The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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What are the most currently effective ways of delivering material to the body, and housing it in the body? [on hold]

My question is about the most effective ways that currently exist (or some of them) for both delivering foreign material inside the body, and keeping it safe from the immune system. For an example of ...
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1answer
26 views

Why doesn't one develop immunity to bacterial STIs?

Why doesn't one develop immunity to STIs such as Chlamydia/Gonorrhea and Syphilis even after the first exposure and treatment with antibiotics?
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Why does immunity from the flu vaccine appear only after two weeks?

It is said that immunity from a flu vaccine appears after about two weeks. However, from experience, the flu usually lasts only a few days. If sufficient antibodies appear only after two weeks ...
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Do the antibodies in a patient suffering from Hashimoto's, attack the thyroid hormones or the thyroid gland (or both?)?

If oral thyroid hormone supplement is administered, is the attack stopped or does it just create an excess of thyroid hormones so that even after a lot of it is destroyed by the antibodies, there is ...
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How are vaccines and inoculations different? [closed]

If so are vaccinations more safe? If so how? And how is the vaccine a magical invention?
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Are there fundamental differences between the adaptive immune systems of higher primates and other mammals?

I recently attended a Leukemia and Lymphoma Society lecture in which one of the lecturers indicated that there are fundamental differences between the adaptive immune systems of higher primates and ...
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31 views

What is the purpose of requiring two separate binding systems for the antibody response?

I've read that in most cases, B-cell activation requires helper T-cells. This requires antigen binding by both antibodies and T-cell receptors, using two different antigen-binding proteins, ...
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1answer
39 views

Why don't antibodies generally bind to food and drugs?

Are these excluded thru central tolerance? What if you ingested something with a unique molecular structure that you hadn't ingested before?
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How to choose secondary Antibody?

when isotype of the Primary antibody is IgG2a (from Mouse) and IgG2b (from Rat), how to choose secondary Antibody against these Primary isotypes? Does secondary Antibody is that much specific to ...
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1answer
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Engineered CD8 T-cell therapy for HIV infection

CD8 T-cells are effective in controlling HIV during the early phase of the infection. However by the time, the virus mutates and develops an evasion mechanism against CD8 T-cells. Since cancer cells ...
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3answers
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What are the effects of removing CD4 receptors?

If the gene for the CD4 receptor was removed, would the person's immune system work normally? Could a new artificial receptor be substituted in place of CD4? Could HIV infection be prevented in this ...
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How is tolerance to an allergen developed?

My question is mainly about how allergy shots work. I did some basic research before posting here, however I could not find an explanation of what occurs at a cellular level. Is it the persistance ...
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What will happen if a foetus is Rh- and the mother is Rh+?

If a mother has Rh-negative blood and her foetus has Rh-positive blood it will result in rhesus incompatibility and lead to erythroblastosis fetalis. What will happen if the reverse occurs, when a ...
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Immunotherapy for tumours which do not have TSA

Is immunotherapy possible for tumours which do not have Tumour Specific Antigens (TSA)? If so, doesn't targeting those tumour cells also target other healthy cells, thus causing autoimmunity ?
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Why is the penicillin/ceftriaxone hypersensitivity test only done once?

I have had a severe bacterial infection. I was prescribed ceftriaxone, and when the time came for injecting it the nurse asked me whether I have an allergy to ceftriaxone. I answered that it's my ...
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1answer
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Advocate for the pop-culture idea of withholding vaccination [closed]

While it is widely accepted that vaccination is preferable to not vaccinating, would anyone like to give a shot at providing evidence in favor of not vaccinating? Anything goes.
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1answer
65 views

Persistent HPV and CVD in Women?

Cardiovascular disease is the number one morbidity factor of women. I am studying the relationship between persistent HPV infection and CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) in inadequate immune responses. ...
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83 views

Why are some human injections intraperitoneal?

In humans, what benefit do intraperitoneal (IP) injections(old/cheap rabies vaccines, or cancer related injections) offer versus traditional intramuscular injections? For example, where I live, the ...
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1answer
77 views

Normal cells and the immune system [closed]

Normal or healthy cells have a natural ability to avoid being attacked by the immune system. So if a cancer cell has all inherited 'strategies' for avoiding the immune system (that are from their ...
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1answer
44 views

How does the immune system recognize pathogens?

There are useful and pathogenic bacteria in our body. How does the immune system differentiate between them?
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Toll Like Receptors Vs Toll Receptors

What are the major differences between them, apart from one being in humans and other in Drosophilla?
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Why does histamine release in Type I hypersensitivity help in case of parasites?

The IgE system exists because the same events which lead to often-life threatening complications of allergy, in presence of parasites are helpful in their elimination. The tissue injury mediated ...
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Pathogenesis of type IV hypersensitivity

In hypersensitivity, as I understand it, a normal immune response gets excessive, misdirected or wrongly regulated to cause tissue injury. The various types determine the various ways in which the ...
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1answer
45 views

Natural Killer Cell and Cancer

NK cells are very effective in destroying circulating cancer cells before their extravasation into the organ, However they have only a minimal inhibiting effect on already established micrometastases. ...
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2answers
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What is the advantage of indirect ELISA over direct one?

I guess the answer is about indirect one giving less error due to selectivity but how exactly does that happen?
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Why are kidney discard rates so high?

A recent report from UNOS states: The kidney discard rate has returned to pre-KAS levels, dropping from 20.2 percent in the first six months to 18.4 percent in months 7-10. To me, this seems ...
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Textbook Recommendations Covering The Adaptive Immune System

I will soon begin work on a project about immunology. I would like to read more about the main mechanisms of the immune system. What books or articles could you recommend to me? In particular I am ...
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How can we improve the immune system [closed]

This is a theoretical question. How can we improve or modify the immune system, doesn't need to be practical but from an engineer's perspective how can the immune system be built better or what ...
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What does high CD4 level means?

I was going through this webpage and I found the following lines: We hypothesised that despite unimodal distribution of CD4 co-receptor on naïve CD4 T cells they are not homogenous in their ...
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Acute rejection in transplantation

For direct recognition in Acute rejection (type IV hypersensitivity), is it true that the recipient’s T cell can basically recognize the host’s MHC allotype, without the need for high affinity ...
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Loss of appetite during fever

It is a well-known phenomenon that sickness like the common flu is often accompanied by reduced appetite. Why do sick people stop eating?
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how body doesn't make antibodies against adjuvants of vaccine?

we know that all antigenic molecules don't have PRR on phagocytes and so they use an adjuvant that has a receptor for pattern recognation and fuse it with in order to phagocyte the antigen-adjuvant ...
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1answer
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Is a variable domain in immunoglobulin's heavy chain different from the one in light chain?

I guess yes, there is difference in amino acid sequences of $V_L$ and $V_H$. And so we have 6 different complementarity determining regions (CDRs) per monomeric immunoglobulin as two heavy chains are ...
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1answer
25 views

Can specific B-cells be created in a lab? [closed]

Instead of creating protein sequences, could that stepped be skipped and just have B-cells created to manufacture a particular type of immunity?
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Why every Ab-Ag complex doesn't lead to anaphylatoxic shock?

if we know the background of hypersensitivitoy type 3 then this question arises. every complex should lead to anaphaylatoxic shock which is not a true statement. so then how all complexes which ...
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1answer
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How plasma cells switches secreting different Ig classes?

In Type 1 hypersensitivity how do B lymphocytes switch Ig classes, from synthesizing IgG to IgE? What is the mechanism? I studied multiple pathology books, it says the same as for IgG secreting ...
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Can people with AIDS get a fever?

It's my understanding that fevers are an immune system response to infection. Like the body's cells can take more heat than most viruses or bacteria. So if that's the case then can you even get a ...
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Why APC's present antigen to T cells?

the macrophages are pretty known well for antigen presenting process and to present the antigens which are bound to pathogens unlike exotoxins (which are free) the pathogen first should be digested ...
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Why do some white blood cells have lobed nuclei?

Several types of white blood cells (eg Neutrophils) have lobed nuclei. Is this for a functional reason? I have seen people refer to structural differences in the lobes as indicative of problems, but ...
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1answer
260 views

Why is an HIV infection considered “incurable”?

My biology teacher told me that if one caught HIV, they cannot be cured because it was near to impossible to be completely virus-free. She said this was because HIV keeps on changing its glycoprotein ...
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1answer
47 views

What are the major steps of follicular B cell development

This is a learning objective in my curriculum, and after having spent two hours trying to answer it for myself using official course resources (many of which are online, but some of which are behind ...
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Specificity of the adaptive lymphocytes

T cells are known for their ability to bind multiple antigens, owing to the degeneracy of the recognition sites on their receptors. [I] When examining the structure of the T cell receptor, we can ...
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1answer
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use of adjuvants and peptides in modern vaccines?

when preparation of modern vaccines we generally use a part of the microbe or the antigen such as polysaccharides to create an effective vaccine against the vaccine. so when the preparation of sub ...
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1answer
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immune response towards sperm cells

Question 1: Why does the immune system not act on sperm cells as sperm cells are developed after puberty? Question 2: Does immune response occur when a person's own cells are injected inside their ...
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Why do doctors still advise HIV+ couples to wear a condom during sex?

HIV infected people already have HIV, but why do doctors still advise condom use for HIV+ couples?
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What is the full form of all the Immunoglobulin? [closed]

What is the exact meaning and full form of IGm IgG Iga etc. and I need some extra information about all the classes of IG?
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2answers
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Organ donation compatibility based on DNA

As far as I know, multiple tests are made before organ transplant to determine matching. Would it be possible to do the matching based on the DNA of the patients, rather than the actual serum ...
3
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1answer
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What happens to the excess immune cells or WBC in our body?

When we have an infection our immune system produces a large amount of white blood cells (WBCs) in our body to fight against the pathogen or parasite. My question is after the immune response has ...
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1answer
203 views

Doubts regarding definition of upstream/downstream genes and cognate protein

With respect to the research paper, there are a few things I didn't understand: 1. What is upstream and downstream gene 2. This paper identifies proteins that help in secretion, but does not identify ...
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Listing Cluster of Differentiation (CD) markers (immunology)

I hope this question is appropriate for this SE. When listing multiple cluster of differentiation (CD) markers to define a cell population, e.g. CD3+CD8+CD45+CD4-, is there a default order to put them ...