The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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Immunomic Microarray

"One can measure two or more signals simultaneously determined by a single feature, i.e., epitope in immunomic microarray DNA microarrays measure one response value for each gene per sample; that ...
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peptide MHC microarray

"The recent technology is peptide–MHC microarray or artificial antigen-presenting chip. In this technique, recombinant peptide–MHC complexes and co-stimulatory molecules are immobilized on a ...
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recombinant peptide MHC complex

What is recombinant peptide-MHC complex??? Recombinant DNA means "to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in biological ...
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epitope prediction/ mapping

B-CELL EPITOPE PREDICTION Regarding this article: "Such a molecule can be synthesized or, in case of a protein, its gene can be cloned into an expression vector."----- is a particular line in ...
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Why can't the immune system start at the mating time?

The immune system has a great role in our body. When foreign particles enter our body, the immune system can recognize and start defense mechanisms such as the complement system and others. But when ...
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transfection of expression library made from cDNA into cells expressing the desired MHC haplotypes

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167569997800205 If anybody has access to this paper, can you please explain me the process to find TAA based on transfection of expression library ...
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What is hTAP?? Please help

Could not find a single article regarding this. What is hTAP? Tap is Transfer associated protein, that I know, but what is hTAP??(I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going ...
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Difference between sequential and conformational epitope

Is the difference only in its structure? Like conformational epitope has 3D structure while sequential has a linear structure?(I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going through ...
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What is MHC haplotype?

What is MHC haplotype? I did check out the wiki article, but did not understand. (I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going through it because I need it for my research. So if ...
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Doubt regarding COBEpro [on hold]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19074155 This link contains the summery of how to predict continuous B-cell epitope. Can someone please explain this to me?? I did read it, but failed to make out ...
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MHC restricted peptide

What is an MHC restricted peptide? "MHC-restricted antigen recognition, or MHC restriction, refers to the fact that a given T cell will recognize a peptide antigen only when it is bound to a host ...
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Oxidation means inflamation?

All right, I was reading article on nutrition, that focussed on content analysis of pastry-like food product for kids. I have to say that I am not sure this article would pass the imaginary smell ...
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Why is an inflammation in eye and brain more devastating and can lead to loss of organ function compared to other organ like liver etc.?

Recently I have learnt something about immunoprivileged site and I wonder why these sites like eye would prefer tolerating these antigens that sabotages the normal function of these to having ...
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Difference in structure of B-cell epitope and T-cell epitope

What is the difference in the structure of B-cell epitope and T cell epitope? Also please enlighten me with the fact of discontinuity or conformation of the b or t cell. Went through a number or ...
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SEREX serological analysis of cDNA expression library

What is Serological Analysis of cDNA expression library? I went through this article:http://cancerimmunity.org/serex/introduction/ but could not really make out. Can someone please explain this to me ...
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Complementarity Determining Regions (CDR)

Complementarity determining regions (CDRs) are part of the variable chains in immunoglobulins (antibodies) and T cell receptors, generated by B-cells and T-cells respectively, where these molecules ...
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Degenerate Alignment Analysis

Can someone please tell me what is Degenerate alignment analysis? Could not find a good article on the internet that could help me understand what it means? (I have not studied biology since last 8 ...
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TAA- Tumor associated antigen

An approach to find Tumor associated antigens is based on transfection of expression library made from cDNA into cells expressing desired MHC haplotypes. Can someone please explain what this line ...
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Microarray probe and target

In a microarray, which one is called a target and which one is the probe? the one that is added later , is that the probe or the one present in the slots of the microarray, that is the probe? (I have ...
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Immunodominant Peptide

Can someone please explain me the concept of Immunodominant peptide in simple language?? I did read the wiki article but did not understand it clearly. Please help! (I have not studied biology since ...
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Localization of B and T cell

What does localization of B-Cell mean?? "Localization of B and T cell in allergens may not coincide". What does this statement mean? (I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going ...
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Subtypes of Acute myeloid leukemia

I am a computer scientist with no biological background and working on analyzing lab results of patients with Acute myeloid leukemia. They have been tagged with following subtypes of AML: AML with ...
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multiple HIV infection in same T cell

I was wondering can multiple HIV virus infecting same T cell ? Coz in flu virus they have SA to cleave of those sialic acid residue preventing re-infection of the same cell by other viruses to ...
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What is a protective epitope?

What is a protective epitope? An epitope is basically a part of antigen. So does it mean that when the epitope combines with an antibody, it helps in the functioning of the antibody instead of going ...
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What does the term 'epitope mapping' mean? [closed]

Epitope mapping means identifying the binding site of antibodies on the target antigen. This means that the site to be identified is part of the antigen and not antibody, am I right?
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What attracts cells to: pathogens, professional antigen-presenting cells, and cells with an antigen on its MHC-1 protein?

I have a few questions in regards to attraction/stimulation in the immune system. What attracts leukocytes and antibodies to pathogens in the first place? What attracts CD4+ cells to professional ...
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Calibration curve for single radial immunodiffusion

When we draw a calibration curve for single radial immunodiffusion, the curve does not pass through origin. Instead, there is a y intercept. Why does that happen ? Shouldn't zero antigen give zero ...
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can psychology of a person alter his immune system and health?

I just want to know that can psychology of a moderate aged person alter his immune health? because I have read many a times about the different types of linkages between nervous system and immune ...
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How specific is the adaptive immune response?

When you read about the adaptive immune response, you are often told that the response is specific to each pathogen - that the response is tailored. My question is - to what extent is this really ...
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Locally sterile immune response in paradoxical IRS coupled with hypersensitivity I

The king of sterile immune response is antibodies; while in unsterile response - T lymphocyte. I think there can be two types of IRS: either abnormalities with T or B cells. Assume the here the case ...
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What Are the Exit Routes of Vaccine Adjuvants?

The digestive and respiratory systems are set up to process externally introduced "stuff." Most vaccines are given via an intramuscular route. What happens to the virus and the adjuvant materials ...
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Tc and Th1 interaction and viral immune response

Tc is T cell which can give T killer cells and T helper cells. T helper cells (Th1) see the pathogen presented by antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells and macrophages). They then secrete antigens ...
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Exocytosis of mast cell secretory granules

I've been doing a bit of reading about mast cell degranulation and have become thoroughly lost while trying to understand how the secretory granules are actually secreted. I understand that there are ...
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Why is there no way to remove an immune response?

We've known for a long time now how to "add a new entry to the database," as it were, of immune responses. It's called vaccination, and it's been one of the greatest success stories in the history of ...
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Why Rh conflict happen but no ABO conflicts?

I wonder why Rhesus conflict can happen during pregnancy and mother can make antibodies against Rh protein (I think the correct name is D protein), but it doesn't happen if mother has different ABO ...
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Dimerization of Immunoglobulin G

I would like to know the specific determinants for formation of IgG dimers. My understanding is the stem of the antibody is a homodimer of two heavy chains, covalently bonded through two disulfide ...
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Why will tissue from identical twin be rejected in some cases?

From Medline Plus : Also, transplants from one identical twin to another are almost never rejected. My question : Why can a tissue from an identical twin be rejected ?
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What's the difference between naive and memory B cells?

I understand that when naive B cells are exposed to antigens, they become memory B cells, but what is the functional difference between the two? I've looked at the quite a few article on B cells, but ...
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Is a naive immune system equally able to handle new antigens as an educated one?

This is a variation of the "does the immune system run out of memory" question. Here's a (possibly imperfect) thought experiment: You take two twins. One of them lives in a bubble from birth. One of ...
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When does exposure to an allergen increase / decrease allergy?

In immunotherapy a person is regularly exposed to an allergen to decrease the allergy. Yet apparently "repeated intranasal challenges ... induces robust allergic airway inflammation, " [0] So when ...
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Do any nonhuman species have effective ebola immunity?

I've read that ebola is an effective killer in humans because it has the ability to interrupt dendritic cells from manufacturing proteins that cause the immune system to destroy the dendritic cells ...
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If all B cells are present at birth, why should the primary response to an infection take longer than the secondary response?

When learning about the immune response, my teacher mentioned that all the bodies B cells are present at birth, and there is one to counter every disease. But if this is the case, why should the ...
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What is the beneficial function of IgE antibody?

Dont tell me the "function" of IgE is to cause allergy ! In whatever texts I have seen it is written that IgE is important to cause allergies but what is the beneficial function of IgE ? Why was it ...
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Why mosquito bite is confined to a certain shape?

I think this problem should be asked in a physiology forum rather than biology@ stackex but I'll give it a try. So my question is simple - why a mosquito bite is usually confined to a certain shape ...
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How do B memory cells provide immunological memory? Do they differentiate into plasma cells?

My text book doesn't say anything about how B memory cells actually ensure a faster response the second time the antigen is encountered. My guess is that they differentiate into plasma cells which ...
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Functioning of BCG vaccine

I read (from Nature Volume507, S4–S7 (06 March 2014) : For reasons that are poorly understood, BCG protects only infants; it is ineffective in older children and adults. Its efficacy also ...
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Conserved proteins are non immunogenic

I read that proteins that have been highly conserved are non-immunogenic. Why is it so ? What is the special thing that makes it non immunogenic(antibodies against them are hard to make) ?
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Why do I need a flu shot every year, while many other vaccinations last years or even a lifetime?

Is it a viral vs. bacterial thing? Is there just more variety among types of flu than other diseases, so that this year's vaccines don't cover next year's flu?
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Do's and Don't's of Undergraduate Research? [closed]

I was fortunate enough to get a position as a researcher for the Mayo Clinic's SURF Program this year. My PI's lab focus is on the the immune system's role in CNS axonal and neuronal injury, ...
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How do TLR1/TLR2 activate the MyD88 dependent pathway

Recently, I've been reading about the MyD88 dependent signalling pathway, with particular reference to its activation in Macrophages and other cells of the immune system on recognition of a pathogen. ...