Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Why does the cloned cat, CC, exhibit mosaic fur color?

Since fur color in this cat is from a sex-dependent gene, I see how calico cats occur. However, I don't fully understand why it happens in cloned cats. When the cat is cloned, the DNA is taken from a ...
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Genetic diversity of Archae attributable to viral transduction?

I recognize that bacteriophages have the ability to accidentally trap host Bacteria DNA upon assembly. This allows the transduction of one bacterium's DNA into other bacteria when the virus ...
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Crossing over : Holliday model

In this figure out of the two heteroduplexes formed one is considered to be non-recombinant product(left) and the other recombinant product(right). My question is despite the exchange of middle DNA ...
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A and AB blood types from B and O?

My grandma is O- blood type, my grandpa is B+, but my mother is A+ and my aunt is AB+. Is that possible? I've just looked at different sources like this and all of them are saying that from O and B, ...
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Why does human chromosome 19 have the second highest number of protein-coding genes?

While chromosome 19 only is the 19th largest autosomal chromosome, it contains 1440 protein-coding genes, and thus has the second highest number of protein-coding genes of any human chromosome. For ...
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Why do mutations in Drosophila dsx (double sex) affect both males and females?

Reason: Loss-of-function mutation of dsx gene in female embryo leads to production of a nonfunctional protein that fails to repress male specific gene expression. So somatic characters of both the ...
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Quantifying the number of fragments from RAD library

I have a series of single-end reads from a RAD library of 48 uniquely tagged individuals in fastaq format. The data comes from a small MiSeq run. I want to know the number of unique fragments per ...
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25 views

How to recognise the type of allele by pedigree analysis diagrams?

It was said that this interference pattern is due to dominant allele. I fail to see that. In general how to recognise the type of allele by pedigree analysis diagrams?
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30 views

Are antibiotic-resistant bacteria necessarily less virulent than their original strain?

In the absence of antibiotic treatment, is there a reduction in the average severity of disease caused by resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria compared to wild-type ones? I would assume that ...
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52 views

Why does meiotic recombination disrupt the independent assortment of genes on the same chromosome?

There are many sources that say that genes that are "linked" by being on the same chromosome assort with each other -- that when an allele is passed on that the gamete containing said allele will also ...
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What is the name of the method used for solving the problem?

Problem: A Drosphila sp. heterozygous female of the X-linked recessive traits encoded by alleles a,b and c is crossed with a male that is phenotypically a,b and c. If offprings occur in the ...
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Is blunt end repair and A-tailing necessary when adaptors can be custom made?

I'm planning on creating a RADseq library, which naturally involves digesting genomic DNA following P1 adaptor ligation. I've read a few protocols that require any over-hangs resulting from ...
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180 views

Redundancy of the genetic code

One particular codon codes only for one amino acid, but an amino acid can be coded for by several different codons. Now according to the genetic code, the codon UUU ...
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What are the exceptions of Mendel's laws?

What are the exceptions of $-$ Law of dominance Law of independent assortment Law of segregation My knowledge: Exception of law of dominance: Incomplete dominance: Unlike dominance in ...
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Confusion over equations for population's heterozygosity vs. heterozygous individuals

On page 24 of Gillespie's Population Genetics, 2nd ed, an equation for $H$, the probability that two randomly drawn alleles are different by state, is given. $H$ is stated to be similar to the ...
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A question about cat coat colour genetics

I have a question about cat coat colour genetics. Concretely, the breed Russian Blue comes in several colours. The desired colour is "blue" which is black diluted and is recessive. See for example ...
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Are all prokaryotic promotor regions the same, or do they differ depending on the product of the transcript?

Are all prokaryotic promotor regions the same or do they differ depending on the protein encoded by the mRNA being transcribed? What I am thinking is that if activator proteins are a method of ...
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30 views

Problems with housekeeping genes

I have tried several housekeeping genes to analise the relative expresion of a cytokine for measure the inflamatory local response in mice ears, all the housekeeping genes I have tried are not stable (...
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How Much DNA do Siblings whose Parents are First Cousins Share?

On average, two siblings generally share 50% of their genome. How much does this increase if the siblings' parents are first cousins?
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Is it possible to have a random un-mutation of genes?

According to this article: Gene mutations can be classified in two major ways: Hereditary mutations are inherited from a parent and are present throughout a person’s life in virtually ...
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What is heteroduplex?

I fail to understand the what exactly is heteroduplex due to unavailability of a suitable diagram. According to wikipidea: A heteroduplex is a double-stranded (duplex) molecule of nucleic acid ...
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161 views

Will genetically modified food affect our health?

It's a popular public sentiment that - GM foods like tomatoes (flavr savr) will affect our health.. Is there any logical scientific explanation behind this?
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Allele-specific bisulfite sequencing

When evaluating methylation status at various CpG sites after sequencing, how much consideration should one give to random single base pair insertions and deletions. Suppose there is a CA dinucleotide;...
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53 views

What is working definition for female infertility?

I've studied infertility and found that its quite complex to define. However, I came to know about a useful working definition of infertility; which was " Failure to achieve pregnancy". Few days later ...
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Is brachydactyly due to mutation?

I have this so called "clubbed thumbs"also known as brachydactyly. It is of D-type. I searched for it on internet and found that it is a dominant inherited disease. But to my surprise,none of my ...
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18 views

How does gene editing in one cell affect other cells?

I have read about gene editing and I have some questions concerning this technology: With gene editing, are we correcting the genes in all the cells or a single cell? If the gene editing is done ...
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Passing on Alleles

Just a basic question on alleles, I am just trying to learn the basic concepts. So if we are to screen two parents, both with one dominant and one recessive allele for a given characteristic e.g. eye ...
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Why must DNA be packed into chromosomes during mitotic phase?

Why does DNA have to be packed into chromosomes? Why can't DNA just divide itself evenly?
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64 views

Is it possible to remove one strand of double stranded DNA in vivo?

Assume we do have a double stranded DNA sequence in human cells, say ...ATCGATATCGATATTGCAGAGCATAGCTATAA... ...TAGCTATAGCTATAAGCTCTCGTATCGATATT... Now I want to ...
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Do only one or both pairs of homologous chromatids exchange genetic material during the process of crossing over?

To be specific: Assume chromosomes A and B are homologous. They've both replicated into A1, A2 and B1, B2 and have formed a tetrad at the equator (synapsis). Most textbooks show either A1 and B1 OR A2 ...
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63 views

Is it possible to have raw ngs data to practice

I'm looking for raw human ngs data to practice in bioinformatics. Better if it is from different machines (illumina, roche, pacsbio, etc). Panels, exomes and genomes. Anyone knows something?
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When was it discovered XY chromosomes decide the sex of a child in humans?

Several stories are told from before-genetic-age (books and movies are my reference, the one present in my mind is Marie-Antoinette by Copola) in which we can always see that women are blamed for ...
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26 views

“Genotype structure”?

What does a geneticist mean when they write "genotype structure", e.g. the sentence "...represents continuous allele frequencies for both tumor and normal samples, while leveraging the expected ...
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What are chemical candidates for replicator molecule?

I have read Selfish gene by Richard Dawkins and idea is that at random some molecule was synthesized that had a property if there is enough 'materials' to construct ...
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Genetic screening understanding requisites

I am a mathematics and philosophy undergraduate student studying a bit of a biology as part of a philosophy research project on genetic screening. I have not studied biology since I was 16 and I was ...
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Is there a place or tool from which I can find or generate genome data for epistasis detection?

I am busy researching a school project for my honors in Electrical Engineering. The project is to create a deep neural network to detect epistasis. I have very little knowledge in the bioinformatics ...
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62 views

Why didn't Mendel ever see the recombination?

I saw a video on youtube of a professor saying it's because of the quantity of peas. So Mendel would never have published his work if by any chance he had found a pea with recombination. Someone can ...
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24 views

The drawing of genetic crosses

I'm preparing myself for the GRE. The quantitative stuff has all been going well. I'm aiming for a geology grad scheme. In the event of having to take subject specific tests, I'm teaching myself a few ...
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Human Demography - Where can I find this statistic?

In "An Introduction to Genetics" by David J. Merrell, copyright 1975 by W.W. Norton + Co., p. 742, in the Chapter "Genetic Counseling and Eugenics," the author states: "... 50% of the women produce 85%...
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What is the genetic difference between two cone branches?

As we can see on this larch, male and female cones are sometimes directed to grow on the opposite side of the branch. We were told in school that this mechanism works against self-fertilization. Also ...
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What do the letters 'p' and 'c' mean in mutation descriptions?

Example: NM_000525.3(KCNJ11):c. 67A>G ( p. Lys23Glu) AND Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus Does "p" stand for "polymorphism"? What does the letter "c" stand for?
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Convert gene name to uniprot ID

i have a list of gene name in a file CHRNB2 EGR2 GCK KRT14 LMNA FGF3 TK2 ABCC8 How can I map them to uniprot ID ? P.S I tried Uniprot "ID mapping" (from-"GENEID"...
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248 views

Earliest and latest onset of Huntington's Disease(Chorea)?

Huntington's disease can hit at any age, although it tends to hit middleaged people most often. What is the youngest and oldest person that has exhibited Huntington's? Clarification: By oldest I mean ...
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Are all genetic instructions in DNA?

Wiki says DNA is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. What ...
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Ancestral Allele and Hapmap

I notice on dbSNP rs6352 has an ancestral allele of G - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/SNP/snp_ref.cgi?rs=rs6352 The hapmap in humans for this allele is very rare, the homozygous version practically not ...
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ExAC Browser: What does a “dubious variant annotation” actually mean? [closed]

I wonder how a "dubious" variant annotation is exactly defined in ExAC. I couldn't find any further information neither at the variant's page nor in the FAQs. Link to ExAC browser. Link to variant ...
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Determination of genes to be modified in epigenetics [closed]

It seems that during reproduction particular genes are targeted for modification (mutation, deletion, insertion, etc.) given environmental inputs of either or both of the parents. If a creature was ...
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Is it possible to have different genes in different parts of our body?

I want to understand genetic mutation specially in the context of multicellular organisms like humans. I studied biology only till high school and I can’t fully understand wikipedia pages on this ...
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Why can dogs not have a pink(ish) coat color?

In yellow dogs, there is a mutation in the MC1R gene which leads to a nonfunctional receptor. This leads to the production of pheomelanin which is pink/red (depending on concentration) instead of ...