The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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Why don't antibodies generally bind to food and drugs?

Are these excluded thru central tolerance? What if you ingested something with a unique molecular structure that you hadn't ingested before?
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51 views

Why doesn't one develop immunity to bacterial STIs?

Why doesn't one develop immunity to STIs such as Chlamydia/Gonorrhea and Syphilis even after the first exposure and treatment with antibiotics?
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1answer
57 views

Engineered CD8 T-cell therapy for HIV infection

CD8 T-cells are effective in controlling HIV during the early phase of the infection. However by the time, the virus mutates and develops an evasion mechanism against CD8 T-cells. Since cancer cells ...
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1answer
72 views

Why is the penicillin/ceftriaxone hypersensitivity test only done once?

I have had a severe bacterial infection. I was prescribed ceftriaxone, and when the time came for injecting it the nurse asked me whether I have an allergy to ceftriaxone. I answered that it's my ...
4
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40 views

How does drug-induced photosensitivity work?

Some drugs (tetracyclines, for instance) can cause photosensitivity reactions—that is, some patients become extremely sensitive to the sun, developing rashes or inflammation after spending time ...
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0answers
107 views

Can Helicobacter pylori be eradicated naturally?

This question is not to discuss whether substances that have anti-H. pylori activity work or not, or to discuss the pros and cons of such but from a medical perspective. Assuming that one is able to ...
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38 views

What is the name of the category of viruses that affect only one side of the body?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. When the virus attacks as shingles, one of its distinguishing characteristics is that it only affects one side of the ...
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35 views

Why are kidney discard rates so high?

A recent report from UNOS states: The kidney discard rate has returned to pre-KAS levels, dropping from 20.2 percent in the first six months to 18.4 percent in months 7-10. To me, this seems ...
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52 views

Human leukocytes (re)circulation/migration in homeostatic state

One can easily find information on the topic of leukocytes trafficking between vessels and peripheral tissues during inflammation. But what happens during normal states when there is no pathology? ...
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41 views

Adenosine metabolism

Are adenosine or its catabolites increased in inflamed airways? How can I assess this? I am trying to use inhibitors for adenosine deaminase, xanthine oxidase, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, but ...
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0answers
16 views

how to make plasma cells adhere to the bottom of a microplate?

I am isolating single plasma cells by FACS sorting into 384-well plates, with the intent to assay the supernatant and clone H/L chains from positive wells. The efficiency of the PCR is however low, ...
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0answers
26 views

Are there fundamental differences between the adaptive immune systems of higher primates and other mammals?

I recently attended a Leukemia and Lymphoma Society lecture in which one of the lecturers indicated that there are fundamental differences between the adaptive immune systems of higher primates and ...
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0answers
56 views

What is NK-cell compartments?

with respect to the paper: Adaptive reconfiguration of the human NK-cell compartment in response to cytomegalovirus: A different perspective of the host-pathogen interaction What is meant by ...
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38 views

What makes substances allergenic?

Is it possible to tell or rule out (potentially a priori) whether any given substance or compound is likely and how likely to cause allergies with high confidence, without the need to conduct ...
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35 views

Subtypes of Acute myeloid leukemia

I am a computer scientist with no biological background and working on analyzing lab results of patients with Acute myeloid leukemia. They have been tagged with following subtypes of AML: AML with ...
2
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0answers
63 views

Is an antivenom venomous?

What happens when someone takes an anti-venom for an animal they weren't bit by, either for incorrect identification of the animal they were bit by or if they weren't bit at all? I am looking for the ...
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0answers
98 views

A number of questions regarding chemotaxis assay using PBMCs

In our lab we would like to study the chemotaxis of PBMCs towards conditioned medium obtained following treatment of cancer cells with different compounds. My questions are regarding the method of ...
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0answers
67 views

Movement of stem cells from mother to fetus

Recent results from J Lee Nelson and colleagues (Sci Am. 2008 Feb;298(2):64-71; available as full text through Google) show that cells from the mother were found in a person aged 46. Logically, these ...
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29 views

Can oral bacteria be targeted by white blood cells?

Today I was told from a dentist that a leukocyte is much larger than a bad bacterium. So a leukocyte cannot remove bad bacteria when they hide in very places like the space between the gums and teeth ...
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52 views

How would the immune system respond to antigens and food poisoning?

QUESTION: How does this information explain the likelihood of a more violent response in someone who has already had food poisoning caused by salmonella bacteria WHAT I KNOW: In the first exposure, ...
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324 views

Why do some white blood cells have lobed nuclei?

Several types of white blood cells (eg Neutrophils) have lobed nuclei. Is this for a functional reason? I have seen people refer to structural differences in the lobes as indicative of problems, but ...
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84 views

Listing Cluster of Differentiation (CD) markers (immunology)

I hope this question is appropriate for this SE. When listing multiple cluster of differentiation (CD) markers to define a cell population, e.g. CD3+CD8+CD45+CD4-, is there a default order to put them ...
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25 views

Do bacteria develop a resistance to antimicrobial peptides at the same rate as against “regular” antibiotics?

From what I understand, antimicrobial peptides are roughly grouped into three structural sets, with large variations present between different groups as well as within the groups. Their anti-microbial ...
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Are there any auto-immune diseases caused by T cells not detaching from antigen presenting cells (APCs)?

By not detaching I'm referring to after they have formed an immunological synapse, if they don't ever detach.
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Differences in structural target for LPS detection by LAL and MD-2/TLR4

I remember there being a significant difference in the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) used for detection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by mammalian cells and the Limulus amoebocyte ...
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Sequence based method for prediction of continuous B cell epitope

What is Sequence based method for prediction of continuous B cell epitope? What is the algorithm/procedure of this method? Can someone please explain this to me in simple language?
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15 views

How does the body know to stop effector cell proliferation?

After a pathogen has been successfully neutralized, effector cells such as the plasma cells and the cytotoxic T cells which are specific for that pathogen decrease in numbers. What is the signal in ...
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12 views

How large are medullary thymic epithelial cells in volume?

I'm looking for a rough average volume of medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs/MECs) in humans and mice. It would also help to know how they differ in form (are they spherical, long stretched, ...
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10 views

IG isotypes in commercial mAb products

It appears that most monoclonal antibody medical products exclusively contain the IgG (and some IgE) isotypes. Also, some manufacturers use only certain IgG subclasses. While the IgG-isotype is the ...
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11 views

Why Alternative Dosing of Gardasil Puts Suspicion about its Efficacy?

I am studying the alternative dosing of Gardasil and its efficacy. The exact concentration necessary to confer protection is not yet known. This limits the understanding of the alternative dosing. ...
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21 views

Cytokine screening

I am measuring IL-6 production by NF-κB stimulation using IL-1α and TNFα. Il-1 produces a stronger degradation of IκBα (inhibitor of NF-κB). I've done this using ...
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25 views

Immunotherapy for tumours which do not have TSA

Is immunotherapy possible for tumours which do not have Tumour Specific Antigens (TSA)? If so, doesn't targeting those tumour cells also target other healthy cells, thus causing autoimmunity ?
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Why does histamine release in Type I hypersensitivity help in case of parasites?

The IgE system exists because the same events which lead to often-life threatening complications of allergy, in presence of parasites are helpful in their elimination. The tissue injury mediated ...
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24 views

Pathogenesis of type IV hypersensitivity

In hypersensitivity, as I understand it, a normal immune response gets excessive, misdirected or wrongly regulated to cause tissue injury. The various types determine the various ways in which the ...
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32 views

What does high CD4 level means?

I was going through this webpage and I found the following lines: We hypothesised that despite unimodal distribution of CD4 co-receptor on naïve CD4 T cells they are not homogenous in their ...
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Acute rejection in transplantation

For direct recognition in Acute rejection (type IV hypersensitivity), is it true that the recipient’s T cell can basically recognize the host’s MHC allotype, without the need for high affinity ...
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Why every Ab-Ag complex doesn't lead to anaphylatoxic shock?

if we know the background of hypersensitivitoy type 3 then this question arises. every complex should lead to anaphaylatoxic shock which is not a true statement. so then how all complexes which ...
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51 views

How can site-directed mutagenesis be used to suppress the production of anti-antibodies?

In a previous post of mine, I asked how to supress the creation of anti-antibodies in vivo. In the answer, it was mentioned that site-directed mutagenesis could be used. Currently, I can't find mcuh ...