The kidney is an internal, bean shaped organ of vertebrates. Kidneys are responsible for secreting urine, regulate the electrolytes of the body and filter the blood.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

11
votes
1answer
291 views

Beginning of the urogenital system

Are any invertebrate nephridia (proto/meta) homologous with vertebrate kidneys in the sense that embryologically they also begin together with the genital system? When did the embryologic association ...
7
votes
2answers
86 views

What is the benefit of near-emptying the bloodstream in the mammalian kidney?

In the normal function of the kidney, the bloodstream is near emptied of fluids as it moves through the glomerulus, in which glomerular filtrate is formed. As it proceeds through the Nephron, a ...
4
votes
1answer
137 views

What is the reason behind more severe proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome than in nephritic syndrome?

Why is there less protein loss via urine in case of nephritic syndrome than in case of nephrotic syndrome?
4
votes
1answer
75 views

Can the kidneys utilize ketone bodies for energy?

Ketone bodies are water-soluble and should pose no problem to the kidneys because of solubility. If the kidneys are able to utilize ketone bodies for energy, then they must express the enzyme ...
3
votes
1answer
186 views

How does the counter current mechanism concentrate urine?

The movement of ions like sodium into the interstitial space causes water to passively diffuse out the descending loop of Henle. How does this concentrate the urine? The solvent is removed at one ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

How is Hypertonic Urine Produced in a Mammalian Kidney?

I know that the ascending loop of Henle is impermeable to water and ions, and, by end of the ascending limb, the osmolarity of the tubular fluid is very low due to the active transport of ions out ...
2
votes
1answer
353 views

Regarding kidney transplant

One of the options is correct Kidney can be taken from a dying person who has the a) cessation of neurological function only b) cessation of cardiac function only c) cessation of ...
2
votes
2answers
74 views

What is refractory proteinuria?

I've stumbled upon the article "Telmisartan Treatment of Refractory Proteinuria in a Dog."* What is refractory proteinuria? *Bugbee AC1, Coleman AE, Wang A, Woolcock AD, Brown SA. J Vet Intern Med. ...
2
votes
1answer
7k views

Which blood vessel carries the most impure blood?

There is a question in my Biology textbook: "Which blood vessel in the human body carries most impure blood after few hours of meal." The answer is given as Renal artery. But I think the ...
2
votes
2answers
10k views

Can the excessive consumption of mineral water lead to kidney stones or other health issues?

I heard that drinking too much mineral (bottled) water could lead to problems such as kidney stones because of the high amount of minerals in it. Is it true? If so, what is considered to be excessive? ...
2
votes
1answer
205 views

Why does the kidney of a cow have lobules, why the kidney of a human hasn't any?

The kidney of a cow has lobules, while the kidney of a human hasn't any. I can't think of any reason why it would be good for a kidney to have lobules. It would be good if the kidney needed to have a ...
2
votes
0answers
38 views

What is the function of the kidney in terms of osmoregulation and excretion [closed]

Also include the role that ADH plays I am fully aware that ADH has a role in osmoregulation but does it also play a role in exretion?
1
vote
1answer
84 views

Why is heart failure treated as more critical than kidney failure?

The heart pumps the blood to supply tissues and kidney always filters the blood to remove urea,extra water and etc. And all these are vital,so the kidney is as important as heart: and my question is: ...
1
vote
1answer
672 views

For how long can a person drink sea water?

How long could a person of lets say 18 years be able to drink sea water without getting too much into trouble ? Or can a person drink it without noticing that it is a very bad idea ? I don't mean in ...
1
vote
1answer
199 views

How does ANF increase GFR?

ANF as we know reduce the Na+ uptake and K+ removal in the distal tubules and it also functions as a Vasodialator (?) But again it says that ANF increases the Glomerular filtrate ? But if it is acting ...
1
vote
1answer
80 views

Can tubular secretion regarded as local hormone?

Tubular secretion is : The process in which ions and other waste products are transported into the distal tubules of the nephron. can it be regarded as local hormone??
1
vote
1answer
130 views

How do cellular waste products enter arterial blood?

I recently learned that blood in renal arteries contains waste materials, which is filtered via nephrons in the kidneys. My question is, how are these waste materials getting into the arterial ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Is the PCT of the nephrons of the kidneys of marine vertebrates to minimize the natural tendency for exosmosis?

For marine vertebrates, the concentration of salts outside their body (in the water, that is) is more than that inside their body. So, there is a natural tendency for exosmosis to occur. To minimise ...
1
vote
1answer
83 views

To diagnose osteomyelitis of vertebral column in chronic kidney failure

Assume you suspect amyloidosis because of the history of the patient: problem with vertebral column and "purulent" (serous, fibrous, or hemorrhagic) inflammation when patient very young. Now, the ...
1
vote
0answers
10 views
1
vote
2answers
1k views

How do kidney cells excrete their own wastes?

The kidney is composed of tissues, and those tissues are made up of numerous cells - so how do these cells excrete their wastes? Lastly, are there any wastes in the venous blood (renal vein), what ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Function of human kidneys

Why are the kidneys called metanephric? What does the term metanephric actually mean? I tried to search that on Google but couldn't find the exact meaning.
0
votes
1answer
324 views

How does human body deal with inert solid material in the bloodstream?

How does human body deal with inert solid material in the bloodstream? For example, if there is a powder of glass injected into our bloodstream, will the white blood cells do anything or will kidney ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Diabetes Mellitus and renal failure?

I have studied that Diabetes Mellitus leads to kidney failure and that this is because of the damage to the blood vessels (especially the blood vessels in the kidney) due to high levels of blood ...
0
votes
1answer
106 views

Find how much times blood is filtered in the kidney? [closed]

The blood that circulates in our body is about 1/12 of our mass. If the kidneys filter 7.5 liter of blood a hour, then how many times does it filter in the kidney the whole blood of a person will mass ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

peritoneal dialysis Vs Hemodialysis?

Their are basically two types of dialysis: 1.peritoneal dialysis 2.hemodialysis, My Question is Why the peritoneal dialysis needs to be carried out on everyday BUT hemodialysis is carried out on only ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Vasoconstriction and its effect

It's known that vasoconstriction in afferent arterioles causes an decrease in hydrostatic pressure ➡--GFR, _also stimulating macula densa by decrease Na leads to vasoconstriction But this time elicits ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

How does excess excretion of NaCl affect Glomerular Filtration Rate and afferent arteriole size?

A toxic drug blocks NaCl resorption channels in the proximal convoluted tubule. What would happen to the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) and afferent arteriole size? If a lot of NaCl is being ...
-2
votes
0answers
25 views

How sympathetic system lead to an increase in GFR?

ADH is a vasopressin. It affects the kidney by its constrictive effect on blood vessels. This causes an increase in blood pressure. The sympathetic nervous system follows the same process to decrease ...
-4
votes
1answer
20k views

What is the difference between the Ureter and Urethra? also between the Renal papilla and Renal pelvis? [closed]

Differentiate between the following: Ureter and Urethra Renal papilla and Renal pelvis It is not given in my book. Please help.