Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Do genes play a role in the athleticism and shape of a person?

I am an Indian with a small thin stature with some deposition of fat around my belly.I was wondering if genes play a role in fat deposition in the body for Indian, Chinese, European or African people. ...
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What species have had their genomes sequenced/are being sequenced?

The human genome project released it's first complete genome nearly ten years ago. Since then many species have also been sequenced. I am trying to find a list of completed (and possibly ongoing/...
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When can I assume individuals marrying into a pedigree are non-carriers?

If I'm not told that they're non carriers, and if I don't have proof of their geneotype based off of progeny, when can I assume they're non carriers for a trait?
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How common is bacterial mediated transformation? In plants? In animal cells?

The most common method to transform plants is by soaking plant tissue in cultures of agrobacteria (this is not their current classification) which transfer DNA into the plants. Is lateral gene ...
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99 views

How can GMO contaminate biologic plants?

Let consider two use cases : I am the only farmer within a 200km radius. I first grow GMO plants. A few cycles later I decide to grow bio plants, so I uproot all of the GMO plants and plant fresh ...
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Difference between null and recessive allele?

I get that in a single gene locus, an individual can have RR, Rr, or rr as the two alleles ...
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447 views

Problem: What is this pattern of inheritance?

The following question was on a pretest of mine, and I'm trying to figure out the answer using what we've learned about Mendelian and non-Mendelian patterns of inheritance. I'm struggling quite a lot ...
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118 views

If hermaphrodite C. elegans can reproduce with females?

C. elegans can self fertilize, or they can mate with males. But are they able to mate with females? Or is there some kind of morphological barrier that prevents that?
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260 views

XXY (Klinefelter's) & Trisomy 21 & X-inactivation

I read that X-inactivation doesn't tend to happen in males, but then when someone is XXY, they are a male because of the Y. However these individuals tend to live. So does that mean that X-...
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sex limited genome transmission

In general, for dioecious species, a large portion of the genome passed from parents to offspring of both sexes - in mammals the X-chromosomes and autosomes are passed from a mother to both daughters ...
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127 views

Do there exist publicly available Genome sequences of a family?

I would like to explore the genome sequence of a publicly available genome sequences of a family (like mother, father, son, daughter...). If such human genome sequences are not publicly available at ...
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201 views

Question about Autosomal Recessive Alleles

I had a homework question that I could not figure out. It states: A woman has cystic fibrosis in her family and did not want to have a child that suffered from the disease. She and her spouse ...
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4k views

What does phasing mean?

What does phasing mean in genetics/informatics? I've heard that a phased file is a file that has genes separated by chromosome, but can someone give a concrete definition of what phasing actually ...
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843 views

Detecting Introns and Exons

I know that when RNA is transcribed from the original strand of DNA it contains introns and exons, and that the introns are spliced out of the strand to provide genetic diversity. However, what I don'...
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411 views

How might gene clusters like the lac operon evolve?

The obvious answer for a gene cluster is gene duplication and mutation of one or both genes. But the genes in the lac operon seem not be so functionally/structurally similar (as compared to the Hox ...
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84 views

Microbiome Data

How is it possible to access microbiome data like that found here? I'd like to perform analyses on similar type of data, but cannot find OTU data like that at the Human Biome Project. Thanks for any ...
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387 views

Extreme examples of protein translation/use coupling/decoupling?

What are known extreme examples of protein translation/effect coupling/decoupling? For example, examples of proteins that are immediately used at the time the have been translated and vice versa, ...
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55 views

Perplexing by the way of estimating the shared or different genes between humans and chimps

We share 98.5% genes with chimps (it means we have 98.5% same DNA sequeces ),so there is about one percent difference .It means we can approximately differ from them by one base pair every hundred ...
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100 views

Can animals also get Down syndrome?

I heard that animals cannot get Down syndrome or trisomy. Is that true and why can't they get it? They also have chromosomes.
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Simple Mendelian sex-linked chromosome fruit fly question

From my molecular biology textbook: When red-eyed flies (dominant) were mated with white-eyed flies (recessive), most, but not all, of the F1 progeny were red eyed. Furthermore, when the red-eyed ...
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159 views

Explanation about cytogenetic notation

What is the correct meaning of cytogenetic notation "inv(4)(p13q22)" ? Inversions at chromosome 4, at the p arm 13 is inverted AND at q arm 22 is inverted OR Inversions at chromosome 4, the ...
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67 views

Color vision across species

Is it true that color vision is sex-linked for all species with binary sexes? Is there an evolutionary significance to the fact that color vision is X-linked in humans? E.g., only female humans can be ...
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86 views

Walk me through microsatellite markers and PCR

Three polymorph microsatellite markers are used to try and narrow down the location of a disease locus, with the use of PCR with 2 flanks on each side of the actual polymorphic area. The PCR product ...
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967 views

Where does the term “cos site” come from?

The word cosmid is derived from cos sites of lambda phages. Why are cos sites called cos sites? What does this "cos" refer to?
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How to determine genotype?

In humans, the ability or inability to roll the tongue is a single gene trait. The allele for tongue rolling (R) is dominant to the allele for not being able to roll the tongue (r). Whether or ...
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Introducing novel genes to an adult multicellular organism?

Is it possible to introduce a novel gene into the genome of every cell (or at least most cells) of an adult multicellular organism? How would this be done? Thanks, CDB
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87 views

Do human visual functions degenerate due to genetic factors or by external factors?

Does eyesight primarily deteriorate 'naturally' due to genetics (genomic/epigenomic factors), or due to external factors such as normal wear and tear, or disease? By normal wear and tear I include ...
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569 views

How does chromosome cross-over occur?

I have heard that during meiosis, homologous chromosomes from each parent "cross-over", which enables the off-spring to inherit some alleles from the mother and some alleles from the father. The ...
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905 views

How was the Huntington's disease gene's location found?

I read in the book "Why we get sick." by Nesse and Williams that: Steady detective work and fabulous luck have enabled geneticists to pinpoint the Huntington's gene on the short arm of ...
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301 views

How does smoking, an environmental factor, cause cancer, fundamentally a genetic disease?

If cancer is fundamentally a genetic disease, how might an environmental factor such as smoking cause cancer?
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84 views

Does a large effective population size result in faster decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD)?

I am thinking about an invasive species that was introduced into North America just a few (<20) generations ago. Using microsatellite genotypes (105 loci), I have identified almost no significant ...
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378 views

Precursor miRNA and a mature miRNA

What is the main difference between a precursor miRNA and a mature miRNA? It is often the case that we have more than one precursor miRNA but only one mature miRNA. The miRNA-seq data contains only ...
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51 views

Have novel interactions or pathways been predicted by GRN or PPI data and later confirmed by experiment?

I've been learning about the gene regulatory network (GRN) and protein-protein interaction network (PPI) recently. I've found a huge amount of extremely interesting papers about how biological network ...
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738 views

Can parents' learned traits be transmitted genetically?

I am wondering whether a behavioral trait (e.g. fear or stress experienced in the lifetime of the parent) can be transmitted genetically to its offspring? I understand that a behavioral tendency for ...
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What's in a Name: Statistical Genetics

The novice often performs population calculations using what is referred to as Mendelian Genetics. Soon after the publication of Mendel's results; Hardy and Weinberg presented their results after the ...
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Is there selection against long proteins and long genes?

Background thought Titin and TTN Titin is the largest protein in the human genome with 33423 amino acids. Titin is coded by the gene TTN that must be at least $3 \cdot 33423 \approx 100kb$ long. ...
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80 views

Is a bone marrow transplant limited by sex?

Can a female patient get transplanted with bone marrow of a male donor and vice versa?
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78 views

Distinguishing Father from Brother

Given the (non-identical) DNA sequences of two men and the knowledge that the second man is either the father, brother, or son of the first man, is the DNA useful in determining which of these three ...
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Crossing over and exon shuffling?

Campbell Biology 10e, in discussing the functions of introns, writes: The presence of introns in a gene may facilitate the evolution of new and potentially beneficial proteins as a result of a ...
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53 views

What is working definition for female infertility?

I've studied infertility and found that its quite complex to define. However, I came to know about a useful working definition of infertility; which was " Failure to achieve pregnancy". Few days later ...
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Inheritance patterns in individuals with triploidy

If you search on the genetics of Down's Syndrome, you'll find plenty of results explaining the genetic mechanisms which can result in triploidy. However, I can't find any information on the ...
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65 views

Virus-to-virus gene transfer via “sequences integrated into a common host organism”

From "Risks from GMOs due to Horizontal Gene Transfer", by Paul Keese: In addition to direct HGT between organisms as depicted in Figure 1, forms of indirect HGT have been observed, which involve ...
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144 views

Do transposons usually jump from one chromosome to another?

If it is usual occurrence, does it mean that my one gene can change its location from one chromosome to another?
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61 views

Are genes uniformly dispersed throughout the genome?

I think that telomeres and centromeres are regions with a very low gene content (= regions that contain few genes). To the exception of telomeres and centromeres, are genes uniformly distributed ...
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98 views

What is the C765-Gal4 driver? [closed]

What is a gene driver and what does C765 stand for? Is Gal4 a transcription factor? Source: "Dynamics of Dpp Signaling and Proliferation Control"
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Gene frequency problem

1/330 of white people in south Africa have a disease called Porphyri. What is the frequency of the gene if it is inherited autosomal recessive? This one I understand. The genotype frequency is $q^2 =...
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127 views

What governs the distribution of blood vessels?

Whenever someone is sick, doctor places 2 fingers on wrist & observes the heart-beat-rate by feeling pulses of a certain artery. To me it seems the distribution of blood vessels are pretty ...
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273 views

Hardy-Weinberg Color-blind

In a city, 4% of male population have color blindness. How many of the female are (a) color blind carrier, (b) color blind? Suppose the city holds Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. My progress: 4% of male ...
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Can genetically engineering the DNA of a human zygote, make it a twin of another human in entirety?

My question is simple. If I wanted to make an exact twin of an individual, will genetically engineering the DNA of the zygote to match with the individual suffice?
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Looking for a gene in my raw genetic data. What are the possible causes for this?

Obviously, I barely know what I am talking about. But I want to find the "MUC5B promoter polymorphism rs35705950" in my RAW genetic data from 23andMe. (see this ...