The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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Antigenic and non antigenic

Can any foreign molecule be non- antigenic ? Can any foreign peptide be non-antigenic ? What is the difference between an antigenic and a non-antigenic peptide ?
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How do B memory cells provide immunological memory? Do they differentiate into plasma cells?

My text book doesn't say anything about how B memory cells actually ensure a faster response the second time the antigen is encountered. My guess is that they differentiate into plasma cells which ...
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What are the purposes of granulocytes in acute inflammation?

I heard the phrase Neutrophilic leucocytes are kings in the acute inflammation. Neutrophils are granulocytes, while leucocytes are not granulocytes. I think this statement refers to the fact ...
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Do we actually get more sick (flu/cold) during winter?

The word flu derives from the Italian phrase "influenza de freddo" meaning "influence of the cold". Indeed it is that time of the year when my colleagues seem to have the flu/cold more often than ...
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Functioning of BCG vaccine

I read (from Nature Volume507, S4–S7 (06 March 2014) : For reasons that are poorly understood, BCG protects only infants; it is ineffective in older children and adults. Its efficacy also ...
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How are T cells transported?

T cells are formed in bone marrow and mature in Thymus. How are they transported from bone marrow to thymus ? Through the lymph vessels ?
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Anti-antibodies for preventing transplant rejection

Transplanted organs from the donor are attacked by antibodies from the recepient. So can't we construct anti-antibodies and destroy specifically those antibodies which are causing the rejections ? ...
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Conserved proteins are non immunogenic

I read that proteins that have been highly conserved are non-immunogenic. Why is it so ? What is the special thing that makes it non immunogenic(antibodies against them are hard to make) ?
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Why do I need a flu shot every year, while many other vaccinations last years or even a lifetime?

Is it a viral vs. bacterial thing? Is there just more variety among types of flu than other diseases, so that this year's vaccines don't cover next year's flu?
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Do's and Don't's of Undergraduate Research? [closed]

I was fortunate enough to get a position as a researcher for the Mayo Clinic's SURF Program this year. My PI's lab focus is on the the immune system's role in CNS axonal and neuronal injury, ...
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How do TLR1/TLR2 activate the MyD88 dependent pathway

Recently, I've been reading about the MyD88 dependent signalling pathway, with particular reference to its activation in Macrophages and other cells of the immune system on recognition of a pathogen. ...
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Can cancer be an immune system disorder? [closed]

Can cancer result from a weakened immune system? Would this mean that cancer could be considered an immune system disorder?
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What cell types produce immunoglobins and where are those cells found?

I know B cells found in bone marrow produce immunoglobin G. But IgM is produced in mucosal cells at least in the gut. Can you find immunoglobin expressing cells in other tissues in the human body? ...
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What is immunosuppression? Why would one use it? [closed]

What is immunosuppression? I know it is used in cancer patients, but why would one want to suppress the immune system? Do homeopathic physicians ever use immunosuppression, or do only allopathic ...
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Agglutination test using antibodies

Agglutination test Latex agglutination using bound antigens : by coating soluble (non - particulate ) antigens on to microscopic latex spheres, their reaction with a particular antibody can be ...
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Do we have enough diversity of antibodies to overcome almost any antigen?

I always wonder about the capability of diversity of our antibodies. Do we have enough antibodies to fit to every kind of molecule? Wont't it be easier if our antibodies are like clay and can be ...
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1answer
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How does human body deal with inert solid material in the bloodstream?

How does human body deal with inert solid material in the bloodstream? For example, if there is a powder of glass injected into our bloodstream, will the white blood cells do anything or will kidney ...
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Reasons why people say that AIDS/HIV doesn't exist

It's been recurrent when I hear people saying that AIDS doesn't exist. When I ask why, they give weird reasons like HIV is a virus created to control economy and to develop medicine, etc. Also when I ...
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How does your body ultimately recover from a cold?

Is it the eradication of the virus (assuming rhinovirus) by white blood cells? Or does your body somehow adapt to presence of the virus?
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Can more than one antibody bind the same antigen

I'd like to clear something up about antibodies that I'm not sure I've understood in the articles I've read. Looking at concepts such as "affinity maturation", "monovalent antigens" and "polyvalent ...
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Thymus and maternal microchimerism

I read in Bruce Alberts Molecular Biology of The Cell : ....If,however,cells from one strain of mouse are introduced into a neonatal mouse of another strain , some of these cells survive for most ...
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Why are haploid cancer cells not killed by immune system?

I have seen haploid cancer cells (I think it was leukemia cells) in a lab. Sperms and eggs are haploid but are not destroyed by the body because they are protected by other cells surrounding them. ...
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1answer
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Is the complement system a part of innate or adaptive immunity

I've been reading about the complement system, as part of the human immune system. The complement system is introduced as part of the article on innate immunity on Wikipedia. This classification makes ...
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Question about the expression of MHC

Is it possible to express both the MHC class-1 and MHC class-2 both in one cell?
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More proteins from diet when common cold and flu?

My coach says that I need to eat 1.2 - 1.5 grams of proteins per kilogram when I have a common cold and flu. I normally eat one gram of proteins per kilogram, while double it when doing my exercise ...
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How are antibodies designed?

Antibodies have the ability of recognising highly specific peptide sequences and bind it at their antigen-binding site. This ability is harnessed as a tool in research to purify target structures in ...
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Can pets catch the cold?

Last night I was drying my cat with a towel after shenanigans in the rain and she sneezed! Questions Can cats/dogs/hamsters or other pets catch the cold? How quickly do they recover?
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Immune reaction to “new” protein

I read in Bruce Alberts Molecular Biology of the cell : Normal mice,for example, cannot make an immune response against one of their own protein components of the complement system called C5. ...
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Manufacturing toxoids

Toxoids produced by tetanus and diphtheria bacteria are detoxified with formaldehyde, yet their antigen properties remain. Source : Biological Science by Taylor What does formaldehyde do ?
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What is the distinction between chemokines, cytokines, interferons and interleukins?

They all seem to describe molecules of similar function and many people seem to use them interchangeably. Also please include any other similar molecules if I've forgotten any in the list above.
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Modern immunology textbooks

I am looking for recommendations to good textbooks introducing modern immunology. Review articles, preferably modern (post 2000) would also be useful. Please, include a brief comment with each book ...
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At what age do babies begin to synthesize their own antibodies?

When babies are first born, they receive their antibodies from their mother (I assume because they do not yet have the capacity to synthesize their own). So my question is, at what age do babies ...
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Is an antivenom venomous?

What happens when someone takes an anti-venom for an animal they weren't bit by, either for incorrect identification of the animal they were bit by or if they weren't bit at all? I am looking for the ...
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Are there any antigen electronic sensors?

Is it possible somehow to attach antibody to silicon or to other electronic component chemical, and have electronic detector of correspondent antigen? Does such devices exist?
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Adenosine metabolism

Are adenosine or its catabolites increased in inflamed airways? How can I assess this? I am trying to use inhibitors for adenosine deaminase, xanthine oxidase, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, but ...
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Do T-cells express MHC molecules?

T-cells recognize the MHC molecules and body's own peptides. When it doesn't, it alarms the immune system. But do T-cells express MHC molecules ? If so, how are they using it? If not, what happens ...
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Transfer of antibodies in breast milk of humans

Why isn't the IgA secreted in breast milk digested due to proteases of the digestive system in the baby? Wikipedia says: The secretory component of sIgA protects the immunoglobulin from being ...
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Transfer of antibodies from mother to fetus

My questions: When does fetus begins to acquire antibodies from mother? Does it continue throughout the pregnancy? From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passive_immunity This occurs around ...
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Neutrophil elastase ELISA

I want to do the above assay but by mass spectrophotometry (MS). Hence I need to optimize in MS friendly buffers like formic acid, ammonium formate, ammonium acetate. Has any one done this ...
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A number of questions regarding chemotaxis assay using PBMCs

In our lab we would like to study the chemotaxis of PBMCs towards conditioned medium obtained following treatment of cancer cells with different compounds. My questions are regarding the method of ...
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1answer
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Antibody production in secondary immune response

Can IgG antibodies be produced in the secondary immune response without the help of T cells? Is the affinity of antibody for antigens higher during secondary immune response?
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Presence of MHC on red blood cells

Do red blood cells have no MHC? (I have often heard that they do not.) If so why are they not destroyed by immune cells?
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Do you know of any disease where HLA / MHC association discovery has led to better treatment or management?

If we discover an association between a disease and a particular HLA type (MHC class I or class II molecule) then it may provide us with some insight into the disease in a very basic way. However, ...
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Number of MHCs in neurons

I have read that neurons have proportionately less MHC molecules than other cells of the body. What is the advantage of this?
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Variation in MHC in humans

What evolutionary process lead to so much variation in MHC? What is the advantage of having such variation?
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A possible cause of autoimmunity

I read that Doherty and Zinkernagel found that MHC- heterozygotes present more antigens to the immune system than homozygotes; yet, the infected heterozygous mice in their experiment all ...
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Can antibodies be formed against white blood cells after blood transfusion?

If antibodies are produced against other blood groups' red blood cells, why can't antibodies form against white blood cells, of any blood group? (even the same one, as MHC will be different in almost ...
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555 views

Difference between viral and human genetic material

I have heard that there is a difference between viral and human genetic material. What is that difference? If I take my cells and take DNA out of them and insert only a small part of it having a ...
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Adaptability in immune system

I read somewhere that recently some people are trying to use harmless bacteria that live symbiotically in humans to express some portions of antigens of the harmful ones. Some people have raised ...
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Why do people have antibodies against other blood types?

The ABO blood type divides each blood type according to whether they have the "A" and "B" antigen(s) (AB has both, O has none). People also have antibodies against the antigens they don't have (AB has ...