The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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What is the purpose of requiring two separate binding systems for the antibody response?

I've read that in most cases, B-cell activation requires helper T-cells. This requires antigen binding by both antibodies and T-cell receptors, using two different antigen-binding proteins, ...
4
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2answers
116 views

Why don't antibodies generally bind to food and drugs?

Are these excluded thru central tolerance? What if you ingested something with a unique molecular structure that you hadn't ingested before?
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1answer
34 views

How to choose secondary Antibody?

when isotype of the Primary antibody is IgG2a (from Mouse) and IgG2b (from Rat), how to choose secondary Antibody against these Primary isotypes? Does secondary Antibody is that much specific to ...
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1answer
64 views

Engineered CD8 T-cell therapy for HIV infection

CD8 T-cells are effective in controlling HIV during the early phase of the infection. However by the time, the virus mutates and develops an evasion mechanism against CD8 T-cells. Since cancer cells ...
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3answers
286 views

What are the effects of removing CD4 receptors?

If the gene for the CD4 receptor was removed, would the person's immune system work normally? Could a new artificial receptor be substituted in place of CD4? Could HIV infection be prevented in this ...
4
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1answer
54 views

How is tolerance to an allergen developed?

My question is mainly about how allergy shots work. I did some basic research before posting here, however I could not find an explanation of what occurs at a cellular level. Is it the persistance ...
7
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1answer
358 views

What will happen if a foetus is Rh- and the mother is Rh+?

If a mother has Rh-negative blood and her foetus has Rh-positive blood it will result in rhesus incompatibility and lead to erythroblastosis fetalis. What will happen if the reverse occurs, when a ...
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0answers
26 views

Immunotherapy for tumours which do not have TSA

Is immunotherapy possible for tumours which do not have Tumour Specific Antigens (TSA)? If so, doesn't targeting those tumour cells also target other healthy cells, thus causing autoimmunity ?
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1answer
100 views

Why is the penicillin/ceftriaxone hypersensitivity test only done once?

I have had a severe bacterial infection. I was prescribed ceftriaxone, and when the time came for injecting it the nurse asked me whether I have an allergy to ceftriaxone. I answered that it's my ...
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79 views

Advocate for the pop-culture idea of withholding vaccination [closed]

While it is widely accepted that vaccination is preferable to not vaccinating, would anyone like to give a shot at providing evidence in favor of not vaccinating? Anything goes.
3
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73 views

Persistent HPV and CVD in Women?

Cardiovascular disease is the number one morbidity factor of women. I am studying the relationship between persistent HPV infection and CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) in inadequate immune responses. ...
4
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1answer
240 views

Why are some human injections intraperitoneal?

In humans, what benefit do intraperitoneal (IP) injections(old/cheap rabies vaccines, or cancer related injections) offer versus traditional intramuscular injections? For example, where I live, the ...
4
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1answer
84 views

Normal cells and the immune system [closed]

Normal or healthy cells have a natural ability to avoid being attacked by the immune system. So if a cancer cell has all inherited 'strategies' for avoiding the immune system (that are from their ...
3
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1answer
67 views

How does the immune system recognize pathogens?

There are useful and pathogenic bacteria in our body. How does the immune system differentiate between them?
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25 views

Toll Like Receptors Vs Toll Receptors

What are the major differences between them, apart from one being in humans and other in Drosophilla?
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42 views

Why does histamine release in Type I hypersensitivity help in case of parasites?

The IgE system exists because the same events which lead to often-life threatening complications of allergy, in presence of parasites are helpful in their elimination. The tissue injury mediated ...
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0answers
24 views

Pathogenesis of type IV hypersensitivity

In hypersensitivity, as I understand it, a normal immune response gets excessive, misdirected or wrongly regulated to cause tissue injury. The various types determine the various ways in which the ...
3
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1answer
53 views

Natural Killer Cell and Cancer

NK cells are very effective in destroying circulating cancer cells before their extravasation into the organ, However they have only a minimal inhibiting effect on already established micrometastases. ...
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2answers
76 views

What is the advantage of indirect ELISA over direct one?

I guess the answer is about indirect one giving less error due to selectivity but how exactly does that happen?
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0answers
41 views

Why are kidney discard rates so high?

A recent report from UNOS states: The kidney discard rate has returned to pre-KAS levels, dropping from 20.2 percent in the first six months to 18.4 percent in months 7-10. To me, this seems ...
4
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1answer
40 views

Textbook Recommendations Covering The Adaptive Immune System

I will soon begin work on a project about immunology. I would like to read more about the main mechanisms of the immune system. What books or articles could you recommend to me? In particular I am ...
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26 views

How can we improve the immune system [closed]

This is a theoretical question. How can we improve or modify the immune system, doesn't need to be practical but from an engineer's perspective how can the immune system be built better or what ...
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0answers
35 views

What does high CD4 level means?

I was going through this webpage and I found the following lines: We hypothesised that despite unimodal distribution of CD4 co-receptor on naïve CD4 T cells they are not homogenous in their ...
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0answers
15 views

Acute rejection in transplantation

For direct recognition in Acute rejection (type IV hypersensitivity), is it true that the recipient’s T cell can basically recognize the host’s MHC allotype, without the need for high affinity binding?...
3
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1answer
103 views

Loss of appetite during fever

It is a well-known phenomenon that sickness like the common flu is often accompanied by reduced appetite. Why do sick people stop eating?
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1answer
69 views

how body doesn't make antibodies against adjuvants of vaccine?

we know that all antigenic molecules don't have PRR on phagocytes and so they use an adjuvant that has a receptor for pattern recognation and fuse it with in order to phagocyte the antigen-adjuvant ...
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1answer
132 views

Is a variable domain in immunoglobulin's heavy chain different from the one in light chain?

I guess yes, there is difference in amino acid sequences of $V_L$ and $V_H$. And so we have 6 different complementarity determining regions (CDRs) per monomeric immunoglobulin as two heavy chains are ...
2
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1answer
29 views

Can specific B-cells be created in a lab? [closed]

Instead of creating protein sequences, could that stepped be skipped and just have B-cells created to manufacture a particular type of immunity?
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0answers
33 views

Why every Ab-Ag complex doesn't lead to anaphylatoxic shock?

if we know the background of hypersensitivitoy type 3 then this question arises. every complex should lead to anaphaylatoxic shock which is not a true statement. so then how all complexes which ...
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1answer
134 views

How plasma cells switches secreting different Ig classes?

In Type 1 hypersensitivity how do B lymphocytes switch Ig classes, from synthesizing IgG to IgE? What is the mechanism? I studied multiple pathology books, it says the same as for IgG secreting ...
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1answer
484 views

Can people with AIDS get a fever?

It's my understanding that fevers are an immune system response to infection. Like the body's cells can take more heat than most viruses or bacteria. So if that's the case then can you even get a ...
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2answers
83 views

Why APC's present antigen to T cells?

the macrophages are pretty known well for antigen presenting process and to present the antigens which are bound to pathogens unlike exotoxins (which are free) the pathogen first should be digested ...
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0answers
475 views

Why do some white blood cells have lobed nuclei?

Several types of white blood cells (eg Neutrophils) have lobed nuclei. Is this for a functional reason? I have seen people refer to structural differences in the lobes as indicative of problems, but ...
7
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1answer
921 views

Why is an HIV infection considered “incurable”?

My biology teacher told me that if one caught HIV, they cannot be cured because it was near to impossible to be completely virus-free. She said this was because HIV keeps on changing its glycoprotein ...
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1answer
86 views

What are the major steps of follicular B cell development

This is a learning objective in my curriculum, and after having spent two hours trying to answer it for myself using official course resources (many of which are online, but some of which are behind ...
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2answers
115 views

Specificity of the adaptive lymphocytes

T cells are known for their ability to bind multiple antigens, owing to the degeneracy of the recognition sites on their receptors. [I] When examining the structure of the T cell receptor, we can ...
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1answer
22 views

use of adjuvants and peptides in modern vaccines?

when preparation of modern vaccines we generally use a part of the microbe or the antigen such as polysaccharides to create an effective vaccine against the vaccine. so when the preparation of sub ...
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88 views

immune response towards sperm cells

Question 1: Why does the immune system not act on sperm cells as sperm cells are developed after puberty? Question 2: Does immune response occur when a person's own cells are injected inside their ...
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1answer
190 views

Why do doctors still advise HIV+ couples to wear a condom during sex?

HIV infected people already have HIV, but why do doctors still advise condom use for HIV+ couples?
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1answer
133 views

What do the names of Immunoglobulin subtypes mean? [closed]

What is the exact meaning and full form of IgM IgG IgA etc? What is the rationale behind the names of the isotypes, if there is one? For example, what does "M" mean in IgM?
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2answers
68 views

Organ donation compatibility based on DNA

As far as I know, multiple tests are made before organ transplant to determine matching. Would it be possible to do the matching based on the DNA of the patients, rather than the actual serum antigen/...
3
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1answer
89 views

What happens to the excess immune cells or WBC in our body?

When we have an infection our immune system produces a large amount of white blood cells (WBCs) in our body to fight against the pathogen or parasite. My question is after the immune response has ...
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1answer
569 views

Doubts regarding definition of upstream/downstream genes and cognate protein

With respect to the research paper, there are a few things I didn't understand: 1. What is upstream and downstream gene 2. This paper identifies proteins that help in secretion, but does not identify ...
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0answers
90 views

Listing Cluster of Differentiation (CD) markers (immunology)

I hope this question is appropriate for this SE. When listing multiple cluster of differentiation (CD) markers to define a cell population, e.g. CD3+CD8+CD45+CD4-, is there a default order to put them ...
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2answers
585 views

Can people with AIDS get tattoos?

When I do a Google search, most of the results are about whether or not people can get HIV / AIDS from getting a tattoo through dirt needles. I am, however, curious whether or not it is possible to ...
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45 views

How does drug-induced photosensitivity work?

Some drugs (tetracyclines, for instance) can cause photosensitivity reactions—that is, some patients become extremely sensitive to the sun, developing rashes or inflammation after spending time ...
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2answers
238 views

If Tumors have lots of mutations in them how is it the immune system can't detect them?

If a cancerous tumor has a lot of mutations in them why can't the immune system detect them? If a person has cancer could this somehow alter the person's immune system so it doesn't function ...
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2answers
22 views

What are blood group determinants? [closed]

I am trying to understand if they are the same as the blood antigens. The books I have tried to read say something about them being the antigens on the surface of the red blood cell.
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27 views

Do bacteria develop a resistance to antimicrobial peptides at the same rate as against “regular” antibiotics?

From what I understand, antimicrobial peptides are roughly grouped into three structural sets, with large variations present between different groups as well as within the groups. Their anti-microbial ...
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0answers
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Are there any auto-immune diseases caused by T cells not detaching from antigen presenting cells (APCs)?

By not detaching I'm referring to after they have formed an immunological synapse, if they don't ever detach.