Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Ancestral Allele explanation

I'm having some trouble understanding the concept of ancestral allele. What exactly does it mean? What does it have to do with Identity by descent/state? What does it have to do(if anything) with ...
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178 views

Why are hybrids infertile?

Let's take a quote from Wikipedia about zebroids. Donkeys are closely related to zebras and both animals belong to the horse family. These zebra donkey hybrids are very rare. In South Africa, they ...
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40 views

GULO only for mammals?

I am not a biology student, but just want to know if GULO gene are present only in mammals or all species possess it ? And is GULO gene active in human fetus?
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218 views

Is tongue rolling genetic?

Is the ability to roll your tongue or not truly inherited or genetic? What I have gathered from school has been contradicting with evidence I found elsewhere.
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934 views

What does phasing mean?

What does phasing mean in genetics/informatics? I've heard that a phased file is a file that has genes separated by chromosome, but can someone give a concrete definition of what phasing actually ...
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Primer design for Gibson assembly

I'm trying to design a primer for Gibson assembly. My gene of interest is on a plasmid, and I want to copy that gene, and put it into a different plasmid. I am unsure how to design my primers for ...
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51 views

methods for targetted deletion of genomic regions?

I would like to know what are currently used methods for targeted deletion of genomic regions in mammalian organisms or cell lines. I have heard of Zinc-Finger nucleases as a recent genetic ...
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40 views

Genetic abscence of backpain among teen girls? [closed]

I heard a study somewhere (I can't remember where) that claimed that teenage girls are genetically absent to experience high degrees of backpain, specifically from rigorous exercise. Strangely, of ...
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82 views

Downloading specific yeast genes in an automated manner?

I have 6 genes of Candida albicans yeast namely orf19.723, orf19.5908, orf19.610, ...
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100 views

Simple Mendelian Genetics Question

here is my question: In certain plants, tall is dominant to short. If a heterozygous plant is crossed with a homozygous tall plant, what is the probability that the offspring will be short? My ...
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57 views

DNA methylation on the forward vs reverse strand?

I'm wondering if there are meant to be differences in DNA methylation between the forward and the reverse strand of the gene? I'm wondering because in primer design for bisulfite pyrosequencing one ...
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93 views

Why do our epiphyseal plates close up in our late teens or early twenties?

What causes our epiphyseal plates close up in our late teens or early twenties? I realize that one's genetics plays the main role in this. I assume there is a gene that controls the epiphyseal plates ...
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46 views

Is epilepsy more heritable from maternal side?

I am thinking if paternal or maternal genetic line is the risk factor. Mitochondrial DNA is coming from maternal line. I do not know the pathogenesis of epilepsy so well that I could answer my ...
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102 views

How do I interpret this graph regarding introduced genes and virus-infected cells?

This graph appeared in a practice test for the MCAT. I am trying to interpret it, but it confuses me a bit. On the x-axis we have some introduced genes, and on the y-axis we have % of cells ...
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35 views

Does the most common definition of “allele” include a change in phenotype?

I'm prepping an activity for my biology students on cystic fibrosis. There are about 2000 different mutations of the CFTR gene that cause CF. Since the final phenotype is pretty much the same, can I ...
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39 views

What does “regulatory genomics” mean?

I have read about basics of molecular genetics ,although its not a thorough in-depth knowledge. I would like to know about "regulatory genomics". What is it actually?
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98 views

What does chromosome CHR_Un, CHR_MT in the ftp site of NCBI mean?

I am not a biologist. But need some genetic data. So I searched internet and reached NCBI's website. I came to know from the FAQ page that I can the complete genome data of organisms from ...
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120 views

Can someone who is color blind recover color vision by surgical means?

I am currently studying color blindness, and there is no medicine that can help it. Is it possible nonetheless for someone who is color blind to have their eyes restored to normal color vision by ...
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47 views

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless?

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless? Please explain the broad principles and not the technicalities.
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77 views

How does gene expression work in an adult organism? Is everything encoded everywhere?

The color of a person's eyes are genetically predetermined. If I knew how and in which gene(s) colors are encoded, I could change these genes in the ovary and sperm and thus change the eye color of ...
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48 views

Functioning of BRCA2

I know that BRCA2 interacts with RAD51 to repair DNA damage. But how exactly does it function ? What are the other proteins that interact with it ?
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328 views

Promoter in the lac operon

Here is the question: Suppose an experimenter becomes proficient with a technique that allows her to move DNA sequences within a prokaryotic genome. If she moves the promoter for the lac operon to ...
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57 views

Connection between genes and pathways

I am reading about a paper about inferencing pathway information in cancer cells. Authors refer to ERBB2 as a gene and a pathway. I don't have solid biology background. What exactly means when we ...
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37 views

What is mRNA expression level?

I cannot find clear explanation of what is mRNA expression level, and how to measure it. I would appreciate if someone explained it or gave a reference. Thanks!
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428 views

Why were dinosaurs not as smart as we are?

According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur, Dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for 135 million years. They had a lot of time to evolve. My question is: why were dinosaurs not ...
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172 views

Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium after 5 Generations

1 There is a population not at HWE where red eye = $a^+$ (dominant) and white eyes = $a^-$. if $a^+/a^+ = 0.6$ $a^-/a^+ = 0.1$ $a^-/a^- = 0.3$ what are the frequencies of the $a^+$ and $a^-$ ...
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173 views

Accuracy of a particular genetics test

I am a newbie in biology and I am simply trying to discover the field of genomics. Consider the question - Are genetic tests accurate? I don't believe they are as the genes may not provide the ...
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511 views

What do rs id, allele coded 0 and allele coded 1 mean?

So, for a project I've been working on (different story), I've been looking at the HapMap Project, and their free online files. In their README file, they talk about how for each legend file for each ...
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347 views

DNA replication Okazaki fragments

I understand multiple origin bubbles; DNA polymerase only synthesizes DNA from 5' to 3' and all that. But what I don't understand is why it has to be in fragments. Yes, DNA is anti parallel, and so ...
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96 views

What are Haplogroups?

What exactly does the term Haplogroup or Haplotype means? How is it claimed that people belonging to the same haplogroups have common ancestors?
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Are alleles passed down and shuffled randomly to the offspring during meiosis or fertilization?

If it does occur during meiosis, are the alleles switched over from one sister chromatid to the other during the crossing over process in Prophase I?
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32 views

Is it possible to estimate how much variation in common phenotypes is predicted by genetics?

Phenotypes such as; skin color, eye color, nose shape, lip size, limb proportions, and skull shape. Im trying to find a source for this quote. "If you ask what percentage of your genes is reflected ...
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43 views

How did the Chromosome #2 Fusion propagate?

There is strong evidence that chromosome 2 in humans is a fusion of two chromosomes of a common ancestor of chimps and humans as explained at wikipedia here Was it necessary for the common ancestor ...
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40 views

regarding genetic disorders related to protein production

I am not completely familiar with biology, but i had a genetics course in college along with practicals. Forgive me if there is something wrong with my question. Is there a genetic disease which ...
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60 views

Could an annual plant be genetically modified to be a perennial?

My chives, asparagus, oregano, and rhubarb come back every year like clockwork. Suppose I want my bok choy to join the party - is there an "I'll be seeing you next year!" gene that can be modified to ...
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Valid comparison of gene expression between several genes in several cell lines

We have gene expression data (Affimetrix mRNA gene expression results) for several cell lines, over a set of genes. Our goal would be to be able to compare relative gene expression for genes over the ...
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In genome research, what is the problem in Mapping that may be caused by reads being too short?

In the following scenario: You were given short sequence reads of plant RNA obtained from a next-generation sequencing machine (fragments of 20–30 nucleotides in length). You attempt to map them back ...
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48 views

Why does the stability of YAC increase with size?

From Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry : The stability of YAC increases with size (up to a limit). Those with inserts of less than 100000 are gradually lost during mitosis. Why does this ...
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169 views

List of heritability estimates in humans?

Many people on this site ask questions that directly or indirectly have to do with heritability in human. Do you know a list of estimates of heritability of various traits in humans? Or could you try ...
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155 views

Troubleshooting for Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

SI ran my 2% agarose gel on constant voltage (100 V). For a few times it worked at CV but, after a week or so the machine would automatically switch to constant current by itself. And this only ...
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43 views

How can a YAC be screened against a cDNA library and a cosmid library of genomic DNA to find a gene?

I am reading fw2.2: A Quantitative Trait Locus Key to the Evolution of Tomato Fruit Size (doi: 10.1126/science.289.5476.85). The authors are trying to find the gene that makes tomatoes bigger. As far ...
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67 views

How usable is the Human Metabolic Model to predict biomass?

In order to use the Human Metabolic Model for Flux Balance Analysis of specific cancer cell lines, we would like to know what sort of flux values have been determined for the Human Metabolic Model. ...
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54 views

Determining whether X chromosome from sperm or egg

Is there any way of determining which X chromosome a female inherited from her father and which from her mom ?
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234 views

How can Southern blotting be used to establish gene copy number?

I am reading a paper on a certain marine microorganism that can eat alkanes and therefore might be useful for cleaning up oil spills, etc. This sentence struck me as odd (although I am sure that the ...
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182 views

How does electroporation mediated recombination work?

For yeast and other organisms, DNA can be readily taken up into the cell naturally or through membrane disruption. What does applying a voltage to cells do exactly that allows more recombination to ...
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3k views

What is genomic imprinting?

What is a genomic imprint? How does genomic imprinting take place? If I say that "this" allele is maternally imprinted does it mean that the allele of the gene is passed only by the mother? If a ...
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833 views

Difference between viral and human genetic material

I have heard that there is a difference between viral and human genetic material. What is that difference? If I take my cells and take DNA out of them and insert only a small part of it having a ...
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221 views

How do PLINK files and HapMap Phased files differ?

I know that PLINK and HapMap files show the same information, but can you give a thorough explanation of how exactly they differ.
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422 views

Transcription factor binding site located in intron

I have noticed that some TF binding sites are located in the introns of the genes. I am puzzled about whether the TF only binds to DNA in the initiation stage of transcription and will detach during ...
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156 views

What is the mechanism of regulation of PER /CRY genes?

I've read multiple descriptions of biological/circadian clocks and they all mention PER, CRY and CLOCK genes. While I kinda get how they are connected, what interests me is how these actually regulate ...