The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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how body doesn't make antibodies against adjuvants of vaccine?

we know that all antigenic molecules don't have PRR on phagocytes and so they use an adjuvant that has a receptor for pattern recognation and fuse it with in order to phagocyte the antigen-adjuvant ...
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105 views

Is a variable domain in immunoglobulin's heavy chain different from the one in light chain?

I guess yes, there is difference in amino acid sequences of $V_L$ and $V_H$. And so we have 6 different complementarity determining regions (CDRs) per monomeric immunoglobulin as two heavy chains are ...
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29 views

Can specific B-cells be created in a lab? [closed]

Instead of creating protein sequences, could that stepped be skipped and just have B-cells created to manufacture a particular type of immunity?
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32 views

Why every Ab-Ag complex doesn't lead to anaphylatoxic shock?

if we know the background of hypersensitivitoy type 3 then this question arises. every complex should lead to anaphaylatoxic shock which is not a true statement. so then how all complexes which ...
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112 views

How plasma cells switches secreting different Ig classes?

In Type 1 hypersensitivity how do B lymphocytes switch Ig classes, from synthesizing IgG to IgE? What is the mechanism? I studied multiple pathology books, it says the same as for IgG secreting ...
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475 views

Can people with AIDS get a fever?

It's my understanding that fevers are an immune system response to infection. Like the body's cells can take more heat than most viruses or bacteria. So if that's the case then can you even get a ...
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80 views

Why APC's present antigen to T cells?

the macrophages are pretty known well for antigen presenting process and to present the antigens which are bound to pathogens unlike exotoxins (which are free) the pathogen first should be digested ...
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331 views

Why do some white blood cells have lobed nuclei?

Several types of white blood cells (eg Neutrophils) have lobed nuclei. Is this for a functional reason? I have seen people refer to structural differences in the lobes as indicative of problems, but ...
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574 views

Why is an HIV infection considered “incurable”?

My biology teacher told me that if one caught HIV, they cannot be cured because it was near to impossible to be completely virus-free. She said this was because HIV keeps on changing its glycoprotein ...
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72 views

What are the major steps of follicular B cell development

This is a learning objective in my curriculum, and after having spent two hours trying to answer it for myself using official course resources (many of which are online, but some of which are behind ...
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Specificity of the adaptive lymphocytes

T cells are known for their ability to bind multiple antigens, owing to the degeneracy of the recognition sites on their receptors. [I] When examining the structure of the T cell receptor, we can ...
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20 views

use of adjuvants and peptides in modern vaccines?

when preparation of modern vaccines we generally use a part of the microbe or the antigen such as polysaccharides to create an effective vaccine against the vaccine. so when the preparation of sub ...
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immune response towards sperm cells

Question 1: Why does the immune system not act on sperm cells as sperm cells are developed after puberty? Question 2: Does immune response occur when a person's own cells are injected inside their ...
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177 views

Why do doctors still advise HIV+ couples to wear a condom during sex?

HIV infected people already have HIV, but why do doctors still advise condom use for HIV+ couples?
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115 views

What do the names of Immunoglobulin subtypes mean? [closed]

What is the exact meaning and full form of IgM IgG IgA etc? What is the rationale behind the names of the isotypes, if there is one? For example, what does "M" mean in IgM?
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64 views

Organ donation compatibility based on DNA

As far as I know, multiple tests are made before organ transplant to determine matching. Would it be possible to do the matching based on the DNA of the patients, rather than the actual serum ...
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81 views

What happens to the excess immune cells or WBC in our body?

When we have an infection our immune system produces a large amount of white blood cells (WBCs) in our body to fight against the pathogen or parasite. My question is after the immune response has ...
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391 views

Doubts regarding definition of upstream/downstream genes and cognate protein

With respect to the research paper, there are a few things I didn't understand: 1. What is upstream and downstream gene 2. This paper identifies proteins that help in secretion, but does not identify ...
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Listing Cluster of Differentiation (CD) markers (immunology)

I hope this question is appropriate for this SE. When listing multiple cluster of differentiation (CD) markers to define a cell population, e.g. CD3+CD8+CD45+CD4-, is there a default order to put them ...
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529 views

Can people with AIDS get tattoos?

When I do a Google search, most of the results are about whether or not people can get HIV / AIDS from getting a tattoo through dirt needles. I am, however, curious whether or not it is possible to ...
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How does drug-induced photosensitivity work?

Some drugs (tetracyclines, for instance) can cause photosensitivity reactions—that is, some patients become extremely sensitive to the sun, developing rashes or inflammation after spending time ...
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If Tumors have lots of mutations in them how is it the immune system can't detect them?

If a cancerous tumor has a lot of mutations in them why can't the immune system detect them? If a person has cancer could this somehow alter the person's immune system so it doesn't function ...
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20 views

What are blood group determinants? [closed]

I am trying to understand if they are the same as the blood antigens. The books I have tried to read say something about them being the antigens on the surface of the red blood cell.
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Do bacteria develop a resistance to antimicrobial peptides at the same rate as against “regular” antibiotics?

From what I understand, antimicrobial peptides are roughly grouped into three structural sets, with large variations present between different groups as well as within the groups. Their anti-microbial ...
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Are there any auto-immune diseases caused by T cells not detaching from antigen presenting cells (APCs)?

By not detaching I'm referring to after they have formed an immunological synapse, if they don't ever detach.
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Lack of A/B-antigen equivalent to Rhesus disease

Rhesus disease occurs when an Rh- mother is exposed to Rh antigens (often due to blood contact with an Rh+ child during delivery) and mounts an immune response which eventually results in the ...
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70 views

How long does it take unused antibodies to clear the system?

Say you have the flu and a normal immune system. Now you're all better but your antibody level is still elevated. How long does it take for those antibody levels to go back to a base value?
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Why does T-cell Cancer Therapy require a large tumor mutanome?

An article I read about Neuroblastoma states that the fact that Neuroblstoma has a small mutanome means that it is not viable to apply the classic T-cell immunotherapy. Why is this so? The article can ...
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Is MHC1 knockout sufficient to prevent transplant rejection?

A few days ago I read about MHC1 knockout pigs for organ transplantation research. I was just wondering, is it enough to knock out MHC1 in the donor (lets say from same species, pig to pig) for ...
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Differences in structural target for LPS detection by LAL and MD-2/TLR4

I remember there being a significant difference in the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) used for detection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by mammalian cells and the Limulus amoebocyte ...
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94 views

How does Celiac's Disease cause people to stop growing?

In all of the sites I've looked on, one of the symptoms of Celiac's Disease is the failure to grow in children. Why would an immune attack against gluten cause stunted growth? Celiac.org states: ...
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Is the immune system suppressed during sleep?

Of course we have heard that during stress our immune system is suppressed. This leads me to wonder, does the immune system get suppressed when we are sleeping and why? During both these conditions ...
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175 views

Which process is right to describe V(D)J recombination? RAG-1 and RSS recurring process

I'm studying V(D)J recombination. I think I have two incompatible books about explantaion of the process. Which is right? In Molecular Biology of the Cell 5th Ed., firstly RAG (-1?) combines to RSSs ...
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176 views

What is the impact of sertraline on white blood cells?

This simplified video and RT.com article discusses how the mechanics of the death of a white blood cell can be useful as an "alert mechanism" to other white blood cells of an incoming infection. Also ...
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Can suppression of the immune system help cure chronic diseases?

I am not a biologist, but recently while reading an article on Scholarpedia about self-organization I encountered a fascinating biological observation concerning immune response to infections. To ...
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33 views

What is self-immunoreactivity?

I read something like "some tested variants show self-immunoreactivity". So, what exacly is self-immunoreactivity? Is it something like antibodies induced by a specific variant showing ...
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60 views

Why “broad” instead of “large” cross-immunoreactivity? [closed]

From the articles I read, expressions like "broad cross-immunoreactivity" pops up a lot. So, I was wondering, why "broad" is used here instead of large? Is there a specific reason?
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Terminology regarding cross-immunoreactivity

After reading an article, I saw expressions like "cross-immunoreactivity among epitopes", "cross-immunoreactivity among variants of virus", "immunological reactions among pairs of peptides" and so on. ...
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What is cross-immunoreactivity, and how does it impact vaccine development?

What I understand about cross-immunoreactivity is that the antibody induced by one specific antigen is also fairly effective against another antigen. How would this be used for vaccine development? ...
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How is cancer associated with host pathogen interaction?

Does cancer by any chance fall under host pathogen interaction domain? What I mean to ask is that, is there pathogen interaction involved in cancer? I went through this article: ...
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81 views

White blood: cells concentration

Anyone knows of a table with average concentration that can be found in white blood? Something like: Neutrophils - 80% Mast cells - ?% Dendritic cells - ?% B cells - ?% Helper T cells - ?% Killer ...
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Why MHC class I antigen presentation exist in normal cells?

The book "Kuby Immunology" states that normal infected cells might present antigenic peptides on their surface via MHC class I, but these can't activate naive CD8 cells. Only infected professional ...
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Why some parts of the human body have immune privilege?

Why have the eye and CNS have immune privilege? Why does the body not develop tolerance against their tissue and instead risk their damage in case an accidental immune cell infiltration? Wiki: ...
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Specificity of the immune system

We know that the adaptive immune system recognizes foreign particles when their proteins are expessed of the the surface of T-cells, complexed with MHCs. But MHCs present only short peptides of length ...
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1k views

Magnetic-activated cell sorting vs. FACS

When sorting cell populations it is possible to use either magnetic-activated cell sorting or fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS). I am wondering when you would choose either technique and what ...
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Why are people unable to develop lasting immunity against Norovirus?

Infection with many viruses will result in decades-long if not lifetime immunity, for example chicken pox. Because of the large number of viruses responsible for the common cold, lifelong immunity to ...
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Can leukopenia in a person with an otherwise normal immune system lead to non-infectious diseases in the long-term?

If a person has developed leukopenia as a side-effect of long-term use of anti-convulsant medications and his/her immune system appears normal otherwise (does not get infections any more often than a ...
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Further progression with neuroscience education [closed]

Question for you I hope this is in the right area and all if not please advise on where to put it, Having taken biological neuroscience for a year now as a masters program I feel like I want to go ...
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818 views

What is the function of dendritic cell in immunity?

I'm interested in how dendritic cells present antigens to helper T-cells? I'm also interested in the molecular actions between a dendritic cell and a helper T-cell during the activation of the helper ...
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Why can we use mouse-produced antibodies on mice tissues?

I have seen biologists use mouse grown primary antibodies in mouse tissue, and they've told me that if the blood is perfused well then there is no problem with this method. How does the secondary ...