The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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How is a T lymphocyte specific to an antigen but not specific to an epitope?

In my immunology notes, it states that B lymphocytes (and other APCs) capture and present antigens to T lymphocytes that is specific for an antigen, but that the T cells do not necessarily recognise ...
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2answers
47 views

How do we find antibiotics?

So the last class of antibiotics were made in 1984 (I think), which makes it appear as though they are hard to find(/design maybe). How is it then they were discovered? Was it by chance? I know some ...
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105 views

Have people in Africa already started evolving resistance to AIDS?

Are people living in areas where AIDS is rampant (for e.g. Africa), less likely to die from it than they once were because some of the people without genes/mutations that give them resistance already ...
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1answer
33 views

Is it possible to transfer acquired hemophilia with breast milk?

There is a transplacental form of acquired hemophilia: http://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476%2895%2970132-X/abstract This disease is caused by polyclonal immunoglobulins (IgG1 and IgG4) against the ...
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92 views

How do T-cells determine which cells they've already inspected?

From what I understand, T-cells are constantly traveling in the body, inspecting cells by looking for antigens. If they're self antigens, then the T-cell doesn't attack, whereas if they're non-self, ...
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Bubble Boy syndrome [duplicate]

I know that under normal circumstances, immunosuppressors are needed to mitigate the host body's immune reaction to the graft. However, people suffering Bubble Boy Syndrome have pretty much no immune ...
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1answer
36 views

what is the difference and similarities between Antidote and Antibody?

I know that antibody is destroy Antigen and antidote is reverse of antigen.So,What are the similarities and difference between Antigen and Antidote? Are they same?
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14 views

Lysis of bacteria by complement system

The complement system creates pores in cell membrane which leads to influx of lots of water thereby causing lysis of bacterial cell. But what I fail to understand is that if bacteria have cell walls ...
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1answer
66 views

Effect of HIV on T-cells

When HIV infects macrophages, it doesn't kill or destroy them immediately, but once it infects T-cells, they're destroyed. Why is that? As in why does it destroy T-cells and not macrophages or other ...
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8 views

Serological assays measuring antibody response

Given that an appropriate immune response to a bacteria may be thwarted in an individual, including not producing all of the antibodies which are known to occur in people who have been infected, or ...
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42 views

T cell sensitivity and persistence to specific bacterial proteins

Currently, the standard tests for Lyme Disease measure antibody production after exposure to a bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi. Often, the tests are performed too soon after infection, before ...
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19 views

How does the body know to stop effector cell proliferation?

After a pathogen has been successfully neutralized, effector cells such as the plasma cells and the cytotoxic T cells which are specific for that pathogen decrease in numbers. What is the signal in ...
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66 views

B-cell antibody production

I've just learned about B cells in immunology lectures and some things are not clear to me. Here's what I know: 1) Apparently, each B cell produces a specific antibody, determined randomly at the ...
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58 views

Why I cannot find dendritic cells in blood smear?

According to many sources including wikipedia, there are haematopoietic stem cell derived dendritic cells in the blood. figure 1 - haematopoietic cell lines - ref Despite of this, when I examine ...
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12 views

How large are medullary thymic epithelial cells in volume?

I'm looking for a rough average volume of medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs/MECs) in humans and mice. It would also help to know how they differ in form (are they spherical, long stretched, ...
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10 views

IG isotypes in commercial mAb products

It appears that most monoclonal antibody medical products exclusively contain the IgG (and some IgE) isotypes. Also, some manufacturers use only certain IgG subclasses. While the IgG-isotype is the ...
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1answer
121 views

Does our immune system react on all bacteria?

In our body we carry a lot of bacteria. Some of them are bad for our health, but others are beneficial. For example bacteria may protect us against other pathogenic bacteria. But is our immune ...
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2answers
136 views

What is the difference between AIDS and SCID? [closed]

AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome According to wikipedia, Caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Following initial infection, a person may not notice any ...
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11 views

Why Alternative Dosing of Gardasil Puts Suspicion about its Efficacy?

I am studying the alternative dosing of Gardasil and its efficacy. The exact concentration necessary to confer protection is not yet known. This limits the understanding of the alternative dosing. ...
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2k views

Why is it advised that infants are fed mother's milk?

I have heard that mother's milk is preferred over other baby foods, because it contains immunoglobulines (secretory IgA), and other essential nutrients. But why is mother's milk so special? Any ...
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31 views

Can oral bacteria be targeted by white blood cells?

Today I was told from a dentist that a leukocyte is much larger than a bad bacterium. So a leukocyte cannot remove bad bacteria when they hide in very places like the space between the gums and teeth ...
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1answer
17 views

Does atrophy of the thymus not effect T-cell selection and tolerance?

The thymus atrophies as age progresses. Does the T cell selection (which happens in the thymus) continue to take place? This doubt came into my mind because in the cadaver we dissected, the thymus was ...
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62 views

How would the immune system respond to antigens and food poisoning?

QUESTION: How does this information explain the likelihood of a more violent response in someone who has already had food poisoning caused by salmonella bacteria WHAT I KNOW: In the first exposure, ...
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16 views

how to make plasma cells adhere to the bottom of a microplate?

I am isolating single plasma cells by FACS sorting into 384-well plates, with the intent to assay the supernatant and clone H/L chains from positive wells. The efficiency of the PCR is however low, ...
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1answer
28 views

What is the name of the property of viruses can activate a second time, with different symptoms?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. It appears after the initial infection, it can go dormant in the nerve, and reactivate itself decades later. In ...
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40 views

What is the name of the category of viruses that affect only one side of the body?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. When the virus attacks as shingles, one of its distinguishing characteristics is that it only affects one side of the ...
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1answer
38 views

How do CD 8+ Tc cells reach the site of tumors?

In normal humoral immunity, dendritic cells present antigens to the Th cells by arriving at the Lymph node. This is fine. But consider a tumor cell. How does the Tc cell sitting in the lymph node know ...
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37 views

What is the name of the property of viruses that can go dormant in the host for 30 years?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. It appears after the initial infection, it can go dormant in the nerve, and reactivate itself decades later. My ...
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1answer
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22 views

Cytokine screening

I am measuring IL-6 production by NF-κB stimulation using IL-1α and TNFα. Il-1 produces a stronger degradation of IκBα (inhibitor of NF-κB). I've done this using ...
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37 views

Does sickle cell anaemia protect a victim against malaria? [duplicate]

My biology textbook says that a person with sickle cell anaemia is less prone to malaria. Why is that so? I'm guessing that its because the malarial parasite needs human RBCs for completing its life ...
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58 views

Why doesn't one develop immunity to bacterial STIs?

Why doesn't one develop immunity to STIs such as Chlamydia/Gonorrhea and Syphilis even after the first exposure and treatment with antibiotics?
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2answers
953 views

Why does immunity from the flu vaccine appear only after two weeks?

It is said that immunity from a flu vaccine appears after about two weeks. However, from experience, the flu usually lasts only a few days. If sufficient antibodies appear only after two weeks ...
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1answer
50 views

Do the antibodies in a patient suffering from Hashimoto's, attack the thyroid hormones or the thyroid gland (or both?)?

If oral thyroid hormone supplement is administered, is the attack stopped or does it just create an excess of thyroid hormones so that even after a lot of it is destroyed by the antibodies, there is ...
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31 views

How are vaccines and inoculations different? [closed]

If so are vaccinations more safe? If so how? And how is the vaccine a magical invention?
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28 views

Are there fundamental differences between the adaptive immune systems of higher primates and other mammals?

I recently attended a Leukemia and Lymphoma Society lecture in which one of the lecturers indicated that there are fundamental differences between the adaptive immune systems of higher primates and ...
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1answer
40 views

What is the purpose of requiring two separate binding systems for the antibody response?

I've read that in most cases, B-cell activation requires helper T-cells. This requires antigen binding by both antibodies and T-cell receptors, using two different antigen-binding proteins, ...
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2answers
91 views

Why don't antibodies generally bind to food and drugs?

Are these excluded thru central tolerance? What if you ingested something with a unique molecular structure that you hadn't ingested before?
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1answer
32 views

How to choose secondary Antibody?

when isotype of the Primary antibody is IgG2a (from Mouse) and IgG2b (from Rat), how to choose secondary Antibody against these Primary isotypes? Does secondary Antibody is that much specific to ...
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1answer
60 views

Engineered CD8 T-cell therapy for HIV infection

CD8 T-cells are effective in controlling HIV during the early phase of the infection. However by the time, the virus mutates and develops an evasion mechanism against CD8 T-cells. Since cancer cells ...
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3answers
264 views

What are the effects of removing CD4 receptors?

If the gene for the CD4 receptor was removed, would the person's immune system work normally? Could a new artificial receptor be substituted in place of CD4? Could HIV infection be prevented in this ...
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1answer
51 views

How is tolerance to an allergen developed?

My question is mainly about how allergy shots work. I did some basic research before posting here, however I could not find an explanation of what occurs at a cellular level. Is it the persistance ...
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1answer
354 views

What will happen if a foetus is Rh- and the mother is Rh+?

If a mother has Rh-negative blood and her foetus has Rh-positive blood it will result in rhesus incompatibility and lead to erythroblastosis fetalis. What will happen if the reverse occurs, when a ...
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25 views

Immunotherapy for tumours which do not have TSA

Is immunotherapy possible for tumours which do not have Tumour Specific Antigens (TSA)? If so, doesn't targeting those tumour cells also target other healthy cells, thus causing autoimmunity ?
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1answer
82 views

Why is the penicillin/ceftriaxone hypersensitivity test only done once?

I have had a severe bacterial infection. I was prescribed ceftriaxone, and when the time came for injecting it the nurse asked me whether I have an allergy to ceftriaxone. I answered that it's my ...
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1answer
72 views

Advocate for the pop-culture idea of withholding vaccination [closed]

While it is widely accepted that vaccination is preferable to not vaccinating, would anyone like to give a shot at providing evidence in favor of not vaccinating? Anything goes.
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71 views

Persistent HPV and CVD in Women?

Cardiovascular disease is the number one morbidity factor of women. I am studying the relationship between persistent HPV infection and CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) in inadequate immune responses. ...
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173 views

Why are some human injections intraperitoneal?

In humans, what benefit do intraperitoneal (IP) injections(old/cheap rabies vaccines, or cancer related injections) offer versus traditional intramuscular injections? For example, where I live, the ...
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1answer
84 views

Normal cells and the immune system [closed]

Normal or healthy cells have a natural ability to avoid being attacked by the immune system. So if a cancer cell has all inherited 'strategies' for avoiding the immune system (that are from their ...
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1answer
62 views

How does the immune system recognize pathogens?

There are useful and pathogenic bacteria in our body. How does the immune system differentiate between them?