The kidney is an internal, bean shaped organ of vertebrates. Kidneys are responsible for secreting urine, regulate the electrolytes of the body and filter the blood.

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Beginning of the urogenital system

Are any invertebrate nephridia (proto/meta) homologous with vertebrate kidneys in the sense that embryologically they also begin together with the genital system? When did the embryologic association ...
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What is the benefit of near-emptying the bloodstream in the mammalian kidney?

In the normal function of the kidney, the bloodstream is near emptied of fluids as it moves through the glomerulus, in which glomerular filtrate is formed. As it proceeds through the Nephron, a ...
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Do kidneys have the enzyme 3-ketoacyl-CoA transferase?

I am thinking if kidneys can use ketone bodies as fuel. Ketone bodies are water-soluble so no problem because of solubility. The existence of the enzyme determines the answer. Can kidneys use ketone ...
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What is the reason behind more severe proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome than in nephritic syndrome?

Why is there less protein loss via urine in case of nephritic syndrome than in case of nephrotic syndrome?
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How does the counter current mechanism concentrate urine?

The movement of ions like sodium into the interstitial space causes water to passively diffuse out the descending loop of Henle. How does this concentrate the urine? The solvent is removed at one ...
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How is Hypertonic Urine Produced in a Mammalian Kidney?

I know that the ascending loop of Henle is impermeable to water and ions, and, by end of the ascending limb, the osmolarity of the tubular fluid is very low due to the active transport of ions out ...
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Regarding kidney transplant

One of the options is correct Kidney can be taken from a dying person who has the a) cessation of neurological function only b) cessation of cardiac function only c) cessation of ...
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What is refractory proteinuria?

I've stumbled upon the article "Telmisartan Treatment of Refractory Proteinuria in a Dog."* What is refractory proteinuria? *Bugbee AC1, Coleman AE, Wang A, Woolcock AD, Brown SA. J Vet Intern Med. ...
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Which blood vessel carries the most impure blood?

There is a question in my Biology textbook: "Which blood vessel in the human body carries most impure blood after few hours of meal." The answer is given as Renal artery. But I think the ...
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Can the excessive consumption of mineral water lead to kidney stones or other health issues?

I heard that drinking too much mineral (bottled) water could lead to problems such as kidney stones because of the high amount of minerals in it. Is it true? If so, what is considered to be excessive? ...
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For how long can a person drink sea water?

How long could a person of lets say 18 years be able to drink sea water without getting too much into trouble ? Or can a person drink it without noticing that it is a very bad idea ? I don't mean in ...
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Can tubular secretion regarded as local hormone?

Tubular secretion is : The process in which ions and other waste products are transported into the distal tubules of the nephron. can it be regarded as local hormone??
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To diagnose osteomyelitis of vertebral column in chronic kidney failure

Assume you suspect amyloidosis because of the history of the patient: problem with vertebral column and "purulent" (serous, fibrous, or hemorrhagic) inflammation when patient very young. Now, the ...
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How does human body deal with inert solid material in the bloodstream?

How does human body deal with inert solid material in the bloodstream? For example, if there is a powder of glass injected into our bloodstream, will the white blood cells do anything or will kidney ...
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How do kidney cells excrete their own wastes?

If there is the same amount of Urea entering and leaving via bloodstream at the glomerulus. QS: how do kidney cells excrete their own wastes? since: 30mg/100ml of urea is entering AND leaving the ...
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What is the difference between the Ureter and Urethra? also between the Renal papilla and Renal pelvis? [closed]

Differentiate between the following: Ureter and Urethra Renal papilla and Renal pelvis It is not given in my book. Please help.