This tag is for questions about the general biological features of human beings (as opposed to the biology of non-humans).

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What are the highest and lowest amplitude values in ECG for humans?

I'm currently trying to parse the records captured from an ECG device and display them on a mobile application. I am wondering what the highest and lowest possible amplitude values for ECGs are in ...
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10 views

What happens to the mold spores we inhale?

What happens to the mold spores we inhale? I'm guessing when we exhale, many of them are expelled back out to the environment. But given that disease can be caused by mold exposure, I'm also ...
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1answer
28 views

When you take a very cold or hot bath how is that influencing your breath?

It looks like when you take a cold shower or bath your vains are getting smaller and when its hot your vains are getting wider. But is that wright and do you need to take a breath more in both cases ...
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1answer
29 views

What is the function of the polar bodies produced during oogenesis?

Why are polar bodies produced during oogenesis in human females? I read that polar bodies are produced during meiosis so that the oogonium (or gamete mother cell) can be converted into a haploid ...
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1answer
810 views

Why do we get 'bags under our eyes'?

Why do these circles form around the eyes if somebody is tired? And why does fatigue express itself around the eyes this way? Can I get eye bags very quickly in another way? ...
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1answer
1k views

What is our skin made up of?

Again, it is a basic question. What is our skin made up of? is it made up of many cells arranged in a systematic way or is it just like any layer say of a book?? what is the difference? where is the ...
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20 views

Does the source of caffeine affect the biological impact?

I've recently decided to give up my morning coffee in lieu of a caffeine pill. Both are around 200mg (my Tim Horton's XL 4x4 was 240 mg of caffeine) of caffeine. We were talking about the various ...
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2answers
33 views

How does the mechanism which controls blood pressure in the brain work?

I've heard that the blood pressure in the brain is organised by a special mechanism. What is that and how does it work?
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12 views

Is the efferent arteriole a pathway for filtrate through the nephron ?

I am studying the urinary system. I have to identify what part of the nephron is not a pathway for filtrate. I believed the collecting duct is not a pathway for filtrate because once the filtrate ...
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1answer
48 views

What causes swelling after impact?

Why does the head swell after getting hit by something hard? What is the liquid that forms after impact?
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2answers
46 views

Crossing over and exon shuffling?

Campbell Biology 10e, in discussing the functions of introns, writes: The presence of introns in a gene may facilitate the evolution of new and potentially beneficial proteins as a result of a ...
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0answers
7 views

how to see prefrontal cortex works normally by a test?

Is there a test to see if the Prefrontal cortex of someone works normally? especially a simple test like a questionnaire that you give the individuals to fill out and based on their answer you obtain ...
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3answers
451 views

Why would diffusion be faster across a non-specialised tissue?

The standard protocol for a person experiencing chest pains is to chew a 300mg aspirin tablet, the argument being that chewing rather than swallowing the tablet results in the aspirin entering the ...
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228 views

How long do viruses, such as Zika, stay in the body?

Can a virus stay in your body (after recovery) in a concentration that is sufficient to infect someone? Is it known how long the Zika virus persists in the body?
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3answers
9k views

Is it possible for a child to grow taller than their tallest parent?

I have heard that offspring can't grow taller than either of their parents but I've also heard that sometimes some gene activation can skip generations. Is it possible for a child to grow taller than ...
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0answers
19 views

Did the number of rods changed from ancient time?

Correct me if I am wrong, but I know that rods work under limited light conditions only. But now we are in a world that always have lights everywhere unlike ancient time when humans had to deal with ...
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1answer
68 views

How can a blood test give information about rickets?

Can we detect rickets from a blood test? What evidence pf rickets is in the blood and how is the blood treated to detect rickets?
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1answer
26 views

Difference between the spinal cord and vertebrae column [on hold]

What is the difference between the spinal cord and the vertebrae column, they both run through from the head to the abdomen. Does any one have any idea.
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0answers
9 views

What is the difference between chloride shift and Bohr shift?

Does anyone know the difference between chloride shift and Bohr shift? Is it that Bohr shift happens in respiring tissues when CO2 concentration is low, and that Chloride shift happens in the blood ...
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1answer
44 views

Do the antibodies in a patient suffering from Hashimoto's, attack the thyroid hormones or the thyroid gland (or both?)?

If oral thyroid hormone supplement is administered, is the attack stopped or does it just create an excess of thyroid hormones so that even after a lot of it is destroyed by the antibodies, there is ...
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0answers
39 views

Model for Oxygen diffusion into tissue? [on hold]

Currently I have an idea and want to research it's feasibility. I want to know how oxygen or any other particle could diffuse into the body through small holes in the skin. is it possible to ...
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2answers
223 views

Do people often blow out the air from their lungs a lot when living in the cold condition to keep their lungs warm?

Do people often blow out the air from their lungs when living in cold climatic conditions to keep their lungs warm? I ask this question because it could connect to how people in different areas ...
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1answer
41 views

What is a catalytic domain?

I have to answer a few questions from an article I'm reading, and I am just really confused on defining "catalytic domain." I have to relate it to the antibiotic Teixobactin. Is catalytic domain the ...
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1answer
6k views

How does prolonged exposure to high frequency noise affect hearing?

Is there any research showing how prolonged exposure to background noises, particularly high frequency noises, affect hearing abilities? Does constant high pitched noise cause damage even a low ...
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1answer
32 views

The impossibility of making a human in a lab [closed]

Am I right if I say that the only place where the right conditions exist for developing a human being is the womb, so that people will never be able to make a human being in a lab? In order to develop ...
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Infants tend to look longer at novel stimuli than at repeated stimuli, is this true in adults? [migrated]

I have recently read an article in which it is stated, that the researchers can discriminate if a baby knows an object, by looking at the length of time the baby looks at the object. Is this feature ...
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1answer
36 views

Acrosomal enzymes and the female reproductive tract

My textbook wrote that the reason why acrosomal enzymes are so securely contained within the sperm (thus needing capacitation to facilitate their release) is to prevent any premature release in the ...
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27 views

In the life-cycle of the HIV virus, how does the created DNA enter the nuclear membrane?

I am in a high school biology class, so I cannot truly attest to how accurate the information I am given is, but as far as I know only RNA and very small molecules can enter the nuclear membrane ...
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11 views

I am 15 and 163 cm tall - will I grow taller? [migrated]

I am a 15 year old Indian. I currently stand at 163 cms but I weigh 75 kg, which is overweight I know. But is there any way I'll grow more? If yes, how much? My dad's height is 172 cm and my mom is ...
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0answers
34 views

When and why did humans start disliking the way we naturally smell? [closed]

Like many animals, humans produce pheromones as well as other scents from sweating, bacteria, etc. Many of these scents are used throughout the animal kingdom for mate choice, recognition of ...
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3answers
7k views

Can the dead be brought back to life by viruses?

Zombies have been a part of popular culture for decades. The living dead rising up to take over the world is a terrifying concept, worthy of Hollywood blockbusters and television hits. Some of those ...
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0answers
12 views

Hematopoietic System Kinetics [closed]

I am looking for some help finding reference(s) showing cell turnover rates in the hematopoietic system. Including how long a given cell type like granulocytes would be expected to exist in peripheral ...
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1answer
2k views

Is the Michael Jackson skin pigmentation disease realistic?

Quoting wikipedia: Jackson's skin had been a medium-brown color for the entire duration of his youth, but starting in the mid-1980s, it gradually grew paler. The change gained widespread media ...
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0answers
39 views

Why are eye defects so common? [duplicate]

The title says it all, what makes eye defects so common in the world? Whereas defects of any other body part is quite uncommon, I searched online and one of the articles said that 6 out of 10 people ...
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1answer
68 views
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1answer
19 views

Advantage of GCPRs over RTKs or other receptor protein kinases

My book lists two important differences between GCPRs and receptor protein kinases: GCPRs do not directly activate a signal transduction pathway. It only does so indirectly, via a G protein. On the ...
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23 views

Does human body have a centre of mass? [migrated]

According to this site, The center of mass of the human body depends on the gender and the position of the limbs. In a standing posture, it is typically about 10 cm lower than the navel, near the ...
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2answers
34 views

Growth factors vs. mitogens

According to Campbell Biology, A growth factor is a protein released by certain cells that stimulates other cells to divide. and according to Wikipedia, A mitogen is a chemical substance ...
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0answers
127 views

How does geography affect morphological features of the human body

I've seen many times how a person born in one place, goes to another country for a long time, and then they start looking more like the people there, but I never found out how it works. This report ...
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0answers
15 views

Can one eye affect the other eye's low-light adaption?

This previous question addresses how long eyes need to adapt to darkness and reach full contrast. My question is how does one eye affect the "transition" and/or efficacy of this "night vision" of the ...
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1answer
57 views

Is there a blood panel lab test that measures all the hormone-producing glands?

I understand that there are gland-specific hormone tests, such as: Secretin: for the pancreas; and Prolactin/ACTH: for the pituitary; and PTH: for the payathyroid, etc. However, are there any ...
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1answer
35 views

What is the best way to block cigarette smoke from the body? [closed]

Would it be better to hold your breath after smelling the presence of it or quickly inhale and exhale to get rid of it in your system(body)? EDIT: Changed from carbon monoxide to cigarette smoke.
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2answers
40 views

awakening effects of light

I tried reading by light from a neighbouring room and felt sleepier than if my own lights were on. Is there a formula for the intensity of light vs physiological preparation for sleep(calcium, ...
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0answers
27 views

Is urine sterile? A reference request for evidence supporting sterility

There is a seemingly unfounded mantra that a person's urine is sterile who is not suffering from a UTI. So far I have found convincing evidence to the contrary; urine is not sterile. This poster ...
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2answers
277 views

How efficient is the human body at metabolizing food?

My friend and I were having a discussion over how "efficient" human digestion is. If a human ate a 1000 calorie hamburger, how many of those calories (how much energy) does the body process into ...
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1answer
138 views

How significant is the genetic component of homosexual behaviour?

From some basic googling, I found that nobody has ever proven that people are born gay and that environment plays a great part in homosexuality. I wish to know if there is a genetic component to ...
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20 views

Vitamin E Production and Sun Light [closed]

Do animals with fur need sunlight to produce vitamin E? It it necessary to have sunlight in humans to make it?
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0answers
13 views

What fills the spaces between non-fused sacral vertebrae?

What is in between the sacral vertebrae before they are fused? I have looked and found no specific descriptions. If it is simply cartilage, what type of cartilage?
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1answer
36 views

Corpus luteum during the luteal phase and gonadotropins

Does the corpus luteum operate independently of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian axis? I know that hCG sustains the corpus luteum in the absence of FSH and LH, but in an ovarian cycle where there ...