This tag is for questions about the general biological features of human beings (as opposed to the biology of non-humans).

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Modeling a patient's parameters (SPO2, HR, BIS etc.) to their effect on the patient

I'm currently using code (C#) I wrote which creates a 3 compartment model to simulate the concentration $C_{p}$ of Propofol in blood plasma using the Schnider and Marsh pharmacokinetic models. I ...
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1answer
31 views

Why do people cut back on kilo-calories?

I am learning about specific heat in science and I learned about how the specific heat for water is called a calorie, but that is different to what is on the food label. On the food label, that ...
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2answers
144 views

How do I tell if the mosquitos in my New York City apartment can carry Zika?

The species that carries Zika, A. aegypti, is unlikely to be found in New York. However, the related species A. albopictus is prevalent and quite concerning. So this question is focusing on A. ...
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1answer
100 views

What actually happens to the human body during fasting/starvation? [closed]

I recently came across a UN study which advocated that controlled fasting can be beneficial for the the human body and I am fascinated by stories of wilderness survival against the odds. It piqued ...
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1answer
34 views

Amino acids in human cancer cells expose dextrorotation?

I would like to know if the amino acids in the human cancer cells are dextrorotatory or levorotatory. I mean the majority of them. They expose levorotation just like the amino acids in the normal ...
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0answers
59 views

Why are sarcomas rare compared to carcinomas?

A sarcoma (from the Greek σάρξ sarx meaning "flesh") is a cancer that arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. Thus, malignant tumors made of cancellous bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, ...
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1answer
103 views

What is the difference between a Human Being, Homo Sapiens and a Neanderthal?

I know that the Neanderthal's are a branch of the Human Being but how do all three relate to each other or more specifically what is the difference?
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2answers
53 views

Can all elements be found in our body? [closed]

There are many Natural occurring atomic elements. Can they all be found in the human body?
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0answers
13 views

Why human hair is losing its color over time? [duplicate]

Human hair is losing its color over time, that's a known fact. I would like to know why, meaning what biological processes are involved in this? Also, is it part of the DNA somehow, i.e. the exact ...
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0answers
51 views

Why do people tend to stand on one leg? [closed]

I know for a fact, by observing people and from own experience (you can try it yourself while standing, but not too consciously and in a loose way) that they (like birds), while standing, tend to do ...
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1answer
23 views

Cell division - meiosis

Really confused. How many chromosomes pairs do humans have in their sex cells? How many single chromosomes do humans have in their sex cells?
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0answers
46 views

T cell sensitivity and persistence to specific bacterial proteins

Currently, the standard tests for Lyme Disease measure antibody production after exposure to a bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi. Often, the tests are performed too soon after infection, before ...
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0answers
13 views

Is salivation decrease during sleep beneficial?

Papers [1, 2, 3] tell that a salivation decrease is not only unpleasant, but harmful for dental health. What cause that decrease? What is the reason for it and do animals have it? I guess it's a ...
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1answer
29 views

Do we know a complete list of nutrients that humans must ingest to live?

When the people who are making "nutritionally complete" foods like Soylent are developing their product, how do they know that they've covered all their bases? You need to have protein, carbohydrates, ...
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3answers
134 views

How does the brain immediately know when one's thirst has been quenched?

The question struck me the other day when I drank a glass of water. I understand that there are at least two conditions under which the brain signals thirst: extracellular thirst, when there's not ...
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0answers
53 views

Why do some men have patchy beards?

Why do some men have patchy beards? Or more specifically, why would some hair follicles lack sufficient 5-alpha reductase while others nearby don't when their genetic code is identical and they are ...
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0answers
26 views

Number of pair of chromosomes in sex cells of human [closed]

Just wondering how many pair of chromosomes in sex cells of human? How many single chromosomes in sex cells of human? Thanks for your help! It is said the chromosomes in sex cells are haploid?
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1answer
123 views

Which are the last cells of the human body to die?

When somebody dies, which are the last surviving cells of his/her body? Those of hair, nails, or some other obscure but resilient cells? Shedding light on why and how they are so vital might boost ...
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0answers
33 views

If your atlas is out of alignment, will the rest of your spine be out as well?

I just found out about this association called Nucca. Basically, they are a chiropractic association - their whole idea is that if your atlas is out of alignment, then the rest of your spine is also ...
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0answers
24 views

peritoneal dialysis Vs Hemodialysis?

Their are basically two types of dialysis: 1.peritoneal dialysis 2.hemodialysis, My Question is Why the peritoneal dialysis needs to be carried out on everyday BUT hemodialysis is carried out on only ...
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0answers
10 views

Is there any range for Aortic Valve Gradient?

I understand aortic valve gradient is pressure on the value (measured in mmHg). What I would like to know is if there has been any research that identified a minimum and maximum pressure value as the ...
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0answers
48 views

What happens to the human brain when unconscious?

What part of the brain gets affected and does it harm the brain? Thank you I just needed some extra info for a video I'm making.
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2answers
103 views

What makes something food?

From my (limited) understanding, animals get energy from food by breaking chemical bonds between molecules. There's a lot of water here [citation needed], so it seems like natural selection would ...
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1answer
80 views

Why cold water results in cough [closed]

I have a pretty simple question which always kept me intriguing since childhood and I couldn't find its precise answer yet. Why do we cough by cold water. Recently I had flu and found very strange ...
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0answers
43 views

What happens to the brain during sleep versus unconsciousness?

How does being unconsciousness differ from being asleep and whether it causes breaks in consciousness?
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1answer
98 views

How two genomes adopt when cell goes to recipient's body from donor's body?

We often give blood to another following the blood giving compatibility chart. Heart transplant and similar transplants also brings one's cell to another's body. My curiosity is, when a cell goes to ...
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1answer
35 views

Does mechanotransduction of cells play a role in the biocompatibility of titanium?

What exactly is mechanotransduction as the information varies between sources. Some sources indicate that mechanotransduction is the underlying principle where cells pull on the surface they grow on ...
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1answer
64 views

Evolution to store limited Fat

Why are our bodies not evolved to store only limited amounts of fat, which won't kill us with all diseases associated with obesity? Wouldn't obese people die faster and clean the gene pool for people ...
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2answers
184 views

Does sweat contain DNA information?

I was reading this article : Perspiration The first question which came to my mind after reading the composition of sweat was whether it contains any information about the DNA or not? I haven't had ...
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0answers
11 views

Cellular aspartate level?

I know that aspartate is a product of urea cycle, gluconeogenesis and oxaloacetate. In addition, there are dietary sources such as meat and vegetables. I would like to know what are the other factors ...
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0answers
62 views

Why is my right hand's thumb on the left side and my left hand's thumb on the right side?

My daughter just asked this question, and I could not provide a thorough answer. My first speculation is that it allows one to manipulate an object using one' both hands simultaneously (if the thumbs ...
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1answer
82 views

Is it possible to grow a fertilized human egg entirely outside the woman's womb?

Many science-fiction movies show the possibility of growing a newly fertilized human egg entirely outside the womb of the woman. This means that you have to create the exact circumstances for the ...
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2answers
2k views

Why do Hot/Cold drinks taste sweeter once returning to room temperature?

Now, I know this is a very bizarre question, and I tried to find a correct exchange for this, but it might relate to biology/science as it being our taste buds and everything. I am so sorry if there ...
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2answers
71 views

Does night sleep provide more energy-regain than sleep during the day? [closed]

After reading this, I know that sleeping is an universal function, and that basically everything with a brain has the need to sleep. However, I am still confused to what extent it is necessary to ...
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2answers
79 views

What physical traits are derived from the Neanderthal DNA in human DNA?

Some researches had found that Human DNA has a bit of Neanderthal DNA. So they suggested there would have been crossing between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. Now the Neanderthal looked a bit ...
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1answer
2k views

Does a woman contain all the genes needed to make a man?

I know the answer of inverse is at here, but how about this question? I also read this question, can I imply to human that a woman can also contain all the genes needed to make a man? Edit: I ...
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0answers
22 views

How much yogurt would one have to consume to have a noticeable effect on neurotransmitters [closed]

I read several recent articles that proposed a link between bacteria in our gut and neurotransmitters in our brain. For instance http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24997036/ I am curious how much ...
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0answers
24 views

How do I “reinoculate” a petri dish with new bacteria?

Hypothetical question, intended to find a general procedure rather than case-specific recommendations: I have a petri dish full of growth medium with a large population of gram-negative, anaerobic ...
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How large are medullary thymic epithelial cells in volume?

I'm looking for a rough average volume of medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs/MECs) in humans and mice. It would also help to know how they differ in form (are they spherical, long stretched, ...
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0answers
18 views

Relationship between Human Sleep Cycles & Sunlight

What is the relationship between the human sleep cycle and Sunlight? Why do humans tend to sleep for longer hours during the night than the day. Since we rely on Artificial lighting during the night ...
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0answers
55 views

Why is a wound much more painful when damp?

Why is a wound much more painful when damp? This is a very strange phenomenon. For example: I have a little wound, not painful at all. But, when it is just damp, it is much painful.
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0answers
45 views

Are all the atoms in your body replaced with others over a 30 year period?

I was reading Creation - Life and How to Make It by Steve Grand. (This is the book that inspired Jeff Bezos to start the AWS initiative. ) In it he makes the following statement: Anyhow, by now I ...
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2answers
15 views

Do Class A biosolids count as organic fertiliser?

Does Human Waste, which has been treated at least twice to remove pathogens & remove stink, still count as organic despite it passing the EPA's class A standard? If so, does this mean that none-...
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2answers
87 views

Use of sunlight in biological processes

Sunlight is used by green plants in photosynthesis, but it is also used by animals in the synthesis of Vitamin D. Are there any similarities between the two processes and how is the light energy ...
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0answers
16 views

Is it true that our tooth enamel shows a 7 days rhythm?

Is it true that in fossil remains of the Turkana Boy a kind of growth rings are found in tooth enamel which have a rhythm of a week? This also appears to apply to other primates? If so what is the ...
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1answer
74 views

Fasting gastric pH versus normal gastric pH

I want to know if someone is fasting (no food or drink for a whole day) will they have a higher or lower pH than a person who is eating regularly? If so what is an estimate of both of those pH's in ...
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1answer
172 views

If human proteins are synthesized from only 20 different amino acids, then how can there be such variety of proteins in human cells?

I know that human proteins are synthesized using only 20 different amino acids. However, how can there be thousands of different proteins in human cells, if we only use 20 amino acids to make them?
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0answers
26 views

Are there biological safeguards to compensate for male primate infertility?

I'm trying to understand human sexual selection, and the following question has been on my mind for some time. I don't know the exact terminology to do a quality scholarly search on the subject. Are ...
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1answer
44 views

Why does the blood not clump and result in death?

In this question's accepted answer, it is said that the blood type will slowly change to that of the donor's. When the blood in the person is about 50% his own and 50% that of the donor's. i.e, 50% A ...
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0answers
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What kind of cell has the most different receptors?

All hormones and neurotransmittors has their own receptor. Now some of the cells has a few different receptors but others has many sorts of receptors. So what are the most receptive cells? Are that ...