Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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How does the size of insert affects the rate of Homologous Recombination in yeast?

When performing genetic knockouts in yeast using homologous recombination to replace a target gene sequence via a vector DNA, does the region between the flanking regions in the vector have to be the ...
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What are the white spots?

What are these white spots? It's like Braille writing or something. How is the appearance encoded in the plant? (which I think is a Pine, though I am not sure).
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Simple Mendelian Genetics Question

here is my question: In certain plants, tall is dominant to short. If a heterozygous plant is crossed with a homozygous tall plant, what is the probability that the offspring will be short? My ...
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Why crossing over don't happen in mitosis?

I mean if there would be crossing over in mitosis then there would various nature of somatic cells. May be that's the logic,but what is the mechanism?why there is no crossing over in mitosis? Does ...
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What are the major causes of mutations in DNA?

I know that point mutations can change the base sequence of a gene by altering a specific codon that codes for a particular amino acid. Are these mutations purely random events that occur when DNA is ...
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Lyonization vs Genetic Imprinting

Lyonization is the process in which there is inactivation of an X chromosome in females. This process is implicated in mosaic forms of turner's syndrome (in this case the altered ...
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Which is a more profitable feature: codominant or a incomplete dominant feature [on hold]

If we want to have as much as possible red flowers, in which case we would be more successful: when the color of flower is a codominant or a incomplete dominant feature? We have only learned the ...
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A good textbook on GMO

I am interested in learning about GMO. The topic is so wrapped in controversy, that it's hard to find a good book that introduces the basic concepts involved. I went through various university ...
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Can genetically engineering the DNA of a human zygote, make it a twin of another human in entirety?

My question is simple. If I wanted to make an exact twin of an individual, will genetically engineering the DNA of the zygote to match with the individual suffice?
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Genetic abscence of backpain among teen girls? [closed]

I heard a study somewhere (I can't remember where) that claimed that teenage girls are genetically absent to experience high degrees of backpain, specifically from rigorous exercise. Strangely, of ...
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1answer
37 views

Core architecture of the body encoding [closed]

First of all, I am not a biology guy; I am in Computer Science. But, I have a strong interest in all the mysteries of nature, from universe to human body. So, I want to ask a question related to ...
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1answer
41 views

What is the expected number of children that need to be born for every possible point mutation to occur once? [closed]

I'm reading The Perfect Health Diet, and in it the author says that the probability of a point mutation is (175/3*10^9) per new child. He then goes on to write: In the Paleolithic, with 100000 ...
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70 views

What is biological dark matter?

I recently stumbled upon the Biological Dark Matter wiki page. Its pretty light on details, but it appears to be genetic material found in humans that doesn't fall into currently classifications. ...
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How does a baby retain a blood group different from it's mother, in her womb?

It's a well-established fact that blood group is decided by genotype. But, when a new child starts it's journey in the womb, then the mother's blood (along with it's agglutinins and agglutinogens) ...
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206 views

Could a sperm be altered to contain a female's genetics?

while discussing with a friend a while back on the likelihood a Funtari (a woman with both fully developed and functioning sets of genitalia) existing in real life we got into a discussion of weather ...
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1answer
35 views

G>T transversion VS. T>G transversion?

So I'm reading about how mutations in DNA can be caused by oxidative damage. An example of a product of oxidative damage is given: 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine My textbook says that this product ...
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What's a non-allelic gene?

Non-allelic or non-alletic I stumbled across the term in my Human Genetics textbook. It didn't explain it there, and a quick google search only showed scientific papers that refer to 'recombinations ...
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1answer
49 views

Redheads and pain receptors

I remember reading this in a biology textbook, and decided to do a little digging. Redheads have a lower sensitivity to some pain and a higher sensitivity to other compared to people of other colored ...
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In insects, does the Alanine repeat occur on the homeodomain sequence of the abdomen or does it occur on a different sequence?

By "Alanine repeat", I am referring to the suppression of the formation of extra insect legs due to Ubx gene suppression through Distal-less repression.
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DNA barcoding and real-time PCR

I recently read an article on how DNA barcoding was used to identify species present in health products. I also read an article about how Real-Time PCR was used to identify meat species in meat ...
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1answer
64 views

What are senescent cells doing in our bodies? [closed]

I'm reading a paper that mentioned the elimination of senescent cells delays aging. I'd like to receive more information about it. The Baker study published in Nature demonstrates that targeted ...
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32 views

What is the gene regulation behind human adaptation to higher altitudes and therefore higher hemoglobin levels?

Some people in the Amazonian forest and in Himalayan mountains have reported living perfectly with extremely high levels of hemoglobin. I was wondering what type of gene regulation goes on in order ...
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1answer
10k views

Pedigree Probability of Autosomal Recessive Trait

Here is a pedigree: The trait is autosomal recessive. The question is: What is the probability that the bottom 2 people (4 and 5) have a child with the trait? I tried doing ...
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1answer
35 views

Why does the cloning scheme to shuttle GFP into a pL4440 have to be between two T7 promoter regions? [on hold]

When designing a cloning scheme, why does it have to be between the two T7 promoter regions, and what is the benefit of using one or two enzymes to perform this?
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Why does death exist? [duplicate]

The biological purpose of an organism is to reproduce and as soon as reproductive age is passed, aging kicks in and eventually leads to death. (This is what I learned from a gerontologist.) But then, ...
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1answer
14 views

How to decide if genes are linked in an unordered mapping problem?

From what I understand, if the tetrads resulting from a cross exhibit the same number of parental ditypes as there are nonparental ditypes, then the genes under consideration are said to be unlinked. ...
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SNPs and locations

I am new to reading raw DNA. When comparing two people's raw data, why does one person have a different SNP than the other, at the same location, on specific chromosome? But on a different chromosome ...
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43 views

Phenotype choice for one of a MZ twin pair in a genetic association study

I was having a discussion with a colleague and this question came up... It is commonplace in molecular genetics studies to only genotype one of a pair of monozygotic twins (and then implicitly impute ...
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What makes a gene dominant or recessive [duplicate]

We all carry two copies of each gene (outside of male sex chromosomes). If the two differ from each other often one is dominant and one recessive. How does this mechanism work on a molecular level? ...
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Why do men have nipples?

I'd be tempted to call nipples in men vestigial, but that suggests they have no modern function. They do have a function, of course, but only in women. So why do men (and all male mammals) have them? ...
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Are alleles passed down and shuffled randomly to the offspring during meiosis or fertilization?

If it does occur during meiosis, are the alleles switched over from one sister chromatid to the other during the crossing over process in Prophase I?
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47 views

Plasmid in the nucleus and gene expression

If we insert a plasmid into a human nucleus that contains exact copy of gene and all relevant promoters to produce some human protein, will the cell create functional protein from that plasmid only ...
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1answer
55 views

Crossing white eyed Drosophila with sepia eye

So, I'm doing some drosophila experiments with my high schoolers and I had really poor production of wild type individuals for doing the experiment resulting in not enough to cross with everyone... I ...
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1answer
24 views

Basic Gene/Chromosome/Genome/Protein question.. which comes first? [closed]

How are they ordered? Genes make up Chromosome, and Chromosomes make up a Genome... So, where does Protein come into play? What do you call Genes that are spliced together to form something new? ...
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How was the origin of CTVT parasitic cancer determined?

The wikipedia article on CTVT says that the tumor cell has 57-64 chromosome while a normal dog has 78 chromosomes. Similarly while all chromosomes in dogs except the X and Y chromosomes are ...
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Can genetic engineering be performed without a laboratory setting? [closed]

I'm becoming more interested in genetic engineering as I learn more about it, and it's becoming more and more apparent that there's very few resources on genetic engineering at home. A similar ...
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1answer
61 views

After how many generations descendant is not more related to ancestor, than to a random individual in an ancestral population?

Descendant of n generation has on average 1/2n DNA of ancestor. (For example children have 1/2 DNA of parents and 1/4 DNA of Grandparents, After 10 Generation 1/1024 DNA and after 100 Generations ...
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57 views

How often does bacterial transformation happen?

I have been reading: M. Dröge, A. Pühler, W. Selbitschka, "Horizontal gene transfer among bacteria in terrestrial and aquatic habitats as assessed by microcosm and field studies", Biol. Fertil. ...
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2k views

On the genetics behind caste marriages

I am in India where it is typically a custom to marry within one's caste. Basically the caste system originated with roots in people's professions - Each of priests, carpenters, troupers, etc had a ...
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1answer
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Is it possible to estimate how much variation in common phenotypes is predicted by genetics?

Phenotypes such as; skin color, eye color, nose shape, lip size, limb proportions, and skull shape. Im trying to find a source for this quote. "If you ask what percentage of your genes is reflected ...
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48 views

Could we engineer humans to behave like insects? [closed]

First off, though complex, I'm assuming insects are at an earlier evolutionary stage than humans. That being said, could humans be genetically engineered to behave like insects? I'm not talking about ...
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1answer
31 views

What is Mendelian Segregation and how is it related to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

I can't find the exact definition of Mendelian segregation. In addition, I am wondering how it is related to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
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Known ways to modify the genetic structure of the 13 loci used in CODIS

After reading the answer to Does our DNA change during our lives?, I was wondering if and how it would be possible to change the structure of the 13 loci that are used in the CODIS database, in such a ...
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181 views

why is DNA antiparallel? Can it be parallel?

My biology textbook mentions that DNA is antiparallel and it got me wondering... Can DNA be parallel? What would happen if it was parallel? could DNA still replicate right?
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Do apes and humans share 99% of DNA or 99% of genes? What is the difference?

I made an answer on the Scifi.SE that can be read here. It is about how the characters in the story Jurassic Park might have gotten DNA for all the species shown. In my answer, I said this: Apes ...
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192 views

Is the function of adjacent genes correlated?

Do genes that occupy a similar locus on the genome have correlated function, specifically in human beings? It is my understanding that adjacent genes are inherited together, and so location plays a ...
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1answer
88 views

Expression of an ancestral gene

Why would the expression of an ancestral gene and comparing the product to a modern protein give misleading conclusions about heredity? Update: By ancestral gene I mean a gene which was used by an ...
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1answer
32 views

Breaking a gene during recombination

I just started reading about recombination frequencies of genes and related stuff, and can't find an answer to this (possibly naive) question. Can recombination possibly "kill off" a gene ? To be ...
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166 views

Expression of plasmid genes

Are plasmid genes always expressed? If so, then isn't a bacterium wasting it's resources in expressing genes (like antibiotic resistance) which are not required in "normal" conditions? If not, then ...
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Why do some animals try to imitate other animals?

There is a tendency of some animals (including people!) to be "copy-cats" and try to imitate members of their own, and sometimes other, species. The most obvious example is a parrot copying human ...