This tag is for questions about the general biological features of human beings (as opposed to the biology of non-humans).

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Are oxygen and carbon dioxide simultaneously present in red blood cells during gas exchange?

From my understanding, the process that displaces the carbon dioxide and oxygen in our erythrocytes and lungs is diffusion. I've been taught that diffusion is the net movement of particles from a ...
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1answer
39 views

How many diseases can be linked to disruption in the microbiome of a human?

I was listing to the radio and heard recent research found a link between children and higher cases of asthma when certain bacteria are missing from the microbiome. How many other diseases can be ...
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1answer
2k views

Can females be recreated from male DNA?

A chromosomal male is XY and a chromosomal female is XX. Now imagine if, one day, this world has only males - is it possible to "recreate" a female by using two X chromosomes from two different males? ...
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2answers
122 views

Does melanin protect humans from gamma radiation?

It is known that radiotrophic fungi use melanin to make use of gamma radiation. It is also known that melanin protects human skin from UV radiation. Thus I wonder whether melanin protects humans from ...
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1answer
165 views

What is the point of a runny nose during a cold?

What is the biological purpose of having a runny nose during a cold? Note, this is a different question than "What causes a runny nose" and other similar questions. Those question are about the ...
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0answers
34 views

Birth control hormones in the water? Or not?

This prior question talks about natural estrogen (TL;DR: Months to years): How quickly do estrogens break down in the environment? Ref: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/485441a A lot of media has said, ...
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2answers
194 views

What is the function of E-coli bacteria in our stomach?

So, I recently came up with this question. I googled it, but couldn't understand the proper functions of E-coli bacteria. A little definition would be wonderful.
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2answers
138 views

Are there nerves in the umbilical cord?

I have always imagined that cutting the umbilical cord after birth might be painful. But I have always been confused about who would feel the pain and why. It occurred to me that the mother or the ...
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0answers
75 views

Is there a genetic reason explaining the difference of the height of male and female?

Male and female height difference seems to be around 1.08 if all cultures are counted from these stats: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_height Can this ratio 27/25 be explained by genetics and ...
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3answers
584 views

Do we consume dna, proteins of other organisms?

When we eat raw meat, e.g. chicken or fish, we are actually consuming the DNA, proteins etc. which are present in their cells. Wouldn't this affect our cell functions as this DNA might enter our ...
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3answers
260 views

What is the biological significance of finding palindromes in DNA sequence?

I found a function called palindromes in Matlab that finds palindromes from DNA sequence. Now what is the biological intention behind incorporating this function? What the biological significance of ...
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0answers
43 views

How does intron retention make the alternative transcript non-coding?

I faced with a non-coding transcript that specified as one the isoform of BIN1. It sounds that this isoform generated as a result of alternative splicing with a intron retained; am I right? However, ...
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3answers
358 views

Do spinal cord reflexes (such as the knee-jerk reflex) continue to function under general anaesthesia?

The knee-jerk reflex (patellar reflex) is an example of a stretch reflex (myotatic reflex). Stretch reflexes are monosynaptic reflexes happening in the spinal cord without involvement of the brain. ...
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1answer
68 views

Is blood pressure in the aorta and brachial artery the same or different?

Does the blood pressure at the root of aorta equal the blood pressure in the brachial artery? I've heard it does, but it doesn't quite seem to make sense as I'd think the blood pressure would be ...
2
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2answers
133 views

Does the human body convert water?

I just read Andy Weir's "The Martian" (which was very good) and one line made me wonder: [...] a human body only borrows water. Is that true? Does all water "that goes in, go out"?
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1answer
74 views

Do all mammals have a Ventricular system?

I am familiar with the human Ventricular system that circulates Cerebrospinal fluid. This is needed among other reasons, to suspend the heavy human brain, and for injury protection. Do all mammals ...
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1answer
36 views

Genetics of epilepsy

Is epilepsy genetically inheritable? If yes, is it dominant?
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1answer
243 views

If a human is stranded with beer but no water, should they drink it? [duplicate]

TL;DR: At what percent (if any) will alcohol dehydrate you more/faster than drinking nothing? Let's contrive a situation for dramatic effect... A human goes out on a boat for a nice sail in the sea. ...
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1answer
119 views

Why do doctors still advise HIV+ couples to wear a condom during sex?

HIV infected people already have HIV, but why do doctors still advise condom use for HIV+ couples?
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0answers
24 views

How quickly can lasers of various wavelengths and powers impair human vision or cause pain in the eyes?

There is a discussion on HackerNews about how self-driving cars might be susceptible to confusion attacks using a cheap laser pointer and a RaspberryPi. Some people argue that human drivers, too, are ...
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2answers
78 views

It's right to say coding sequence is part of exon sequence?

Some basic ambiguities making me confused. I downloaded 5'UTR, CDS, 3'UTR, and exon sequences, separately from Biomart for a gene P4HA2 (Homo sapiens) and found some simple sequence repeat (SSR) on ...
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0answers
11 views

how is humidity related to amount of water we should drink [duplicate]

Is there any kind of relation between humidity and the amount of water we should drink. I know there is a relation between the temperature and the amount of water needed by the body. Do we need to ...
1
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1answer
48 views

What is difference between several mRNA RefSeq for one gene?

I'm looking for mRNA RefSeq sequences for a given gene in the UCSC genome browser by searching gene name "HLA-F" in human (scroll to Refseq genes section). There are several RefSeq mRNA for the gene, ...
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0answers
53 views

Can bigger persons generally resist g-forces better?

I've seen a claim that bigger persons generally resist g-forces worse than smaller in an undergraduate biology book. However this claim was supported by the argument that blood has to travel a longer ...
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0answers
38 views

Why do we pass out when we are under attack?

It is known that we might pass out, but not die, when we are under attack, e.g. got striken at the neck, blown by blunt object at the cerebellum etc. Wouldn't it be more "advantageous" to be conscious ...
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1answer
82 views

Why Do we close our eyes while sneezing?

Google says germs may fall on eyes from our sneeze but it happens all the time . Also it says it a part of contraction. What may happen if we sneezing wirh our eyes open ?
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18 views

Is it better to eat something that is more or less related to humans?

My question is, would it be better to eat something like a sea cucumber or would be it better to eat a chimpanzee? Maybe this isn't a dichotic answer. Is it better to eat something in between, like ...
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0answers
42 views

What options are there to consume water and can you survive on them alone?

I thought about this a while, i can think of several ways, but i am not sure if there are other options and if you can survive on them alone withou dying of dehydration (lets ignore other problems ...
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1answer
76 views

How is pain induced by blunt and sharp objects?

Normally, when something touch you, you won't feel pain. With a great force "touching" you, you will feel pain. However, if something that is spiky makes contact with you, you will feel pain. So, how ...
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0answers
66 views

Why I don't feel pain when I press the skin on my knee and elbow?

Does the muscle on our knee and elbow have some speciality ? Why are we unable to feel any sort of pain when I pinch it ? I also did it with my Mom and Dad and result was same .
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2answers
123 views

Is there a way to prevent an HIV infection after exposure to HIV infected Blood?

If a person is accidentally injected with blood from an HIV+ person, is there a treatment option that can keep the person from developing an HIV infection?
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0answers
102 views

Why are lips covered with specialized skin?

I found out some interesting facts while studying our lips: They are covered in glabrous skin, while most of the skin surface is hairy; The outermost layer (stratum corneum) of the skin is far ...
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1answer
29 views

Marker validation using transcriptome and genomic sequences derived from a single cell

I conducted a SSR marker analysis using bioinformatic tool on some RNA-seq data of human tissues. Now, my supervisor believed that we have to validate these SSR on a transcriptomic and genomic ...
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1answer
305 views

Why do men grow facial hair?

Ancestral facial hair. Our closest ancestors, the chimpanzee and bonobo, both grow facial hair around the mouth area. What is noteworthy is that this is the case in both males and females of the ...
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2answers
523 views

Why can humans feel electricity?

What evolutionary process has provided humans with the ability of feeling electric current? Besides lightning and electric eel, what natural hazards include electricity that poses a threat to humans? ...
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0answers
56 views

Why do we turn darker in the sun? [duplicate]

I tried the all powerful google to answer this question - but I am not getting the answer I seek. I know we turn darker because the skin produces melanin. The question remains - why darker? I am a ...
3
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1answer
85 views

How late in a human pregnancy can a zygote split?

This page indicates that the first two days is "very early" for a zygote to split, and that conjoined twins are the result of an "extremely late" split: If the zygote splits very early (in the ...
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2answers
176 views

Can the human body enter “Power Save” mode? [closed]

Once a year, I am fasting for 24 hours. No food or drink at all for whole 24 hours. Recently I thought about what is happening to me during those 24 hours, and realized there might be something ...
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3answers
657 views

Why we do not get hurt from HCl secreted in the stomach?

I read in my book that during digestion our stomach secretes hydrochloric acid ($HCl$). Why we do not get hurt from it? It was also said that mucous provides protection, but from where is it coming?
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1answer
125 views

Cancer in myogenic heart cells? [duplicate]

Why cancer does not occur in myogenic heart cells? Is there any special ability in heart cells to resist cancer ?
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3answers
121 views

Why didn't humans evolve to reproduce identical twins all the time?

According to the selfish gene theory, it seems like because identical twins sometimes get produced, a mutation to a gene that says, "if you have an identical twin, be fully altruistic towards them" ...
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0answers
46 views

Proteins and Blood Acidification

Is there evidence to suggest that excessive consumption of Whey, or similar proteins will lead to acidification of the blood?
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1answer
302 views

Why do sneezes come out the mouth?

As anyone who's ever sneezed can tell you, it's caused by irritation in the nose. And the answer to a question on this very SE attests that "sneezing is a reflex, partially autonomous, to clear the ...
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2answers
386 views

Can people with AIDS get tattoos?

When I do a Google search, most of the results are about whether or not people can get HIV / AIDS from getting a tattoo through dirt needles. I am, however, curious whether or not it is possible to ...
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2answers
80 views

How can a chromosome translocation in somatic cells lead to disease?

Looking at this picture... ...I get the impression that the part of chromosome is attached to other chromosome, but it is not mutated. When we assume that all genes in the translocated part are ...
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1answer
61 views

Cut strand of hair longevity?

Quick and useless question : what can be the longevity of a cut strand of hair, assuming we kept it in (good) normal conditions ? Any idea ?
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0answers
39 views

How does drug-induced photosensitivity work?

Some drugs (tetracyclines, for instance) can cause photosensitivity reactions—that is, some patients become extremely sensitive to the sun, developing rashes or inflammation after spending time ...
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1answer
38 views

Does alcohol really do more damage to the body of a child compared to an adult?

Beside the fact that children and teens (people under the age of 18 year) usually have less body weight than the average adult, is there a biologically fundamental difference between the damage done ...
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1answer
109 views

How long do human egg cell grow up?

I read article about alcohol harm where written that child may bear with birth defect cause mother used to drink alcohol 10 years ago so egg cell stay damages that long. I don't believe that human ...
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24 views

Why does our body exhibit bilateral symmetry? [duplicate]

Externally, we (humans) look symmetrical. However, internal organs don't show the same patterns of symmetry (heart being on the left side while the liver is on the right side, etc.). It is a bit ...