The set of chemical reactions that happen in the cells of living organisms to sustain life.

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What does vitamin B6 and B12 absorption depend upon?

I'm looking at my question about homocysteine metabolism and am doing a followup inquiry into vitamins B6(Pyroxidine) and B12(Cyanocobalamin). I've found this interesting bit about vitamin B12 and am ...
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130 views

What biological systems are affected by Vitamin B6 (or B vitamins in general)?

B vitamins and particularly the B6 vitamin appears to the one of the main ingredients in energy drinks. There has been anecdotal evidence from people interested in dreaming that ingestion of vitamin ...
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103 views

What constitutes the determination of a normal blood glucose level?

Several on-line resources (e.g. MedlinePlus) suggest: Normal range for non-diabetic people who are fasting should range between: 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) Non-diabetic people who ...
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248 views

Are there any intersections between the biochemical pathways of uracil biosynthesis (or metabolism) and methionine degradation in eukaryotes?

Is there any way in which uracil biosynthesis or metabolism could help cell in degradation of toxic levels of methionine?
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90 views

The smell from eating asparagus

I am wondering about one thing. I have read different accounts of this (prior to reading it on Wikipedia), so I am wondering. Here are the two versions I have read: asparagus leads in a certain ...
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3k views

Why is my faeces black in color after eating Oreos

Why is my faeces black in colour the morning after I eat some Oreos? Day 1 : Eat a handful of Oreos & the next morning your stool is black. Day 3 : Eat a handful of cocoa flavored biscuits & ...
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Is there an evolutionary reason for the 5 electron transport complexes in plants and animals?

The electron transport chains of both the light reactions of photosynthesis (in plants) and oxidative phosphorylation (in animals) both contain 5 complexes including ATP synthase, as shown below. ...
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53 views

Consumption of NAD+ in glycolysis

Out of 10 steps in glycolysis, only one reaction- Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (PGP), uses NAD+ and thereby producing NADH. Furthermore, this very step is solely ...
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147 views

Negative feedback in the fructose metabolism in liver

What happens in liver when large amount of fructose is consumed? I vaguely remember my biochemistry lecturer telling us that the enzymes that process fructose in the liver does not have negative ...
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68 views

Hibernation, Metabolism and Aging

People are beginning to seriously research space travel applications of therapeutic hypothermia, specifically for reducing metabolism and stress on humans traveling to Mars. It seems that as you ...
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255 views

How can haired mammals synthesize vitamin D?

The human body can synthesize vitamin D in the skin from cholesterol, when sun exposure is adequate. But how can haired mammals do it? Do not they need it?
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301 views

How was the diversity between ethanol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation evolved?

Quite simply, some organisms metabolize glucose under anaerobic conditions via Glucose->(2) Pyruvic Acid->(2)Ethyl Alcohol. Some organisms, however, metabolize to lactic acid. When did such a process ...
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20 views

bacterial cell wall degradation in humans

can human degrade the D-amino acid present in bacterial cell wall, I'm confused about it i have read somewhere that human can do so.If yes than why we need antibiotic to kill bacteria???If it is not ...
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54 views

Why do humans circulate monosaccharides instead of disaccharides as in plants?

Plants transport food mostly in the form of disaccharides like sucrose but humans transport them in the form of a monosaccharide - glucose. What is the reason behind this ?
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110 views

Where does all the food go?

Food goes in, excrements come out. This seems obvious. But it seems like the mass of the excrements is less than the one of the food. Most people I asked answered: "There's a difference because it's ...
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26 views

Are there any enzymes synthesised by humans that specifically catalyse the hydrolysis of non-cyclic Imides?

Imides or dicarbonyl amides are an interesting class of compounds that includes the pharmaceuticals thalidomide, aniracetam and a few other drugs. These compounds, however, are cyclic and I'm ...
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55 views

Iron metabolism in the brain

I did an expression profiling from publicly available RNAseq data for mouse tissues. While for liver and testes I am getting expected proteins in the top highly expressed mRNAs, for brain I am getting ...
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71 views

Food Intake versus ability to flee among birds, particularly the hummingbird?

Logically speaking, if a hummingbird drinks too much nectar, it will be temporarily overweight and less able or unable to fly to escape danger. However if the same hummingbird doesn't drink enough ...
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289 views

Are all body atoms really recycled several times during a life?

I heard a point, that all (human) body atoms are recycled withing short period like few years. Recycled means "old" atoms are replaced by "new" ones during metabolism, leaving only structure ...
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193 views

Why are there so many medicinal plants?

Here is wikipedia page containing a list of plants used in herbal medicine. One might first want to argue that many of them actually do not have any medicinal/beneficial effect on heatlth. I think we ...
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99 views

Where does an organism store reserves of amino acids?

Where does an organism store reserves of the amino acids it needs to build various proteins it needs -- in the liver ? in the blood ? in every cell ? Thanks
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59 views

Anaerobic respiration choice in E. coli

Under anaerobic conditions E. coli has two options to generate ATP: fermentation (substrate-level phosphorylation), and respiration (proton gradient, chemisomotic phosphorylation). Which is favored? ...
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38 views

naturally occuring fatty acids

The double bonds in naturally occurring fatty acids present in our body are in cis configuration while the enzymes for beta oxidation can act on trans double bond. Then what will be the significance ...
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62 views

How much solar energy required to compensate food?

Just curious, how much solar energy can power an (herbivore) animal? Specifically, is it enough sunlight on Mercury (4 to 10 times brighter than on Earth) to "feed" a zebra? Will it be sufficient at ...
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76 views

Is anaerobic activity during ketosis possible?

When a person's glucose and glycogen stores are depleted, which can occur due to fasting or due to a diet consisting largely of fat (like eskimo diets), the body produces its energy by breaking down ...
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459 views

Circulation through the liver in light of drug metabolism

I have a lingering question which stems from an answer that I gave to What hydrolyses aspirin within the digestive tract and blood stream? When a drug or any other substance is absorbed into the ...
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23 views

Currency metabolites vs. current metabolites: What's the right term?

I have seen the two terms currency metabolite and current metabolite used interchangeably. Is there a consensus on which is the ...
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142 views

what is the margarine metabolism in our body?

margarine is commonly used food ingredients that contribute to both inflammation and obesity , but actually I want to know the margarine metabolism in the human body I can find some resources talk ...
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54 views

Why isn't phosphorus or nitrogen a limiting nutrient for animals?

Nitrogen and Phosphorus are usually the limiting nutrient for plants, especially for algae. Phosphorus is used for DNA, ATP and phospholipids, and Nitrogen is used for pretty much every protein a ...
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44 views

How usable is the Human Metabolic Model to predict biomass?

In order to use the Human Metabolic Model for Flux Balance Analysis of specific cancer cell lines, we would like to know what sort of flux values have been determined for the Human Metabolic Model. ...
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178 views

How is transport of glucose into prokaryotic cells different from transport into eukaryotic cells?

I was reading page 92 of Fundamentals of Microbiology, 4th edition, which states In facilitated diffusion, the substance (glucose, for example) to be transported combines with a plasma membrane ...
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60 views

Are (baseline) high blood levels of melatonin associated with either circadian rhythm or mood disorders?

(Exogenous) melatonin is administered at night for treatment of circadian rhythm disorders, but melatonin taken during the day is linked with depression. I would like to know if high blood levels of ...
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123 views

What marine animals exhibit deep hibernation/aestivation?

Do marine animals exhibit deep hibernation/aestivation as land-based creatures do? If not, Why?
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126 views

Why doesn't Diabetes cause death by starvation?

The main cause for diabetes is lack of insulin in the body. Insulin is the hormone that allows body cells to absorb glucose from the blood. With out insulin, the body cells can't get glucose from the ...
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72 views

Aerobe or facultative anaerobe organism that metabolizes acetate?

I'm assuming bacteria, but will take any suggestions. Organism must survive primarily on the acetate (plus trace elements), but I can give/take electrons, if necessary. Not interested in strict ...
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58 views

Why is duck fat less saturated than cow fat?

Why does the composition of fat in animals vary? Is there an evolutionary advantage to producing fat that is less or more saturated?
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87 views

How can we distinguish blended flavors?

As far as I know, humans can distinguish between 5 basic tastes based on various molecules in food and their interactions. There's a level to all 5 so there can be an endless variety of tastes, and we ...
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What are the differences between white and brown adipose tissue?

What are the differences between white and brown adipose tissue? Here are some that I have come across: ...
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53 views

Why Mammals are unable to produce Essential Fatty Acids?

While we have to get them from our diet and if they aren't taken in our diet we will face disease.Then why we don't have the enzymes which are require for EFA synthesis???
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51 views

What is the energy consumption of the brain?

What is the energy consumption of the brain, and is there a difference in consumption when waking and sleeping?
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61 views

How is Energy Generated in Cats?

I recall reading that much of the energy a cat produces from its food comes from proteins which I assume would produce energy via being catabolised into amino acids which in turn, if glucogenic, would ...
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62 views

Are simple esters like those used as flavouring agents metabolised into their constituent carboxylic acids and alcohols in the human body?

By this I mean to ask whether say ethyl butanoate is hydrolysed in humans into ethanol and butyric (butanoic) acid. This is of interest to me as a pharmacology researcher because butyric acid, for ...
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39 views

How much does a human brain's metabolic rate vary? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How does brain energy consumption depend on mental activity? Our brains consume about 20% of our energy when we're at rest. How variable is a human brain's energy ...
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41 views

Is it easier to burn a calorie of fat or a calorie of a carbohydrate?

Say someone eats 100 calories of chocolate vs. 100 calories of carrots. Something tells me that eating the chocolate will lead to you generating more fat. Will it? Is it harder to burn the calories ...
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38 views

Where can I find the metabolic network for the human erythrocyte?

Where can I find the metabolic network of the human erythrocyte (red blood cell), in SBML format? The red blood cell metabolic network is a model that's usually employed in the literature [see refs ...
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75 views

carbohydrates and lipids as a source of energy? why?

Why carbohydrates and lipids basically used as a sources of energy? Why only proteins are used as building blocks of all the creations? Yes there are some parts of cells like cell walls in which ...
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147 views

Why does beta-2-Thienylalanine inhibit bacterial growth?

I'm trying to obtain a better understanding of the Guthrie Test, which checks whether people have a disease called PKU. The Guthrie test uses bacteria to check for Phenylalanine (the amino acid) in ...
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59 views

How do Gram + bacteria use a proton gradient for F-type ATPase?

Does anyone know of any papers showing how Gram positive Fermiculates or Actinobacteria use a H+ gradient for an F-type ATPase, It seems impossible since there is no outer LPS membrane to maintain ...
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27 views

What are good data on the Human Metabolic Model and where can I get them?

Trying to get a good SBML representation of the Human Metabolic Model for use in Flux Balance Analysis and drug targetting (i.e. gene knockout) simulations. What are good sources for these data? ...
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122 views

Is lemon water an alkalizing agent in the body?

I was recently having a discussion with someone about whether lemon water actually increases the pH of your body (by which I assume they mean the blood); their claim was that once Citric acid was ...