The set of chemical reactions that happen in the cells of living organisms to sustain life.

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Why does beta-2-Thienylalanine inhibit bacterial growth?

I'm trying to obtain a better understanding of the Guthrie Test, which checks whether people have a disease called PKU. The Guthrie test uses bacteria to check for Phenylalanine (the amino acid) in ...
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63 views

How do Gram + bacteria use a proton gradient for F-type ATPase?

Does anyone know of any papers showing how Gram positive Fermiculates or Actinobacteria use a H+ gradient for an F-type ATPase, It seems impossible since there is no outer LPS membrane to maintain ...
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29 views

What are good data on the Human Metabolic Model and where can I get them?

Trying to get a good SBML representation of the Human Metabolic Model for use in Flux Balance Analysis and drug targetting (i.e. gene knockout) simulations. What are good sources for these data? ...
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134 views

Is lemon water an alkalizing agent in the body?

I was recently having a discussion with someone about whether lemon water actually increases the pH of your body (by which I assume they mean the blood); their claim was that once Citric acid was ...
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57 views

What is the role of Homocysteine in cognitive function?

I'm looking at this link : Homocysteine and cognitive impairments and am looking for more information on specific cognitive impairments associated with elevated levels Homocysteine. That article is ...
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36 views

Could the Warburg effect be used to starve cancer cells in situ?

What is wrong with the following chain of reasoning? Nearly all cancer cells rely on high rates of glucose uptake (upto 200 times more than normal cells). This is known as the the Warburg effect. ...
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66 views

How to relate human metabolic model reactions and cancer drug targets / reactome items?

Trying to find a way to take a cancer drug (from CancerDR, for instance) and infer the metabolic reactions that are affected by it in the Human Metabolic Model. Essentially, I would like to know ...
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96 views

Assay for Beta-galactosidase activity in single cell microscopy

I'd like to be able to measure the activity of $\beta$-galactosidase in living cells with simple optical (maybe fluorescence) microscopy. Ideally I'd like to do a minimum of genetic engineering, and ...
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30 views

Genotoxic agent and their metabolic pathway

What are the mechanics (set of biochemical reactions) allowing a given genotoxic agent to modify the mutation rate at a given spot? to induce only a given type of mutation (from Gs to Cs for ...
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52 views

Isoprenoid Diphosphate Concentration in Yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae

Isoprenoid Diphosphate(IPP) is an important metabolites which is precursor in lot of secondary metabolites like Dolichol diphosphate, ubiquinone, prenylated proteins and carotenoid (not synthesized ...
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246 views

Why does the hydrolysis of ATP increasing entropy increase the Phosphoryl-­‐transfer Potential?

I am currently taking a biology class. I do not understand this concept. I understand that the electrostatic repulsion of the negative charges, resonance stabilization and hydration stabilization all ...
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34 views

Why are carnivorans more efficient predators than birds or reptiles?

The Wikipedia page on island gigantism says, "Birds and reptiles generally make less efficient large predators than advanced carnivorans. What does it mean for a predator to be "efficient" and why are ...
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52 views

amino acid containing branched side chain

Branched-chain amino acid are degraded by branched chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. These amino acids aren't degraded in liver because of the absence of this enzyme(in liver).Why the ...
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25 views

Experimental studies of bacterial adaptation to changes in nutrients of culture medium

Are there experimental studies that measure how a population of bacteria in continuous culture evolve when submitted to changes in the concentrations of metabolites in the culture media? For example, ...
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30 views

Regulation of Cra protein level in E coli

Catabolite Activator/Repressor, Cra protein (formerly known as Fructure Repressor FruR) plays a significant role in central carbon metabolism of E coli. Its activity is inhibited by ...
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53 views

Why is a nicotinamide-tryptophan combination used to treat affective episodes in a few older clinical trials?

At least one of the journal articles that reported on such clinical trials allured to the nicotinamide-tryptophan pathway that I assume must be related to the metabolism of tryptophan into serotonin ...
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103 views

What impacts on metabolism are likely from the 6x increase in water consumption by Americans at restaurants since the 1950s?

CDC data show that American water consumption in restaurant meals is 600% of what it was in the 1950s while meal calorie density has decreased (kcal/oz). What impacts is this likely to have on the ...
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124 views

How to determine the actual flux in the human metabolic model of a cell line?

The problem to be solved is to determine what the flux values are for the different reactions in the human metabolic model. As far as I understand, a good way to do that would be to use gene ...
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84 views

How might one determine if bacteria are nitrogen fixing or not?

If you had an isolate bacteria sample how would you determine if they were nitrogen fixing?
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28 views

Feedback affecting myocyte metabolism in humans

I understand that there are several reserves available to muscle that can be tapped for ATP, and that each reserve is being used to some degree at all times. Are these reaction rates purely due to ...
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22 views

Is there sugar secreted into blood even after complete digestions in healthy humans? What about dogs?

Suppose we're feeding a high GI food to a person and that the digestion lasts five hours. Does the body secrete sugar into the blood afterwards? What about in diabetic dogs and humans? Update: I am ...
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38 views

Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid

PUFAs spontaneously oxidize, speed up the process of glycation, since too much glucose and they also decrease mitochondrial respiration - more oxygen and CO2, less lactate and PUFA also promote ...
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22 views

desaturation in fatty acids [duplicate]

humans are unable to synthesize EFA what is the reason behind it that humans cannot introduce double bond between C-10 and the methyl terminal?
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What Are the Exit Routes of Vaccine Adjuvants?

The digestive and respiratory systems are set up to process externally introduced "stuff." Most vaccines are given via an intramuscular route. What happens to the virus and the adjuvant materials ...
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46 views

Where can I find complete description of the nucleotide biosynthesis?

I'm looking for a good source for learning nucleotide biosynthesis pathway (including enzymes and possibly also structural formulas) - what is the best source I could find such pathway, presented in a ...
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96 views

How do cells slowly degrade 5,5'-dibromo-4,4'-dichloro-indigo?

5,5'-dibromo-4,4'-dichloro-indigo is the product of X-gal cleavage, often used as a reporter with B-galactosidase. I've made the (unreferenced) observation that it seems as though the blue product ...
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82 views

Which Enzymes Catalyse the Deacetylation of Drugs in the Human Body?

If you would like more specifics seeing how I realise that this question is very broad and may be difficult to answer in general then hopefully the following will help you out: I am particularly ...
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What organism most efficiently converts a given quantity of mass into heat?

Question I am trying to answer: In the popular film The Matrix, heat given off by humans is harvested as an energy source. I wondered, if this were possible, would humans be a good organism to ...