The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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Have people in Africa already started evolving resistance to AIDS?

Are people in Africa who have sex with somebody with AIDS noticeably less likely to die from it than they once were because some of the people without genes that give them resistance already died off? ...
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How do T-cells determine which cells they've already inspected?

From what I understand, T-cells are constantly traveling in the body, inspecting cells by looking for antigens. If they're self antigens, then the T-cell doesn't attack, whereas if they're non-self, ...
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Is it possible to transfer acquired hemophilia with breast milk?

There is a transplacental form of acquired hemophilia: http://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476%2895%2970132-X/abstract This disease is caused by polyclonal immunoglobulins (IgG1 and IgG4) against the ...
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266 views

How do infectious bacteria determine when their numbers are high enough to attack a host?

When you get sick, you generally don't contract enough bacteria at once for them to succeed in battling your immune system, right? Their numbers must gradually increase in the host's body before they ...
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Why don't antibodies generally bind to food and drugs?

Are these excluded thru central tolerance? What if you ingested something with a unique molecular structure that you hadn't ingested before?
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Bubble Boy syndrome [duplicate]

I know that under normal circumstances, immunosuppressors are needed to mitigate the host body's immune reaction to the graft. However, people suffering Bubble Boy Syndrome have pretty much no immune ...
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36 views

what is the difference and similarities between Antidote and Antibody?

I know that antibody is destroy Antigen and antidote is reverse of antigen.So,What are the similarities and difference between Antigen and Antidote? Are they same?
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Lysis of bacteria by complement system

The complement system creates pores in cell membrane which leads to influx of lots of water thereby causing lysis of bacterial cell. But what I fail to understand is that if bacteria have cell walls ...
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66 views

Effect of HIV on T-cells

When HIV infects macrophages, it doesn't kill or destroy them immediately, but once it infects T-cells, they're destroyed. Why is that? As in why does it destroy T-cells and not macrophages or other ...
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121 views

Can Helicobacter pylori be eradicated naturally?

This question is not to discuss whether substances that have anti-H. pylori activity work or not, or to discuss the pros and cons of such but from a medical perspective. Assuming that one is able to ...
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T cell sensitivity and persistence to specific bacterial proteins

Currently, the standard tests for Lyme Disease measure antibody production after exposure to a bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi. Often, the tests are performed too soon after infection, before ...
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8 views

Serological assays measuring antibody response

Given that an appropriate immune response to a bacteria may be thwarted in an individual, including not producing all of the antibodies which are known to occur in people who have been infected, or ...
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80 views

Why is the penicillin/ceftriaxone hypersensitivity test only done once?

I have had a severe bacterial infection. I was prescribed ceftriaxone, and when the time came for injecting it the nurse asked me whether I have an allergy to ceftriaxone. I answered that it's my ...
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B-cell antibody production

I've just learned about B cells in immunology lectures and some things are not clear to me. Here's what I know: 1) Apparently, each B cell produces a specific antibody, determined randomly at the ...
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How does the body know to stop effector cell proliferation?

After a pathogen has been successfully neutralized, effector cells such as the plasma cells and the cytotoxic T cells which are specific for that pathogen decrease in numbers. What is the signal in ...
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56 views

Why I cannot find dendritic cells in blood smear?

According to many sources including wikipedia, there are haematopoietic stem cell derived dendritic cells in the blood. figure 1 - haematopoietic cell lines - ref Despite of this, when I examine ...
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120 views

What do the names of Immunoglobulin subtypes mean? [closed]

What is the exact meaning and full form of IgM IgG IgA etc? What is the rationale behind the names of the isotypes, if there is one? For example, what does "M" mean in IgM?
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How large are medullary thymic epithelial cells in volume?

I'm looking for a rough average volume of medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs/MECs) in humans and mice. It would also help to know how they differ in form (are they spherical, long stretched, ...
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54 views

Why doesn't one develop immunity to bacterial STIs?

Why doesn't one develop immunity to STIs such as Chlamydia/Gonorrhea and Syphilis even after the first exposure and treatment with antibiotics?
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120 views

Does our immune system react on all bacteria?

In our body we carry a lot of bacteria. Some of them are bad for our health, but others are beneficial. For example bacteria may protect us against other pathogenic bacteria. But is our immune ...
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IG isotypes in commercial mAb products

It appears that most monoclonal antibody medical products exclusively contain the IgG (and some IgE) isotypes. Also, some manufacturers use only certain IgG subclasses. While the IgG-isotype is the ...
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29 views

Can specific B-cells be created in a lab? [closed]

Instead of creating protein sequences, could that stepped be skipped and just have B-cells created to manufacture a particular type of immunity?
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130 views

What is the difference between AIDS and SCID? [closed]

AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome According to wikipedia, Caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Following initial infection, a person may not notice any ...
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Why Alternative Dosing of Gardasil Puts Suspicion about its Efficacy?

I am studying the alternative dosing of Gardasil and its efficacy. The exact concentration necessary to confer protection is not yet known. This limits the understanding of the alternative dosing. ...
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Why is it advised that infants are fed mother's milk?

I have heard that mother's milk is preferred over other baby foods, because it contains immunoglobulines (secretory IgA), and other essential nutrients. But why is mother's milk so special? Any ...
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Can oral bacteria be targeted by white blood cells?

Today I was told from a dentist that a leukocyte is much larger than a bad bacterium. So a leukocyte cannot remove bad bacteria when they hide in very places like the space between the gums and teeth ...
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How would the immune system respond to antigens and food poisoning?

QUESTION: How does this information explain the likelihood of a more violent response in someone who has already had food poisoning caused by salmonella bacteria WHAT I KNOW: In the first exposure, ...
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Does atrophy of the thymus not effect T-cell selection and tolerance?

The thymus atrophies as age progresses. Does the T cell selection (which happens in the thymus) continue to take place? This doubt came into my mind because in the cadaver we dissected, the thymus was ...
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how to make plasma cells adhere to the bottom of a microplate?

I am isolating single plasma cells by FACS sorting into 384-well plates, with the intent to assay the supernatant and clone H/L chains from positive wells. The efficiency of the PCR is however low, ...
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What is the name of the property of viruses can activate a second time, with different symptoms?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. It appears after the initial infection, it can go dormant in the nerve, and reactivate itself decades later. In ...
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What is the name of the property of viruses that can go dormant in the host for 30 years?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. It appears after the initial infection, it can go dormant in the nerve, and reactivate itself decades later. My ...
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What is the name of the category of viruses that affect only one side of the body?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. When the virus attacks as shingles, one of its distinguishing characteristics is that it only affects one side of the ...
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How do CD 8+ Tc cells reach the site of tumors?

In normal humoral immunity, dendritic cells present antigens to the Th cells by arriving at the Lymph node. This is fine. But consider a tumor cell. How does the Tc cell sitting in the lymph node know ...
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Cytokine screening

I am measuring IL-6 production by NF-κB stimulation using IL-1α and TNFα. Il-1 produces a stronger degradation of IκBα (inhibitor of NF-κB). I've done this using ...
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Does sickle cell anaemia protect a victim against malaria? [duplicate]

My biology textbook says that a person with sickle cell anaemia is less prone to malaria. Why is that so? I'm guessing that its because the malarial parasite needs human RBCs for completing its life ...
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Do the antibodies in a patient suffering from Hashimoto's, attack the thyroid hormones or the thyroid gland (or both?)?

If oral thyroid hormone supplement is administered, is the attack stopped or does it just create an excess of thyroid hormones so that even after a lot of it is destroyed by the antibodies, there is ...
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4answers
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How does the immune system “learn” from a vaccine?

According to Wikipedia: A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one ...
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950 views

Why does immunity from the flu vaccine appear only after two weeks?

It is said that immunity from a flu vaccine appears after about two weeks. However, from experience, the flu usually lasts only a few days. If sufficient antibodies appear only after two weeks ...
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Why do people dying of immune deficiency diseases appear sick?

Please forgive the obviously silly appearance of this question, and/or of the tenor which may come across as flippant or dismissive of real world suffering. My intention is none of the above. As a ...
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31 views

How are vaccines and inoculations different? [closed]

If so are vaccinations more safe? If so how? And how is the vaccine a magical invention?
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28 views

Are there fundamental differences between the adaptive immune systems of higher primates and other mammals?

I recently attended a Leukemia and Lymphoma Society lecture in which one of the lecturers indicated that there are fundamental differences between the adaptive immune systems of higher primates and ...
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What is the purpose of requiring two separate binding systems for the antibody response?

I've read that in most cases, B-cell activation requires helper T-cells. This requires antigen binding by both antibodies and T-cell receptors, using two different antigen-binding proteins, ...
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353 views

What will happen if a foetus is Rh- and the mother is Rh+?

If a mother has Rh-negative blood and her foetus has Rh-positive blood it will result in rhesus incompatibility and lead to erythroblastosis fetalis. What will happen if the reverse occurs, when a ...
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82 views

Normal cells and the immune system [closed]

Normal or healthy cells have a natural ability to avoid being attacked by the immune system. So if a cancer cell has all inherited 'strategies' for avoiding the immune system (that are from their ...
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What are the effects of removing CD4 receptors?

If the gene for the CD4 receptor was removed, would the person's immune system work normally? Could a new artificial receptor be substituted in place of CD4? Could HIV infection be prevented in this ...
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31 views

How to choose secondary Antibody?

when isotype of the Primary antibody is IgG2a (from Mouse) and IgG2b (from Rat), how to choose secondary Antibody against these Primary isotypes? Does secondary Antibody is that much specific to ...
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64 views

how body doesn't make antibodies against adjuvants of vaccine?

we know that all antigenic molecules don't have PRR on phagocytes and so they use an adjuvant that has a receptor for pattern recognation and fuse it with in order to phagocyte the antigen-adjuvant ...
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60 views

Engineered CD8 T-cell therapy for HIV infection

CD8 T-cells are effective in controlling HIV during the early phase of the infection. However by the time, the virus mutates and develops an evasion mechanism against CD8 T-cells. Since cancer cells ...
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51 views

How is tolerance to an allergen developed?

My question is mainly about how allergy shots work. I did some basic research before posting here, however I could not find an explanation of what occurs at a cellular level. Is it the persistance ...