classically, the linkage between two loci can be measured in centimorgans (cM), which represents the percent chance that these two loci will recombine an odd number of times (generating a recombinant ...
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302 views

How significant is the genetic component of homosexual behaviour?

From some basic googling, I found that nobody has ever proven that people are born gay and that environment plays a great part in homosexuality. I wish to know if there is a genetic component to ...
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Evolution of the Redundancy of the Genetic Code

In short Looking at the genetic code, it appears that most redundancy is on the third letter rather than on the first or the second letter of the codon. Why has it evolved this way? Longer version ...
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115 views

What fraction of sites are expected to be polymorphic?

Question Consider a very long (eventually infinite) DNA sequence of neutral sites. Consider a panmictic population of constant size $N$ with a per site mutation rate of $\mu$ where all individuals ...
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51 views

What is the term for all of the RNA in a cell at any given time?

Question is asked above, simply put.
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665 views

Do butterflies pass over migration patterns to their offspring?

So, earlier, I read online (http://io9.com/butterflies-remember-a-mountain-that-hasnt-existed-for-509321799) that Monarch butterflies veer east during their southward migration to avoid a mountain ...
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79 views

Efficient algorithm to calculate various population divergence statistics

Intro and description of the data I am simulating the evolution of very long DNA sequences. The model works well, is performant and will output data in the following kind of fasta format ...
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135 views

Cut-off values for LD, LOD and D-prime as algorithmic input

I created an algorithm to generate SNPs for random people of different descents - based on HapMap data. While this works good, there is something else I want to take into consideration. So if a SNP ...
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407 views

Why a striped baby is not the result of a white and a black parent?

Someone asked me: If a striped cat is the result of a white and a black cat, why the result of a white woman and a black man is not a striped child? I know the answer. I also know that the ...
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45 views

How do I find the sequence of the phage BxB1 gene?

Specifically, I'm trying to find the sequence of BxB1 and its att sites. I have success finding the att site sequences, but I'm having a bit more of an issue with finding the sequence of the actual ...
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How to be a Noah-esque biopirate and store the genes of every plant and animal [closed]

Preamble. Please criticize this idea. It is too romantic to be possible. All of the news about the sixth extinction got me thinking about it. Thanks The price of DNA sequencing for humans has ...