The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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Organ donation compatibility based on DNA

As far as I know, multiple tests are made before organ transplant to determine matching. Would it be possible to do the matching based on the DNA of the patients, rather than the actual serum antigen/...
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1answer
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What happens to the excess immune cells or WBC in our body?

When we have an infection our immune system produces a large amount of white blood cells (WBCs) in our body to fight against the pathogen or parasite. My question is after the immune response has ...
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1answer
516 views

Doubts regarding definition of upstream/downstream genes and cognate protein

With respect to the research paper, there are a few things I didn't understand: 1. What is upstream and downstream gene 2. This paper identifies proteins that help in secretion, but does not identify ...
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Listing Cluster of Differentiation (CD) markers (immunology)

I hope this question is appropriate for this SE. When listing multiple cluster of differentiation (CD) markers to define a cell population, e.g. CD3+CD8+CD45+CD4-, is there a default order to put them ...
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371 views

Modern immunology textbooks

I am looking for recommendations to good textbooks introducing modern immunology. Review articles, preferably modern (post 2000) would also be useful. Please, include a brief comment with each book ...
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120 views

What is cross-immunoreactivity, and how does it impact vaccine development?

What I understand about cross-immunoreactivity is that the antibody induced by one specific antigen is also fairly effective against another antigen. How would this be used for vaccine development? ...
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How does drug-induced photosensitivity work?

Some drugs (tetracyclines, for instance) can cause photosensitivity reactions—that is, some patients become extremely sensitive to the sun, developing rashes or inflammation after spending time ...
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55 views

Is viral protein expression important for peptide vaccine?

I would like to know if proteins expressed in higher quantities, such as DNA polymerase, would be better vaccine candidates for a T-cell based vaccine.
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228 views

If Tumors have lots of mutations in them how is it the immune system can't detect them?

If a cancerous tumor has a lot of mutations in them why can't the immune system detect them? If a person has cancer could this somehow alter the person's immune system so it doesn't function ...
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1answer
76 views

How long does it take unused antibodies to clear the system?

Say you have the flu and a normal immune system. Now you're all better but your antibody level is still elevated. How long does it take for those antibody levels to go back to a base value?
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22 views

What are blood group determinants? [closed]

I am trying to understand if they are the same as the blood antigens. The books I have tried to read say something about them being the antigens on the surface of the red blood cell.
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2answers
234 views

Binding of Multivalent Antibody to mutiple epitopes?

A multivalent antibody molecule such as Immunoglobulin M Immunoglobulin A etc bind to more than one antigens or epitopes but I am confused about that wheather these multivalent antibodies bind to ...
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363 views

If all B cells are present at birth, why should the primary response to an infection take longer than the secondary response?

When learning about the immune response, my teacher mentioned that all the bodies B cells are present at birth, and there is one to counter every disease. But if this is the case, why should the ...
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Do bacteria develop a resistance to antimicrobial peptides at the same rate as against “regular” antibiotics?

From what I understand, antimicrobial peptides are roughly grouped into three structural sets, with large variations present between different groups as well as within the groups. Their anti-microbial ...
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Are there any auto-immune diseases caused by T cells not detaching from antigen presenting cells (APCs)?

By not detaching I'm referring to after they have formed an immunological synapse, if they don't ever detach.
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1answer
162 views

Lack of A/B-antigen equivalent to Rhesus disease

Rhesus disease occurs when an Rh- mother is exposed to Rh antigens (often due to blood contact with an Rh+ child during delivery) and mounts an immune response which eventually results in the ...
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1answer
62 views

Is MHC1 knockout sufficient to prevent transplant rejection?

A few days ago I read about MHC1 knockout pigs for organ transplantation research. I was just wondering, is it enough to knock out MHC1 in the donor (lets say from same species, pig to pig) for ...
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1answer
24k views

At what age do babies begin to synthesize their own antibodies?

When babies are first born, they receive their antibodies from their mother (I assume because they do not yet have the capacity to synthesize their own). So my question is, at what age do babies ...
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1answer
134 views

Why does T-cell Cancer Therapy require a large tumor mutanome?

An article I read about Neuroblastoma states that the fact that Neuroblstoma has a small mutanome means that it is not viable to apply the classic T-cell immunotherapy. Why is this so? The article can ...
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What is the distinction between chemokines, cytokines, interferons and interleukins?

They all seem to describe molecules of similar function and many people seem to use them interchangeably. Also please include any other similar molecules if I've forgotten any in the list above.
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Differences in structural target for LPS detection by LAL and MD-2/TLR4

I remember there being a significant difference in the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) used for detection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by mammalian cells and the Limulus amoebocyte ...
2
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1answer
99 views

How does Celiac's Disease cause people to stop growing?

In all of the sites I've looked on, one of the symptoms of Celiac's Disease is the failure to grow in children. Why would an immune attack against gluten cause stunted growth? Celiac.org states: ...
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1answer
78 views

Is the immune system suppressed during sleep?

Of course we have heard that during stress our immune system is suppressed. This leads me to wonder, does the immune system get suppressed when we are sleeping and why? During both these conditions ...
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2answers
463 views

Why can we use mouse-produced antibodies on mice tissues?

I have seen biologists use mouse grown primary antibodies in mouse tissue, and they've told me that if the blood is perfused well then there is no problem with this method. How does the secondary ...
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1answer
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What is the impact of sertraline on white blood cells?

This simplified video and RT.com article discusses how the mechanics of the death of a white blood cell can be useful as an "alert mechanism" to other white blood cells of an incoming infection. Also ...
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1answer
814 views

How and when did a dedicated immune system evolve?

I have recently been doing a lot of research into the interplay between the innate and adaptive immune systems in humans, and mammalian laboratory models. This has led to my reading some interesting ...
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112 views

Can suppression of the immune system help cure chronic diseases?

I am not a biologist, but recently while reading an article on Scholarpedia about self-organization I encountered a fascinating biological observation concerning immune response to infections. To ...
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Why do I need a flu shot every year, while many other vaccinations last years or even a lifetime?

Is it a viral vs. bacterial thing? Is there just more variety among types of flu than other diseases, so that this year's vaccines don't cover next year's flu?
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4answers
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True or False: Vaccines are designed to protect against invaders that are encountered rarely, not all the time

I read the following statement in this article: Vaccines are designed to protect against invaders that are encountered rarely - not all the time Is it true? If yes, why?
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Why “broad” instead of “large” cross-immunoreactivity? [closed]

From the articles I read, expressions like "broad cross-immunoreactivity" pops up a lot. So, I was wondering, why "broad" is used here instead of large? Is there a specific reason?
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1answer
33 views

What is self-immunoreactivity?

I read something like "some tested variants show self-immunoreactivity". So, what exacly is self-immunoreactivity? Is it something like antibodies induced by a specific variant showing ...
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1answer
37 views

Terminology regarding cross-immunoreactivity

After reading an article, I saw expressions like "cross-immunoreactivity among epitopes", "cross-immunoreactivity among variants of virus", "immunological reactions among pairs of peptides" and so on. ...
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2answers
4k views

Multi-nucleated cells: advantages and examples?

This question arises because I saw that monocytes and leukocytes are commonly called 'mononuclear cells' in the scientific literature. The implication of course being that other immune sub-types are ...
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1answer
100 views

How is cancer associated with host pathogen interaction?

Does cancer by any chance fall under host pathogen interaction domain? What I mean to ask is that, is there pathogen interaction involved in cancer? I went through this article: http://en.wikipedia....
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611 views

Why some parts of the human body have immune privilege?

Why have the eye and CNS have immune privilege? Why does the body not develop tolerance against their tissue and instead risk their damage in case an accidental immune cell infiltration? Wiki: ......
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White blood: cells concentration

Anyone knows of a table with average concentration that can be found in white blood? Something like: Neutrophils - 80% Mast cells - ?% Dendritic cells - ?% B cells - ?% Helper T cells - ?% Killer ...
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1answer
62 views

Why MHC class I antigen presentation exist in normal cells?

The book "Kuby Immunology" states that normal infected cells might present antigenic peptides on their surface via MHC class I, but these can't activate naive CD8 cells. Only infected professional ...
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2answers
389 views

Specificity of the immune system

We know that the adaptive immune system recognizes foreign particles when their proteins are expessed of the the surface of T-cells, complexed with MHCs. But MHCs present only short peptides of length ...
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1answer
1k views

Magnetic-activated cell sorting vs. FACS

When sorting cell populations it is possible to use either magnetic-activated cell sorting or fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS). I am wondering when you would choose either technique and what ...
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1answer
387 views

Agglutination test using antibodies

Agglutination test Latex agglutination using bound antigens : by coating soluble (non - particulate ) antigens on to microscopic latex spheres, their reaction with a particular antibody can be ...
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7k views

What cells would have the CD3 marker on them (other than T-cells)

Do you know of any peripheral blood mononuclear cells that would express any amount (beit low or high) of CD3 on their surface (other than T-cells)?
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1answer
276 views

Why are people unable to develop lasting immunity against Norovirus?

Infection with many viruses will result in decades-long if not lifetime immunity, for example chicken pox. Because of the large number of viruses responsible for the common cold, lifelong immunity to ...
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1answer
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B-cell and T-cell activation by parasites

Parasitic infections lead to the production of parasite-specific IgE, but they also lead to the activation of nonspecific, polyclonal B-cells and T-cells. How do parasites trigger non-specific ...
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Can leukopenia in a person with an otherwise normal immune system lead to non-infectious diseases in the long-term?

If a person has developed leukopenia as a side-effect of long-term use of anti-convulsant medications and his/her immune system appears normal otherwise (does not get infections any more often than a ...
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Further progression with neuroscience education [closed]

Question for you I hope this is in the right area and all if not please advise on where to put it, Having taken biological neuroscience for a year now as a masters program I feel like I want to go ...
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1answer
894 views

What is the function of dendritic cell in immunity?

I'm interested in how dendritic cells present antigens to helper T-cells? I'm also interested in the molecular actions between a dendritic cell and a helper T-cell during the activation of the helper ...
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1answer
77 views

MHC restricted peptide

What is an MHC restricted peptide? I got this definition from wikipaedia, but cannot exactly extract what the phrase MHC restricted peptide means. MHC-restricted antigen recognition, or MHC ...
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1answer
337 views

Why do some vaccines last longer than others?

After reading an answer to the question of How Do White Blood Cells Learn? Or Do They?, I came to wonder something. Specifically, The effect of this is that every new B and T cell that your bone ...
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2answers
327 views

Is it possible to train allergic resistance by exposing yourself to allergens?

My hypothesis is that one can decrease the allergic reactions over time by continuously exposing yourself to slowly increasing doses of allergens. Is there any scientific evidence pointing this right ...
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What is NK-cell compartments?

with respect to the paper: Adaptive reconfiguration of the human NK-cell compartment in response to cytomegalovirus: A different perspective of the host-pathogen interaction What is meant by NK-...