The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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What is the genetic basis of blood type (ABO) system?

What is the genetic basis of the A/B/B+/O/etc. blood type system? Are there definitive loci that correspond to each or can multiple different genotypes produce the same antigen profile? Also, is the ...
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How does the immune system distinguish own and foreign antibodies?

Therapeutic antibodies, for example Rituximab which recognises CD20 on B lymphoma cells, can cause adverse effects (e.g. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19399690) One reason behind these adverse ...
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116 views

How to evaluate the efficacy of an antibody for fluorescence microscopy?

I'm trying to evaluate data taken from fluorescence microscopy with antibody staining, and am wondering whether there is any standard way to evaluate the specificity of the antibody for such ...
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Can suppression of the immune system help cure chronic diseases?

I am not a biologist, but recently while reading an article on Scholarpedia about self-organization I encountered a fascinating biological observation concerning immune response to infections. To ...
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90 views

Why can we use mouse-produced antibodies on mice tissues?

I have seen biologists use mouse grown primary antibodies in mouse tissue, and they've told me that if the blood is perfused well then there is no problem with this method. How does the secondary ...
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Why are sperm cells not attacked by the female immune system? [duplicate]

Whenever a foreign particle enters into someone's body, it is attacked by the white blood cells. I just want how it is that, when sperms enter the female body, they are not attacked by the the woman's ...
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how do macrophages have the capacity to digest pathogen in opsonization

how do macrophages have the capacity to digest pathogen in opsonization but not in the first time when the pathogen is new and they play the role of antigen presenting cells(APCs) first ...
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54 views

B-cell and T-cell activation by parasites

Parasitic infections lead to the production of parasite-specific IgE, but they also lead to the activation of nonspecific, polyclonal B-cells and T-cells. How do parasites trigger non-specific ...
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65 views

SEREX serological analysis of cDNA expression library

What is Serological Analysis of cDNA expression library? I went through this article:http://cancerimmunity.org/serex/introduction/ but could not really make out. Can someone please explain this to me ...
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multiple HIV infection in same T cell

I was wondering can multiple HIV virus infecting same T cell ? Coz in flu virus they have SA to cleave of those sialic acid residue preventing re-infection of the same cell by other viruses to ...
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60 views

How specific is the adaptive immune response?

When you read about the adaptive immune response, you are often told that the response is specific to each pathogen - that the response is tailored. My question is - to what extent is this really ...
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Functioning of BCG vaccine

I read (from Nature Volume507, S4–S7 (06 March 2014) : For reasons that are poorly understood, BCG protects only infants; it is ineffective in older children and adults. Its efficacy also ...
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Number of MHCs in neurons

I have read that neurons have proportionately less MHC molecules than other cells of the body. What is the advantage of this?
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Can you cure allergies?

A common solution is allergy shots, which helps you adapt to the allergy. But are there ways to tell the body that this allergy is safe and there is no need to amount a response to it? So that there ...
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31 views

Is MHC1 knockout sufficient to prevent transplant rejection?

A few days ago I read about MHC1 knockout pigs for organ transplantation research. I was just wondering, is it enough to knock out MHC1 in the donor (lets say from same species, pig to pig) for ...
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89 views

How to inhibit formation of specific antibodies (to antisera)?

Is there a way to inhibit an antibody response to a specific antigen using immunosupression? I am interested in reducing the anti-antibody formation to animal antibodies such as murine antibodies in ...
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Action of Ebola Viruses

This video suggests that the first cell to be the victim of viral infection of ebola is the dendritic cell which acts as the leader of immune system cells.But I am unable to understand how the ...
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Why cytotoxic T cells don't kill dendritic cells when they present antigen?

When a cytotoxic T cell (CTL) recognizes a peptide presented in the MHC-1 of a dendritic cell (APC), why it doesn't kill this cell? I know that initially, in the lymph node, the T cell is ...
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245 views

Dimerization of Immunoglobulin G

I would like to know the specific determinants for formation of IgG dimers. My understanding is the stem of the antibody is a homodimer of two heavy chains, covalently bonded through two disulfide ...
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How does your body ultimately recover from a cold?

Is it the eradication of the virus (assuming rhinovirus) by white blood cells? Or does your body somehow adapt to presence of the virus?
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Thymus and maternal microchimerism

I read in Bruce Alberts Molecular Biology of The Cell : ....If,however,cells from one strain of mouse are introduced into a neonatal mouse of another strain , some of these cells survive for most ...
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How long does it take unused antibodies to clear the system?

Say you have the flu and a normal immune system. Now you're all better but your antibody level is still elevated. How long does it take for those antibody levels to go back to a base value?
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Human leukocytes (re)circulation/migration in homeostatic state

One can easily find information on the topic of leukocytes trafficking between vessels and peripheral tissues during inflammation. But what happens during normal states when there is no pathology? ...
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eradicating h.pylori naturally

This question is not to discuss whether substances with anti-h.pylori agents works or not, or the pros and cons of such but from a medical perspective. Assuming that one manage to control, reduce, or ...
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What does the term 'epitope mapping' mean? [closed]

Epitope mapping means identifying the binding site of antibodies on the target antigen. This means that the site to be identified is part of the antigen and not antibody, am I right?
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Adenosine metabolism

Are adenosine or its catabolites increased in inflamed airways? How can I assess this? I am trying to use inhibitors for adenosine deaminase, xanthine oxidase, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, but ...
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Why “broad” instead of “large” cross-immunoreactivity? [closed]

From the articles I read, expressions like "broad cross-immunoreactivity" pops up a lot. So, I was wondering, why "broad" is used here instead of large? Is there a specific reason?
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peptide MHC microarray

"The recent technology is peptide–MHC microarray or artificial antigen-presenting chip. In this technique, recombinant peptide–MHC complexes and co-stimulatory molecules are immobilized on a ...
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Anti-antibodies for preventing transplant rejection

Transplanted organs from the donor are attacked by antibodies from the recepient. So can't we construct anti-antibodies and destroy specifically those antibodies which are causing the rejections ? ...
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What is self-immunoreactivity?

I read something like "some tested variants show self-immunoreactivity". So, what exacly is self-immunoreactivity? Is it something like antibodies induced by a specific variant showing ...
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Why Rh conflict happen but no ABO conflicts?

I wonder why Rhesus conflict can happen during pregnancy and mother can make antibodies against Rh protein (I think the correct name is D protein), but it doesn't happen if mother has different ABO ...
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Can antibodies be formed against white blood cells after blood transfusion?

If antibodies are produced against other blood groups' red blood cells, why can't antibodies form against white blood cells, of any blood group? (even the same one, as MHC will be different in almost ...
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White blood: cells concentration

Anyone knows of a table with average concentration that can be found in white blood? Something like: Neutrophils - 80% Mast cells - ?% Dendritic cells - ?% B cells - ?% Helper T cells - ?% Killer ...
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Transfer of antibodies in breast milk of humans

Why isn't the IgA secreted in breast milk digested due to proteases of the digestive system in the baby? Wikipedia says: The secretory component of sIgA protects the immunoglobulin from being ...
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Up to date B cell review

Where would I find an up to date (last 6-7 years max) review on B cells? I've tried searching through pubmed with filters, cochrane library, medline and various other resources including searching old ...
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Why does T-cell Cancer Therapy require a large tumor mutanome?

An article I read about Neuroblastoma states that the fact that Neuroblstoma has a small mutanome means that it is not viable to apply the classic T-cell immunotherapy. Why is this so? The article can ...
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What are host cellular factors?

With respect to this paper: Global Analysis of Host-Pathogen Interactions that Regulate Early-Stage HIV-1 Replication What does the term "host cellular factors" mean??
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Are we more/less resistant to infectious diseases during an allergic reaction?

To my understanding, an allergic response is a non-adaptive response of the immune system to some molecule. The molecule in question is therefore "thought by the immune system" to be infectious ...
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epitope prediction/ mapping

B-CELL EPITOPE PREDICTION Regarding this article: "Such a molecule can be synthesized or, in case of a protein, its gene can be cloned into an expression vector."----- is a particular line in ...
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Immunodominant Peptide

Can someone please explain me the concept of Immunodominant peptide in simple language?? I did read the wiki article but did not understand it clearly. Please help! (I have not studied biology since ...
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Calibration curve for single radial immunodiffusion

When we draw a calibration curve for single radial immunodiffusion, the curve does not pass through origin. Instead, there is a y intercept. Why does that happen ? Shouldn't zero antigen give zero ...
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Do T-cells express MHC molecules?

T-cells recognize the MHC molecules and body's own peptides. When it doesn't, it alarms the immune system. But do T-cells express MHC molecules ? If so, how are they using it? If not, what happens ...
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463 views

Can the RNA in the HIV virus make viral enzymes without entering the nucleus?

If the provirus was not formed yet, can the virus make viral enzymes? (I know that it already has some, but supposing it doesn't)
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Is it possible to train allergic resistance by exposing yourself to allergens?

My hypothesis is that one can decrease the allergic reactions over time by continuously exposing yourself to slowly increasing doses of allergens. Is there any scientific evidence pointing this right ...
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Food allergen-related skin reactions and intestinal inflammation?

Are there any connections between food allergen-related skin reactions causing intestinal (or more broadly, gastrointestinal) generalized inflammation? If such a link exists, is it related to any of ...
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345 views

Difference between sequential and conformational epitope

Is the difference only in its structure? Like conformational epitope has 3D structure while sequential has a linear structure?(I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going through ...
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Is a naive immune system equally able to handle new antigens as an educated one?

This is a variation of the "does the immune system run out of memory" question. Here's a (possibly imperfect) thought experiment: You take two twins. One of them lives in a bubble from birth. One of ...
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Allergic rhinitis vaccine

Note : Any answer to this question will not be (and should not be) taken as medical advice. One of my friends has allergic rhinitis and has been prescribed an oral vaccine. He is allergic to 3 ...
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Why are haploid cancer cells not killed by immune system?

I have seen haploid cancer cells (I think it was leukemia cells) in a lab. Sperms and eggs are haploid but are not destroyed by the body because they are protected by other cells surrounding them. ...
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Can more than one antibody bind the same antigen

I'd like to clear something up about antibodies that I'm not sure I've understood in the articles I've read. Looking at concepts such as "affinity maturation", "monovalent antigens" and "polyvalent ...