The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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What are host cellular factors?

With respect to this paper: Global Analysis of Host-Pathogen Interactions that Regulate Early-Stage HIV-1 Replication What does the term "host cellular factors" mean??
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How Do White Blood Cells Learn? Or Do They?

So I get the concept that a vaccine is a weakened form of a virus so that the body can "learn" to fight it and make a person immune to that disease, but how exactly does this learning take place? What ...
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What makes substances allergenic?

Is it possible to tell or rule out (potentially a priori) whether any given substance or compound is likely and how likely to cause allergies with high confidence, without the need to conduct ...
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Human leukocytes (re)circulation/migration in homeostatic state

One can easily find information on the topic of leukocytes trafficking between vessels and peripheral tissues during inflammation. But what happens during normal states when there is no pathology? ...
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127 views

what does Pro→Glu substitution mean?

Considering the paper: A single amino acid in E-cadherin responsible for host specificity towards the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the abstract portion, what does Pro→Glu mean? Does it ...
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Why White Blood Cells (WBCs) do not react to foreign bodies like sperm?

Why do the white blood cells allow foreign bodies like sperm to exist inside body cavity without any reaction? White blood cells function is to fight against foreign bodies (from the text books).
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Why are sperm cells not attacked by the female immune system? [duplicate]

Whenever a foreign particle enters into someone's body, it is attacked by the white blood cells. I just want how it is that, when sperms enter the female body, they are not attacked by the the woman's ...
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54 views

What is a positive epitope fragment

What is a positive epitope fragment? I found one paper on the subject: COBEpro: a novel system for predicting continuous B-cell epitopes by Michael J. Sweredoski and Pierre Baldi
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238 views

how do macrophages have the capacity to digest pathogen in opsonization

how do macrophages have the capacity to digest pathogen in opsonization but not in the first time when the pathogen is new and they play the role of antigen presenting cells(APCs) first ...
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Immunomic Microarray

"One can measure two or more signals simultaneously determined by a single feature, i.e., epitope in immunomic microarray DNA microarrays measure one response value for each gene per sample; that is,...
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Why can blood group O be given to all blood groups?

Blood group O has antibodies against antigens A and B. Blood group A has A antigen. If someone with blood group A receives donor blood with group O, then anti-A antibodies in the donor blood should ...
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Using the IMGT/GENE-DB service to find RSS

I'm trying to get the data for the Human and Mouse 12 and 23 Recomination Signal Sequences (RSS), to run a classification algorithm on it. I'm not a biologist, so I apologise in advance for my ...
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201 views

C1q attachment to antibodies

After reading about complement pathway and the complement components, I was wondering, does the C1q component attach to the Fab fragment or to the Fc fragment? The pictures in Janeway's Immunobiology ...
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Autoimmunity and central tolerance

Where in the body are self antigens important? In terms of central tolerance and autoimmunity, but also in terms of T cell activation?
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Blood cells penetration

Is there a type of blood cell that can reach all other body cells? By "reach", I mean to "touch" the surface of the target cell. If we look at the red blood cell for example, that moves in blood ...
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195 views

Organ cloning - possible to make a non-antigenic organ?

From a J. Neil Schulman article on Organ Cloning: Cannibalizing organs from other people also entails the risk of rejection because of incompatibilities, not only for tissue-typing but also ...
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Are we more/less resistant to infectious diseases during an allergic reaction?

To my understanding, an allergic response is a non-adaptive response of the immune system to some molecule. The molecule in question is therefore "thought by the immune system" to be infectious ...
7
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B cell receptor editing

If a B cell contains two mu chains and two lambda chains and is self reactive can it go back and rearrange its kappa light chains? I'm not sure if it can only try to rearrange its lambda light chains ...
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37 views

Action of Ebola Viruses

This video suggests that the first cell to be the victim of viral infection of ebola is the dendritic cell which acts as the leader of immune system cells.But I am unable to understand how the ...
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6k views

Do T-cells express MHC molecules?

T-cells recognize the MHC molecules and body's own peptides. When it doesn't, it alarms the immune system. But do T-cells express MHC molecules ? If so, how are they using it? If not, what happens ...
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How can site-directed mutagenesis be used to suppress the production of anti-antibodies?

In a previous post of mine, I asked how to supress the creation of anti-antibodies in vivo. In the answer, it was mentioned that site-directed mutagenesis could be used. Currently, I can't find mcuh ...
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3answers
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Anti-antibodies for preventing transplant rejection

Transplanted organs from the donor are attacked by antibodies from the recepient. So can't we construct anti-antibodies and destroy specifically those antibodies which are causing the rejections ? (...
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How to inhibit formation of specific antibodies (to antisera)?

Is there a way to inhibit an antibody response to a specific antigen using immunosupression? I am interested in reducing the anti-antibody formation to animal antibodies such as murine antibodies in ...
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Ebola immunosupression and infection

I was wondering... If Ebola attacks immune cells and causes immunosupression, then shouldn't we see death in Ebola patients due to secondary infection?
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A few questions regarding immunology [closed]

I know that there is a variable region on antibodies which can recognize a wide variety of antigens, and that germinal centers create more "fit" antibodies to respond to an infection. So I was just ...
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Presence of MHC on red blood cells

Do red blood cells have no MHC? (I have often heard that they do not.) If so why are they not destroyed by immune cells?
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allogeneic organ transplant and the immune response

What happens when an allogeneic organ transplant is performed on an immunocompetent recipient vs. when it is performed on an immunosuppresed recipient using a donated organ with immunocompetent cells?
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Why do physicians try to match HLA complexes for organ transplant?

My understanding of acute transplant rejection is that donor dendritic cells present donor antigens on MHC1 to host naive CD8+ T-cells resulting in an immune response against the graft. If you match ...
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human anti-mouse antibody

I have heard about human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMAs) and read that HAMAs neutralize murine antibodies, therefore decreasing the effectiveness of those murine antibodies. Is this true that HAMAs ...
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MHC-I presentation during infection

Which cell type cannot process and present antigen peptide in association with MHC-I when it is infected?
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Why cytotoxic T cells don't kill dendritic cells when they present antigen?

When a cytotoxic T cell (CTL) recognizes a peptide presented in the MHC-1 of a dendritic cell (APC), why it doesn't kill this cell? I know that initially, in the lymph node, the T cell is inactivated....
3
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human immune system

The common cold and [some?] types of influenza are self-limiting. Some microorganisms cause self-limiting diarrhea. Is tuberculosis [potentially] self-limiting or not? To put it another way, suppose ...
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Food allergen-related skin reactions and intestinal inflammation?

Are there any connections between food allergen-related skin reactions causing intestinal (or more broadly, gastrointestinal) generalized inflammation? If such a link exists, is it related to any of ...
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112 views

Are all single-celled organisms Bacteria?

I read that "Bacteria are one-celled organisms that can multiply by division", are all one-celled organisms bacteria or are there any more narrow definitions?
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543 views

Synthesis of immunoglobulin Fab fragments: Where can I learn about Fab?

I wanted to know the chemical reaction involved in Fab synthesis. I looked everywhere for it. No luck. I know I will find it here. All I know for now is: Fab is a monovalent fragment that is ...
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Reasons why people say that AIDS/HIV doesn't exist

It's been recurrent when I hear people saying that AIDS doesn't exist. When I ask why, they give weird reasons like HIV is a virus created to control economy and to develop medicine, etc. Also when I ...
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Epitope annotated protein

What is epitope annotted protein?? The book from which I got this term is : http://www.springer.com/biomed/immunology/book/978-1-4939-1114-1
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HIV and effectiveness of inhibitor cocktail over single inhibitor

I'm looking for clarification on the answer to this question. It's in my biochemistry class but I figured this is more Biology than Chemistry, so I'm asking it here. The question is: One of the ...
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1answer
193 views

Which immunosuppression caused by long-term usage of these antibiotics in untreated celiac disease?

These antibiotics include amoxicillin + acidum clavulanicum (beta-lactam, inhibit cell wall synthesis, broad specturm, 3rd gen aminopenicillin) / last part preventing the resistance ceftriaxone (3rd ...
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peptide MHC microarray

"The recent technology is peptide–MHC microarray or artificial antigen-presenting chip. In this technique, recombinant peptide–MHC complexes and co-stimulatory molecules are immobilized on a surface,...
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Do you know of any disease where HLA / MHC association discovery has led to better treatment or management?

If we discover an association between a disease and a particular HLA type (MHC class I or class II molecule) then it may provide us with some insight into the disease in a very basic way. However, ...
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103 views

Is the innate immune system capable of identifying all foreign antigens?

I've been studying immunology on my own lately and I would like to know if the macrophages and the other components of the innate immune system are capable of identifying all foreign antigens. As far ...
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Why don't we develop immunity against common cold?

We all suffer from common cold, and that, frequently. Why have we not developed immunity against it till now? By immunity I mean immunity as a species.
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Sequence based method for prediction of continuous B cell epitope

What is Sequence based method for prediction of continuous B cell epitope? What is the algorithm/procedure of this method? Can someone please explain this to me in simple language?
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recombinant peptide MHC complex [closed]

What is recombinant peptide-MHC complex??? Recombinant DNA means "to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in biological ...
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1answer
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What is hTAP?? Please help [closed]

Could not find a single article regarding this. What is hTAP? Tap is Transfer associated protein, that I know, but what is hTAP??(I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going ...
5
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1answer
115 views

Why can't the immune system start at the mating time?

The immune system has a great role in our body. When foreign particles enter our body, the immune system can recognize and start defense mechanisms such as the complement system and others. But when ...
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1answer
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epitope prediction/ mapping

B-CELL EPITOPE PREDICTION Regarding this article: "Such a molecule can be synthesized or, in case of a protein, its gene can be cloned into an expression vector."----- is a particular line in ...
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What is MHC haplotype?

What is MHC haplotype? I did check out the wiki article, but did not understand. (I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going through it because I need it for my research. So if ...
2
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1answer
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Difference between sequential and conformational epitope

Is the difference only in its structure? Like conformational epitope has 3D structure while sequential has a linear structure?(I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going through ...