The set of chemical reactions that happen in the cells of living organisms to sustain life.

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Bacterial/microbial metabolism of sucrose in fruit juices

While taking out the recycling this morning, I noticed that my old orange juice carton seemed to be inflated. Opening the cap relieved a lot of pressure built up inside the carton. I'm thinking that ...
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9 views

How much mmol/L of glucose does my dog extract from his meal into his blood?(at least roughly) [on hold]

In the context of insulin dependent diabetes(assume there is no glucose suppression in the blood at all, not even from the kidneys). I can find out the content of carbohydrate, but, I don't know what ...
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24 views

How does the cell regulate different metabolic pathways?

I heard somewhere that cells use different nucleosides bound to triphosphates e.g. ATP, GTP, CTP and other modified compounds: NADH, NADPH to distinguish between different metabolic pathways and so ...
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26 views

Need for two oxygen sensors in E. coli

E. coli has two oxygen sensors: FNR (fumarate-nitrate reductase) and ArcBA (Anoxic Redox Control, two component control systems). FNR directly senses the oxygen, while the interaction of ArcB with ...
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Tracking of oxygen molecules in glucose oxidation

For this reaction, found in typical biochemistry textbook: $C_6H_{12}O_6 + 6O_2 \to 6CO_2 + 6H_2O$ I am interested in where do the oxygen atoms of $6O_2$ go. I think they go to $6H_2O$, but this is ...
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569 views

Why is the Krebs cycle considered a part of aerobic metabolism if molecular oxygen is not involved in any of the reactions in the cycle

Why is the Krebs cycle considered a part of aerobic metabolism if molecular oxygen is not involved in any of the reactions in the cycle? I originally thought that Krebs cycle was aerobic metabolism ...
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12 views

How reactive are reduced antioxidant molecules?

When antioxidant molecules stabilize free radicals, they themselves become unstable and reactive but to a lesser degree. How reactive are these reduced antioxidant molecules? And what substance ...
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48 views

Burning fat transferred from one part of the body to another

While doing some research on cosmetic surgery, I discovered that there are several ways of doing breast enhancements, one of which was using body fat. While I haven't researched this method, I assume ...
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34 views

Can chitosan affect the absorption of unsaturated fatty acid?

I know chitosan will decrease the absorption of fat. However unsaturated fatty acid, such as DHA, is beneficial. Does chitosan effect the absorption of unsaturated fatty acid?
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69 views

How did people who were living far from the sea obtain iodine during the Middle Ages?

Knowing that today iodine comes either from fish products or (artificially) enriched table salt, how did people who lived far from the sea survive before (especially during the the Middle Ages)? Edit ...
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19 views

Is body energy production and consumption cyclical?

If we look into how energy is produced by the humans, it always involves some kind of periodicity: fuel combustion rotates engines, water rotates turbines, nuclear chain reactions heat up water, which ...
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25 views

How does the human body use energy?

As far as I know the glucose gets processed from carbs and fats and as a result carbon dioxide, water and "energy" are released. The carbon dioxide and water are expelled by the body, and then energy ...
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71 views

Plotting metabolic networks?

I need to draw a map of the core metabolism of E.coli. Associated with each reaction in the map I have a number that indicates the flux through this reaction. I want the map to reflect these fluxes ...
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52 views

Oxidation means inflamation?

All right, I was reading article on nutrition, that focussed on content analysis of pastry-like food product for kids. I have to say that I am not sure this article would pass the imaginary smell ...
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25 views

Is there sugar secreted into blood even after complete digestions in healthy humans? What about dogs?

Suppose we're feeding a high GI food to a person and that the digestion lasts five hours. Does the body secrete sugar into the blood afterwards? What about in diabetic dogs and humans? Update: I am ...
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36 views

Why are carnivorans more efficient predators than birds or reptiles?

The Wikipedia page on island gigantism says, "Birds and reptiles generally make less efficient large predators than advanced carnivorans. What does it mean for a predator to be "efficient" and why are ...
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70 views

How efficient is the human body at metabolizing food?

My friend and I were having a discussion over how "efficient" human digestion is. If a human ate a 1000 calorie hamburger, how many of those calories (how much energy) does the body process into ...
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4answers
802 views

Why do we weigh less in the morning?

At first I thought it may be related to physics. You know, in one half of the day, the gravity changes, and the scale shows a different weight than the other. Then at night, gravity intensifies, and ...
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3answers
132 views

What is the mechanism of oxygen uptake in E. coli?

How does E. coli uptake oxygen? Most of the literature I found is concerned with response to oxygen level supplied in the medium, as opposed to how much is actually transported inside. Can they shut ...
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1answer
104 views

The smell from eating asparagus

I am wondering about one thing. I have read different accounts of this (prior to reading it on Wikipedia), so I am wondering. Here are the two versions I have read: asparagus leads in a certain ...
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1answer
72 views

Consumption of NAD+ in glycolysis

Out of 10 steps in glycolysis, only one reaction- Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (PGP), uses NAD+ and thereby producing NADH. Furthermore, this very step is solely ...
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45 views

Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid

PUFAs spontaneously oxidize, speed up the process of glycation, since too much glucose and they also decrease mitochondrial respiration - more oxygen and CO₂, less lactate and PUFA also promote ...
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44 views

naturally occuring fatty acids

The double bonds in naturally occurring fatty acids present in our body are in cis configuration while the enzymes for beta oxidation can act on trans double bond. Then what will be the significance ...
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71 views

What organism most efficiently converts a given quantity of mass into heat?

Question I am trying to answer: In the popular film The Matrix, heat given off by humans is harvested as an energy source. I wondered, if this were possible, would humans be a good organism to ...
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amino acid containing branched side chain

Branched-chain amino acid are degraded by branched chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. These amino acids aren't degraded in liver because of the absence of this enzyme(in liver).Why the ...
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1answer
31 views

bacterial cell wall degradation in humans

can human degrade the D-amino acid present in bacterial cell wall, I'm confused about it i have read somewhere that human can do so.If yes than why we need antibiotic to kill bacteria???If it is not ...
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136 views

Breakdown of energy expenditure at the level of a single cell

The metabolic rate measures how much energy an organism expends over a unit of time. Its breakdown for the human body in terms of its functions is well documented : so much for the heart, for the ...
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Where can I find a list of common enzyme cofactors and/or co-enzymes?

Where can I find a list of enzyme cofactors and/or co-enzymes, ordered by how common they are? For example, $O_2$, $H_2O$, $ATP$, $ADP$, $NAD$, should be ranked in the first places, because they ...
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Experimental studies of bacterial adaptation to changes in nutrients of culture medium

Are there experimental studies that measure how a population of bacteria in continuous culture evolve when submitted to changes in the concentrations of metabolites in the culture media? For example, ...
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22 views

desaturation in fatty acids [duplicate]

humans are unable to synthesize EFA what is the reason behind it that humans cannot introduce double bond between C-10 and the methyl terminal?
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55 views

Why Mammals are unable to produce Essential Fatty Acids?

While we have to get them from our diet and if they aren't taken in our diet we will face disease.Then why we don't have the enzymes which are require for EFA synthesis???
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32 views

Currency metabolites vs. current metabolites: What's the right term?

I have seen the two terms currency metabolite and current metabolite used interchangeably. Is there a consensus on which is the ...
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1answer
124 views

How should I feed and keep an ant queen?

I have captured wandering ant queen. I guess she was just fertilised and was looking for a place to start a hive. I'd like to create my own ant hive in artificial environment. I unfortunately only ...
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151 views

what is the margarine metabolism in our body?

margarine is commonly used food ingredients that contribute to both inflammation and obesity , but actually I want to know the margarine metabolism in the human body I can find some resources talk ...
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84 views

Do mitochondria use ATP in order make another ATP from glucose?

Do mitochondria use ATP in order make another ATP from glucose, or does it use another source of energy to convert glucose to ATP?
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116 views

Anaerobic respiration choice in E. coli

Under anaerobic conditions E. coli has two options to generate ATP: fermentation (substrate-level phosphorylation), and respiration (proton gradient, chemisomotic phosphorylation). Which is favored? ...
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What Are the Exit Routes of Vaccine Adjuvants?

The digestive and respiratory systems are set up to process externally introduced "stuff." Most vaccines are given via an intramuscular route. What happens to the virus and the adjuvant materials ...
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37 views

Regulation of Cra protein level in E coli

Catabolite Activator/Repressor, Cra protein (formerly known as Fructure Repressor FruR) plays a significant role in central carbon metabolism of E coli. Its activity is inhibited by ...
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34 views

Feedback affecting myocyte metabolism in humans

I understand that there are several reserves available to muscle that can be tapped for ATP, and that each reserve is being used to some degree at all times. Are these reaction rates purely due to ...
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Why isn't phosphorus or nitrogen a limiting nutrient for animals?

Nitrogen and Phosphorus are usually the limiting nutrient for plants, especially for algae. Phosphorus is used for DNA, ATP and phospholipids, and Nitrogen is used for pretty much every protein a ...
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1answer
130 views

Why doesn't Diabetes cause death by starvation?

The main cause for diabetes is lack of insulin in the body. Insulin is the hormone that allows body cells to absorb glucose from the blood. With out insulin, the body cells can't get glucose from the ...
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274 views

Can animals make their own unsaturated fatty acids?

I know that animals can't make poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and so require them from dietary sources. For eg.Omega -3 and Omega 6 fatty acids. My questions : Can animals synthesize other ...
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48 views

Could the Warburg effect be used to starve cancer cells in situ?

What is wrong with the following chain of reasoning? Nearly all cancer cells rely on high rates of glucose uptake (upto 200 times more than normal cells). This is known as the the Warburg effect. ...
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240 views

Why isn't the phosphoglycerate kinase reaction of the glycolysis pathway irreversible?

Step 7 of the glycolysis pathway is the conversion of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate into 3-phosphoglycerate by the action of the enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase, resulting in the production of 2 ATP ...
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283 views

What is an irreversible reaction?

There are reactions with large Delta G negative values. Why these reactions are irreversible? As in: out of 10 steps of Glycolysis, 3 are irreversible steps. I need an explanation for why they are ...
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62 views

What is the energy consumption of the brain?

What is the energy consumption of the brain, and is there a difference in consumption when waking and sleeping?
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83 views

How do Gram + bacteria use a proton gradient for F-type ATPase?

Does anyone know of any papers showing how Gram positive Fermiculates or Actinobacteria use a H+ gradient for an F-type ATPase, It seems impossible since there is no outer LPS membrane to maintain ...
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2k views

Do any organisms recycle their own waste internally?

I thought of this question yesterday and it turns out it's surprisingly hard to Google.
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128 views

carbohydrates and lipids as a source of energy? why?

Why carbohydrates and lipids basically used as a sources of energy? Why only proteins are used as building blocks of all the creations? Yes there are some parts of cells like cell walls in which ...
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64 views

How much solar energy required to compensate food?

Just curious, how much solar energy can power an (herbivore) animal? Specifically, is it enough sunlight on Mercury (4 to 10 times brighter than on Earth) to "feed" a zebra? Will it be sufficient at ...