Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Are there more descriptive ways of naming genes and gene interactions?

I couldn't help but notice just how non-descriptive the gene names that modern genetics is using. Currently I'm reading "The new science of Evo Devo" by Sean B. Carroll and here are some examples of ...
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148 views

Does a phenotype include the presence of a recessive gene

I am trying to understand what exactly a phenotype is to try and understand a genetics database. (Ie I don't really know very much about genetics at all) I've been reading through wikipedia on what a ...
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122 views

What is doubling of genetic material invented in flowering plants?

David Attenborough in his Kingdom of Plants 3D said, that flowering plants made two inventions: (1) doubling of genetic material and (2) symbiosis with animals. What was meant by "doubling of genetic ...
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203 views

Two brown-haired people have two children, P and Q. P has blond hair. Q has brown hair. What is the probability that Q is heterozygous?

Two brown-haired people have two children, P and Q. P has blond hair. We therefore believe that each parent is heterozygous and that blond hair is a recessive trait. Q has brown hair. What is the ...
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75 views

What are the major causes of mutations in DNA?

I know that point mutations can change the base sequence of a gene by altering a specific codon that codes for a particular amino acid. Are these mutations purely random events that occur when DNA is ...
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330 views

How does non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) work?

I was reading about non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in my molecular biology of the gene textbook but the explanation provided in the text was rather vague to me, and I was not able to understand it ...
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323 views

recombination frequency problem

Three loci C, D and E are located on the same chromosome in this order. We found that the frequency of recombinants between C and D is 10% and that between D and E it is 20%. Assuming that ...
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96 views

Evolution after the development of sexual reproduction

My understanding of evolution is that genetic mutation occurs in individual members of a species, and they become a new species. Isn't a definition of species a group of genetically similar organisms ...
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441 views

Can DNA & RNA be considered as nature's programming language?

The final frontier of Biological Sciences could be considered understanding the effects of variation in the DNA (and RNA). If after fertilization the DNA of the zygote could be genetically ...
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1k views

Ancestral Allele explanation

I'm having some trouble understanding the concept of ancestral allele. What exactly does it mean? What does it have to do with Identity by descent/state? What does it have to do(if anything) with ...
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806 views

Is it theoretically possible to treat filaggrin deficiency with a dietary supplement?

http://f1000.com/prime/reports/m/3/2/ "Filaggrin is a highly abundant protein expressed in the uppermost part of the epidermis that is critical to the formation and hydration of the stratum ...
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Quantitative Differences : DNA and Gene

After HGP, we are not having many databases which consist of several notepad files of ATCG.... Can we distinguish quantitatively a given A,T,C and G stretch as DNA or Gene?
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73 views

Could someone clearly define what a gene variant is with an example

Could someone clearly define what a gene variant is with an example. I am totally confusing myself with SNPs, alleles, variants and how the major and minor allele are defined. A clear example with ...
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152 views

Can retroviral delivery systems “overwrite” genes?

As the question states, what are the limits of retroviral genetic delivery systems? Are they limited to adding additional gene sequences to a cell, or can they actually overwrite specified segments ...
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124 views

Prenatal Marketing

This is for a short story idea. Is it possible to modify the DNA of a child to make their metabolism more susceptible (physical response, addiction, etc) to a certain type of chemical i.e. a chemical ...
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87 views

Is DNA mutation locally energetically stabilizing the DNA molecule

I am no biologist, but as a physicist, a spontaneous mutation (seen as a chemical transformation) should lower the energy of the system, at least locally. So I wonder if any research has been done ...
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56 views

C. elegans are either male or hermaphrodites, but why aren't there any females?

From my understanding C. elegans are mainly hermaphrodites but are occasionally males to increase genetic variation. Why is it that random females aren't born instead to achieve he same goal (genetic ...
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56 views

Will gene mutations give rise to a protein that is shorter than the full length protein?

What is the relationship between deletion or insertion of nucleotide in the gene sequence and the protein's length that is coded out from the mutated gene?
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227 views

What is the result of meiosis?

Is the result of meiosis ONLY the sex gametes (male and female) which later meet to form a somatic cell? Sometimes I feel as if my book is hinting towards meiosis is the process where sperm cells meet ...
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51 views

How to identify genes?

You and me are different at DNA level. My eye color gene is different from yours. So, my DNA is different from yours. How can a scientist identify a certain gene in a chromosome (and its function) if ...
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79 views

Definitions of robustness and canalization

The concepts of robustness and canalization are fashionable today in the biology literature. However, I am not sure of their definitions and I am not sure either that all authors actually use the same ...
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84 views

What is the point of DNA sequencing?

This is a very very basic question. I've looked at methods such as chromosome sequencing and shotgun sequencing. Wikipedia says that: ...
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56 views

Why do oncogenes show genetic dominance?

As we know that tumor suppressor gene causes cancer only when both the alleles are recessive in nature.But in case of oncogenes if only one allele is dominant it can cause cancer.Why in case of ...
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406 views

Why are hybrids infertile?

Let's take a quote from Wikipedia about zebroids. Donkeys are closely related to zebras and both animals belong to the horse family. These zebra donkey hybrids are very rare. In South Africa, they ...
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58 views

GULO only for mammals?

I am not a biology student, but just want to know if GULO gene are present only in mammals or all species possess it ? And is GULO gene active in human fetus?
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277 views

Is tongue rolling genetic?

Is the ability to roll your tongue or not truly inherited or genetic? What I have gathered from school has been contradicting with evidence I found elsewhere.
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613 views

Why were dinosaurs not as smart as we are?

According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur, Dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for 135 million years. They had a lot of time to evolve. My question is: why were dinosaurs not ...
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Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium after 5 Generations

1 There is a population not at HWE where red eye = $a^+$ (dominant) and white eyes = $a^-$. If: $a^+/a^+ = 0.6$ $a^-/a^+ = 0.1$ $a^-/a^- = 0.3$ what are the frequencies of the $a^+$ and $a^-$ ...
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2k views

What does phasing mean?

What does phasing mean in genetics/informatics? I've heard that a phased file is a file that has genes separated by chromosome, but can someone give a concrete definition of what phasing actually ...
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55 views

methods for targetted deletion of genomic regions?

I would like to know what are currently used methods for targeted deletion of genomic regions in mammalian organisms or cell lines. I have heard of Zinc-Finger nucleases as a recent genetic ...
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145 views

Where does the term “cos site” come from?

The word cosmid is derived from cos sites of lambda phages. Why are cos sites called cos sites? What does this "cos" refer to?
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“bead” on a string theory of genetics, source?

Thomas Hunt Morgan was a pioneer in genetics and proposed the now false model of genes being "beads" on a string. These beads being indivisible and responsible for a single phenotype, if I understand ...
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33 views

What governs the distribution of blood vessels?

Whenever someone is sick, doctor places 2 fingers on wrist & observes the heart-beat-rate by feeling pulses of a certain artery. To me it seems the distribution of blood vessels are pretty ...
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56 views

Markers for human genetic mapping

For human genetic mapping several different types of markers are used: RFLPs (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms) VNTRs (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) such as mini- and microsatellites ...
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24 views

Introducing novel genes to an adult multicellular organism?

Is it possible to introduce a novel gene into the genome of every cell (or at least most cells) of an adult multicellular organism? How would this be done? Thanks, CDB
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Downloading specific yeast genes in an automated manner?

I have 6 genes of Candida albicans yeast namely orf19.723, orf19.5908, orf19.610, ...
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Simple Mendelian Genetics Question

here is my question: In certain plants, tall is dominant to short. If a heterozygous plant is crossed with a homozygous tall plant, what is the probability that the offspring will be short? My ...
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1answer
99 views

DNA methylation on the forward vs reverse strand?

I'm wondering if there are meant to be differences in DNA methylation between the forward and the reverse strand of the gene? I'm wondering because in primer design for bisulfite pyrosequencing one ...
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1answer
165 views

Why do our epiphyseal plates close up in our late teens or early twenties?

What causes our epiphyseal plates close up in our late teens or early twenties? I realize that one's genetics plays the main role in this. I assume there is a gene that controls the epiphyseal plates ...
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48 views

Is epilepsy more heritable from maternal side?

I am thinking if paternal or maternal genetic line is the risk factor. Mitochondrial DNA is coming from maternal line. I do not know the pathogenesis of epilepsy so well that I could answer my ...
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1answer
132 views

How do I interpret this graph regarding introduced genes and virus-infected cells?

This graph appeared in a practice test for the MCAT. I am trying to interpret it, but it confuses me a bit. On the x-axis we have some introduced genes, and on the y-axis we have % of cells ...
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42 views

Does the most common definition of “allele” include a change in phenotype?

I'm prepping an activity for my biology students on cystic fibrosis. There are about 2000 different mutations of the CFTR gene that cause CF. Since the final phenotype is pretty much the same, can I ...
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42 views

What does “regulatory genomics” mean?

I have read about basics of molecular genetics ,although its not a thorough in-depth knowledge. I would like to know about "regulatory genomics". What is it actually?
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131 views

What does chromosome CHR_Un, CHR_MT in the ftp site of NCBI mean?

I am not a biologist. But need some genetic data. So I searched internet and reached NCBI's website. I came to know from the FAQ page that I can the complete genome data of organisms from ...
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138 views

Can someone who is color blind recover color vision by surgical means?

I am currently studying color blindness, and there is no medicine that can help it. Is it possible nonetheless for someone who is color blind to have their eyes restored to normal color vision by ...
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52 views

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless?

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless? Please explain the broad principles and not the technicalities.
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1answer
86 views

How does gene expression work in an adult organism? Is everything encoded everywhere?

The color of a person's eyes are genetically predetermined. If I knew how and in which gene(s) colors are encoded, I could change these genes in the ovary and sperm and thus change the eye color of ...
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53 views

Functioning of BRCA2

I know that BRCA2 interacts with RAD51 to repair DNA damage. But how exactly does it function ? What are the other proteins that interact with it ?
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382 views

Promoter in the lac operon

Here is the question: Suppose an experimenter becomes proficient with a technique that allows her to move DNA sequences within a prokaryotic genome. If she moves the promoter for the lac operon to ...
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Connection between genes and pathways

I am reading about a paper about inferencing pathway information in cancer cells. Authors refer to ERBB2 as a gene and a pathway. I don't have solid biology background. What exactly means when we ...