The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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How HIV Affects and Its Treatment using Combination Therapy

Can someone please help me with the following questions. I've written my specific questions right after the text question. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus. Its genome is a single ...
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What attracts cells to: pathogens, professional antigen-presenting cells, and cells with an antigen on its MHC-1 protein?

I have a few questions in regards to attraction/stimulation in the immune system. What attracts leukocytes and antibodies to pathogens in the first place? What attracts CD4+ cells to professional ...
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Calibration curve for single radial immunodiffusion

When we draw a calibration curve for single radial immunodiffusion, the curve does not pass through origin. Instead, there is a y intercept. Why does that happen ? Shouldn't zero antigen give zero ...
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What's the difference between naive and memory B cells?

I understand that when naive B cells are exposed to antigens, they become memory B cells, but what is the functional difference between the two? I've looked at the quite a few article on B cells, but ...
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can psychology of a person alter his immune system and health?

I just want to know that can psychology of a moderate aged person alter his immune health because I have read many a times about the different types of linkages between nervous system and immune ...
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How specific is the adaptive immune response?

When you read about the adaptive immune response, you are often told that the response is specific to each pathogen - that the response is tailored. My question is - to what extent is this really ...
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Locally sterile immune response in paradoxical IRS coupled with hypersensitivity I

The king of sterile immune response is antibodies; while in unsterile response - T lymphocyte. I think there can be two types of IRS: either abnormalities with T or B cells. Assume the here the case ...
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Autoimmunity and central tolerance

Where in the body are self antigens important? In terms of central tolerance and autoimmunity, but also in terms of T cell activation?
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Allergic rhinitis vaccine

Note : Any answer to this question will not be (and should not be) taken as medical advice. One of my friends has allergic rhinitis and has been prescribed an oral vaccine. He is allergic to 3 ...
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Exocytosis of mast cell secretory granules

I've been doing a bit of reading about mast cell degranulation and have become thoroughly lost while trying to understand how the secretory granules are actually secreted. I understand that there are ...
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HIV and T helper cells

As far as I know and could understand from reading about HIV, T helper cell is one of the main reasons to develop AIDS in patients infected with HIV virus, that because the absence of helper T cell ...
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Why it is rare for person to get infected with two Pathogens?

Why is it rare for a person to have 2 (or more) infectious diseases (for example: Flu & Cold together at the same time)? Although it's rare, it happens when the immune system is weak (e.g when ...
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What Are the Exit Routes of Vaccine Adjuvants?

The digestive and respiratory systems are set up to process externally introduced "stuff." Most vaccines are given via an intramuscular route. What happens to the virus and the adjuvant materials ...
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Tc and Th1 interaction and viral immune response

Tc is T cell which can give T killer cells and T helper cells. T helper cells (Th1) see the pathogen presented by antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells and macrophages). They then secrete antigens ...
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Why is there no way to remove an immune response?

We've known for a long time now how to "add a new entry to the database," as it were, of immune responses. It's called vaccination, and it's been one of the greatest success stories in the history of ...
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Why Rh conflict happen but no ABO conflicts?

I wonder why Rhesus conflict can happen during pregnancy and mother can make antibodies against Rh protein (I think the correct name is D protein), but it doesn't happen if mother has different ABO ...
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Dimerization of Immunoglobulin G

I would like to know the specific determinants for formation of IgG dimers. My understanding is the stem of the antibody is a homodimer of two heavy chains, covalently bonded through two disulfide ...
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Why will tissue from identical twin be rejected in some cases?

From Medline Plus : Also, transplants from one identical twin to another are almost never rejected. My question : Why can a tissue from an identical twin be rejected ?
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Is a naive immune system equally able to handle new antigens as an educated one?

This is a variation of the "does the immune system run out of memory" question. Here's a (possibly imperfect) thought experiment: You take two twins. One of them lives in a bubble from birth. One of ...
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When does exposure to an allergen increase / decrease allergy?

In immunotherapy a person is regularly exposed to an allergen to decrease the allergy. Yet apparently "repeated intranasal challenges ... induces robust allergic airway inflammation, " [0] So when ...
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Do any nonhuman species have effective ebola immunity?

I've read that ebola is an effective killer in humans because it has the ability to interrupt dendritic cells from manufacturing proteins that cause the immune system to destroy the dendritic cells ...
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Why mosquito bite is confined to a certain shape?

I think this problem should be asked in a physiology forum rather than biology@ stackex but I'll give it a try. So my question is simple - why a mosquito bite is usually confined to a certain shape ...
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If all B cells are present at birth, why should the primary response to an infection take longer than the secondary response?

When learning about the immune response, my teacher mentioned that all the bodies B cells are present at birth, and there is one to counter every disease. But if this is the case, why should the ...
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What is the beneficial function of IgE antibody?

Dont tell me the "function" of IgE is to cause allergy ! In whatever texts I have seen it is written that IgE is important to cause allergies but what is the beneficial function of IgE ? Why was it ...
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Antigenic and non antigenic

Can any foreign molecule be non- antigenic ? Can any foreign peptide be non-antigenic ? What is the difference between an antigenic and a non-antigenic peptide ?
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How do B memory cells provide immunological memory? Do they differentiate into plasma cells?

My text book doesn't say anything about how B memory cells actually ensure a faster response the second time the antigen is encountered. My guess is that they differentiate into plasma cells which ...
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What are the purposes of granulocytes in acute inflammation?

I heard the phrase Neutrophilic leucocytes are kings in the acute inflammation. Neutrophils are granulocytes, while leucocytes are not granulocytes. I think this statement refers to the fact ...
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Do we actually get more sick (flu/cold) during winter?

The word flu derives from the Italian phrase "influenza de freddo" meaning "influence of the cold". Indeed it is that time of the year when my colleagues seem to have the flu/cold more often than ...
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Functioning of BCG vaccine

I read (from Nature Volume507, S4–S7 (06 March 2014) : For reasons that are poorly understood, BCG protects only infants; it is ineffective in older children and adults. Its efficacy also ...
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Why do vaccines cause your arm to hurt?

When you get a shot for a vaccine (for example, the annual flu vaccine), the nurse frequently indicates that your arm will ache for a day or two, maybe more. This ache is typically not just a pain ...
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How are T cells transported?

T cells are formed in bone marrow and mature in Thymus. How are they transported from bone marrow to thymus ? Through the lymph vessels ?
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Anti-antibodies for preventing transplant rejection

Transplanted organs from the donor are attacked by antibodies from the recepient. So can't we construct anti-antibodies and destroy specifically those antibodies which are causing the rejections ? ...
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Conserved proteins are non immunogenic

I read that proteins that have been highly conserved are non-immunogenic. Why is it so ? What is the special thing that makes it non immunogenic(antibodies against them are hard to make) ?
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Why do I need a flu shot every year, while many other vaccinations last years or even a lifetime?

Is it a viral vs. bacterial thing? Is there just more variety among types of flu than other diseases, so that this year's vaccines don't cover next year's flu?
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Do's and Don't's of Undergraduate Research? [closed]

I was fortunate enough to get a position as a researcher for the Mayo Clinic's SURF Program this year. My PI's lab focus is on the the immune system's role in CNS axonal and neuronal injury, ...
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How do TLR1/TLR2 activate the MyD88 dependent pathway

Recently, I've been reading about the MyD88 dependent signalling pathway, with particular reference to its activation in Macrophages and other cells of the immune system on recognition of a pathogen. ...
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Can cancer be an immune system disorder? [closed]

Can cancer result from a weakened immune system? Would this mean that cancer could be considered an immune system disorder?
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What cell types produce immunoglobins and where are those cells found?

I know B cells found in bone marrow produce immunoglobin G. But IgM is produced in mucosal cells at least in the gut. Can you find immunoglobin expressing cells in other tissues in the human body? ...
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What is immunosuppression? Why would one use it? [closed]

What is immunosuppression? I know it is used in cancer patients, but why would one want to suppress the immune system? Do homeopathic physicians ever use immunosuppression, or do only allopathic ...
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Is there a strong reason to be sceptical about the “cured HIV patient” being reported by mainstream media?

There's a story going round the news about a baby that was, apparently, cured of HIV using a cocktail of drugs at an early age. The story piqued my interest, but details seem scarce. One of the main ...
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Agglutination test using antibodies

Agglutination test Latex agglutination using bound antigens : by coating soluble (non - particulate ) antigens on to microscopic latex spheres, their reaction with a particular antibody can be ...
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Do we have enough diversity of antibodies to overcome almost any antigen?

I always wonder about the capability of diversity of our antibodies. Do we have enough antibodies to fit to every kind of molecule? Wont't it be easier if our antibodies are like clay and can be ...
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How does human body deal with inert solid material in the bloodstream?

How does human body deal with inert solid material in the bloodstream? For example, if there is a powder of glass injected into our bloodstream, will the white blood cells do anything or will kidney ...
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Reasons why people say that AIDS/HIV doesn't exist

It's been recurrent when I hear people saying that AIDS doesn't exist. When I ask why, they give weird reasons like HIV is a virus created to control economy and to develop medicine, etc. Also when I ...
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How does your body ultimately recover from a cold?

Is it the eradication of the virus (assuming rhinovirus) by white blood cells? Or does your body somehow adapt to presence of the virus?
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Can more than one antibody bind the same antigen

I'd like to clear something up about antibodies that I'm not sure I've understood in the articles I've read. Looking at concepts such as "affinity maturation", "monovalent antigens" and "polyvalent ...
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Thymus and maternal microchimerism

I read in Bruce Alberts Molecular Biology of The Cell : ....If,however,cells from one strain of mouse are introduced into a neonatal mouse of another strain , some of these cells survive for most ...
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Why are haploid cancer cells not killed by immune system?

I have seen haploid cancer cells (I think it was leukemia cells) in a lab. Sperms and eggs are haploid but are not destroyed by the body because they are protected by other cells surrounding them. ...
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Is the complement system a part of innate or adaptive immunity

I've been reading about the complement system, as part of the human immune system. The complement system is introduced as part of the article on innate immunity on Wikipedia. This classification makes ...
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Question about the expression of MHC

Is it possible to express both the MHC class-1 and MHC class-2 both in one cell?