The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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Why can we use mouse-produced antibodies on mice tissues?

I have seen biologists use mouse grown primary antibodies in mouse tissue, and they've told me that if the blood is perfused well then there is no problem with this method. How does the secondary ...
2
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2answers
38 views

Is it possible to train allergic resistance by exposing yourself to allergens?

My hypothesis is that one can decrease the allergic reactions over time by continuously exposing yourself to slowly increasing doses of allergens. Is there any scientific evidence pointing this right ...
2
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0answers
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What is NK-cell compartments?

with respect to the paper: Adaptive reconfiguration of the human NK-cell compartment in response to cytomegalovirus: A different perspective of the host-pathogen interaction What is meant by ...
2
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1answer
22 views

What are host cellular factors?

With respect to this paper: Global Analysis of Host-Pathogen Interactions that Regulate Early-Stage HIV-1 Replication What does the term "host cellular factors" mean??
7
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1answer
85 views

Why do some vaccines last longer than others?

After reading an answer to the question of How Do White Blood Cells Learn? Or Do They?, I came to wonder something. Specifically, The effect of this is that every new B and T cell that your bone ...
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1answer
829 views

How Do White Blood Cells Learn? Or Do They?

So I get the concept that a vaccine is a weakened form of a virus so that the body can "learn" to fight it and make a person immune to that disease, but how exactly does this learning take place? What ...
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25 views

What makes substances allergenic?

Is it possible to tell or rule out (potentially a priori) whether any given substance or compound is likely and how likely to cause allergies with high confidence, without the need to conduct ...
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0answers
32 views

Human leukocytes (re)circulation/migration in homeostatic state

One can easily find information on the topic of leukocytes trafficking between vessels and peripheral tissues during inflammation. But what happens during normal states when there is no pathology? ...
4
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2answers
43 views

what does Pro→Glu substitution mean?

Considering the paper: A single amino acid in E-cadherin responsible for host specificity towards the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the abstract portion, what does Pro→Glu mean? Does it ...
2
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1answer
64 views

Why are sperm cells not attacked by the female immune system? [duplicate]

Whenever a foreign particle enters into someone's body, it is attacked by the white blood cells. I just want how it is that, when sperms enter the female body, they are not attacked by the the woman's ...
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48 views

dsRNA and immune response

If there is dsRNA in the cell (long enough), will it always bring immune response? What type of immune response it will be? Killing the cell if it has some amounts of dsRNA?
3
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2answers
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Why White Blood Cells (WBCs) do not react to foreign bodies like sperm?

Why do the white blood cells allow foreign bodies like sperm to exist inside body cavity without any reaction? White blood cells function is to fight against foreign bodies (from the text books).
6
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1answer
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What is a positive epitope fragment

What is a positive epitope fragment? I found one paper on the subject: COBEpro: a novel system for predicting continuous B-cell epitopes by Michael J. Sweredoski and Pierre Baldi
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39 views

eradicating h.pylori naturally

This question is not to discuss whether substances with anti-h.pylori agents works or not, or the pros and cons of such but from a medical perspective. Assuming that one manage to control, reduce, or ...
3
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1answer
49 views

how do macrophages have the capacity to digest pathogen in opsonization

how do macrophages have the capacity to digest pathogen in opsonization but not in the first time when the pathogen is new and they play the role of antigen presenting cells(APCs) first ...
1
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1answer
64 views

C1q attachment to antibodies

After reading about complement pathway and the complement components, I was wondering, does the C1q component attach to the Fab fragment or to the Fc fragment? The pictures in Janeway's Immunobiology ...
3
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1answer
102 views

Why can blood group O be given to all blood groups?

Blood group O has antibodies against antigens A and B. Blood group A has A antigen. If someone with blood group A receives donor blood with group O, then anti-A antibodies in the donor blood should ...
3
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1answer
34 views

IgA complement activation

Recently, I have been reading Janeway's immunobiology and had a question on immunoglobin A. I read that IgA activates the complement pathway using the Fab fragment of the IgA. How does IgA do that? I ...
6
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1answer
73 views

Blood cells penetration

Is there a type of blood cell that can reach all other body cells? By "reach", I mean to "touch" the surface of the target cell. If we look at the red blood cell for example, that moves in blood ...
2
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2answers
46 views

Are we more/less resistant to infectious diseases during an allergic reaction?

To my understanding, an allergic response is a non-adaptive response of the immune system to some molecule. The molecule in question is therefore "thought by the immune system" to be infectious ...
0
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1answer
29 views

Binding of Multivalent Antibody to mutiple epitopes?

A multivalent antibody molecule such as Immunoglobulin M Immunoglobulin A etc bind to more than one antigens or epitopes but I am confused about that wheather these multivalent antibodies bind to ...
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0answers
27 views

How can site-directed mutagenesis be used to suppress the production of anti-antibodies?

In a previous post of mine, I asked how to supress the creation of anti-antibodies in vivo. In the answer, it was mentioned that site-directed mutagenesis could be used. Currently, I can't find mcuh ...
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1answer
26 views

Ebola immunosupression and infection

I was wondering... If Ebola attacks immune cells and causes immunosupression, then shouldn't we see death in Ebola patients due to secondary infection?
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1answer
35 views

A few questions regarding immunology [closed]

I know that there is a variable region on antibodies which can recognize a wide variety of antigens, and that germinal centers create more "fit" antibodies to respond to an infection. So I was just ...
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1answer
18 views

allogeneic organ transplant and the immune response

What happens when an allogeneic organ transplant is performed on an immunocompetent recipient vs. when it is performed on an immunosuppresed recipient using a donated organ with immunocompetent cells? ...
3
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1answer
85 views

How to inhibit formation of specific antibodies (to antisera)?

Is there a way to inhibit an antibody response to a specific antigen using immunosupression? I am interested in reducing the anti-antibody formation to animal antibodies such as murine antibodies in ...
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2answers
65 views

human anti-mouse antibody

I have heard about human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMAs) and read that HAMAs neutralize murine antibodies, therefore decreasing the effectiveness of those murine antibodies. Is this true that HAMAs ...
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0answers
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B-cell and T-cell activation by parasites

Parasitic infections lead to the production of parasite-specific IgE, but they also lead to the activation of nonspecific, polyclonal B-cells and T-cells. How do parasites trigger non-specific ...
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1answer
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MHC-I presentation during infection

Which cell type cannot process and present antigen peptide in association with MHC-I when it is infected?
3
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1answer
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Action of Ebola Viruses

This video suggests that the first cell to be the victim of viral infection of ebola is the dendritic cell which acts as the leader of immune system cells.But I am unable to understand how the ...
3
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1answer
101 views

Why cytotoxic T cells don't kill dendritic cells when they present antigen?

When a cytotoxic T cell (CTL) recognizes a peptide presented in the MHC-1 of a dendritic cell (APC), why it doesn't kill this cell? I know that initially, in the lymph node, the T cell is ...
7
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1answer
70 views

B cell receptor editing

If a B cell contains two mu chains and two lambda chains and is self reactive can it go back and rearrange its kappa light chains? I'm not sure if it can only try to rearrange its lambda light chains ...
2
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2answers
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Food allergen-related skin reactions and intestinal inflammation?

Are there any connections between food allergen-related skin reactions causing intestinal (or more broadly, gastrointestinal) generalized inflammation? If such a link exists, is it related to any of ...
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2answers
56 views

Are all single-celled organisms Bacteria?

I read that "Bacteria are one-celled organisms that can multiply by division", are all one-celled organisms bacteria or are there any more narrow definitions?
3
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1answer
49 views

human immune system

The common cold and [some?] types of influenza are self-limiting. Some microorganisms cause self-limiting diarrhea. Is tuberculosis [potentially] self-limiting or not? To put it another way, suppose ...
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2answers
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Synthesis of immunoglobulin Fab fragments: Where can I learn about Fab?

I wanted to know the chemical reaction involved in Fab synthesis. I looked everywhere for it. No luck. I know I will find it here. All I know for now is: Fab is a monovalent fragment that is ...
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3answers
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Why do physicians try to match HLA complexes for organ transplant?

My understanding of acute transplant rejection is that donor dendritic cells present donor antigens on MHC1 to host naive CD8+ T-cells resulting in an immune response against the graft. If you match ...
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1answer
39 views

Is viral protein expression important for peptide vaccine?

I would like to know if proteins expressed in higher quantities, such as DNA polymerase, would be better vaccine candidates for a T-cell based vaccine. Thanks, Bernardo
7
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272 views

HIV and effectiveness of inhibitor cocktail over single inhibitor

I'm looking for clarification on the answer to this question. It's in my biochemistry class but I figured this is more Biology than Chemistry, so I'm asking it here. The question is: One of the ...
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1answer
67 views

Which immunosuppression caused by long-term usage of these antibiotics in untreated celiac disease?

These antibiotics include amoxicillin + acidum clavulanicum (beta-lactam, inhibit cell wall synthesis, broad specturm, 3rd gen aminopenicillin) / last part preventing the resistance ceftriaxone (3rd ...
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2answers
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True or False: Vaccines are designed to protect against invaders that are encountered rarely, not all the time

I read the following statement in this article: Vaccines are designed to protect against invaders that are encountered rarely - not all the time Is it true? If yes, why?
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1answer
50 views

Is the innate immune system capable of identifying all foreign antigens?

I've been studying immunology on my own lately and I would like to know if the macrophages and the other components of the innate immune system are capable of identifying all foreign antigens. As far ...
0
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1answer
40 views

Epitope annotated protein

What is epitope annotted protein?? The book from which I got this term is : http://www.springer.com/biomed/immunology/book/978-1-4939-1114-1
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Sequence based method for prediction of continuous B cell epitope

What is Sequence based method for prediction of continuous B cell epitope? What is the algorithm/procedure of this method? Can someone please explain this to me in simple language?
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Why don't we develop immunity against common cold?

We all suffer from common cold, and that, frequently. Why have we not developed immunity against it till now? By immunity I mean immunity as a species.
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1answer
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Immunomic Microarray

"One can measure two or more signals simultaneously determined by a single feature, i.e., epitope in immunomic microarray DNA microarrays measure one response value for each gene per sample; that ...
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2answers
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peptide MHC microarray

"The recent technology is peptide–MHC microarray or artificial antigen-presenting chip. In this technique, recombinant peptide–MHC complexes and co-stimulatory molecules are immobilized on a ...
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recombinant peptide MHC complex [closed]

What is recombinant peptide-MHC complex??? Recombinant DNA means "to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in biological ...
2
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1answer
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epitope prediction/ mapping

B-CELL EPITOPE PREDICTION Regarding this article: "Such a molecule can be synthesized or, in case of a protein, its gene can be cloned into an expression vector."----- is a particular line in ...
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1answer
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Why can't the immune system start at the mating time?

The immune system has a great role in our body. When foreign particles enter our body, the immune system can recognize and start defense mechanisms such as the complement system and others. But when ...