The set of chemical reactions that happen in the cells of living organisms to sustain life.

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25 views

Where can I find a list of common enzyme cofactors and/or co-enzymes?

Where can I find a list of enzyme cofactors and/or co-enzymes, ordered by how common they are? For example, $O_2$, $H_2O$, $ATP$, $ADP$, $NAD$, should be ranked in the first places, because they ...
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1answer
139 views

what is the margarine metabolism in our body?

margarine is commonly used food ingredients that contribute to both inflammation and obesity , but actually I want to know the margarine metabolism in the human body I can find some resources talk ...
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0answers
22 views

Experimental studies of bacterial adaptation to changes in nutrients of culture medium

Are there experimental studies that measure how a population of bacteria in continuous culture evolve when submitted to changes in the concentrations of metabolites in the culture media? For example, ...
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0answers
20 views

desaturation in fatty acids [duplicate]

humans are unable to synthesize EFA what is the reason behind it that humans cannot introduce double bond between C-10 and the methyl terminal?
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1answer
103 views

How should I feed and keep an ant queen?

I have captured wandering ant queen. I guess she was just fertilised and was looking for a place to start a hive. I'd like to create my own ant hive in artificial environment. I unfortunately only ...
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0answers
33 views

Why Mammals are unable to produce Essential Fatty Acids?

While we have to get them from our diet and if they aren't taken in our diet we will face disease.Then why we don't have the enzymes which are require for EFA synthesis???
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1answer
22 views

Currency metabolites vs. current metabolites: What's the right term?

I have seen the two terms currency metabolite and current metabolite used interchangeably. Is there a consensus on which is the ...
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1answer
111 views

Why doesn't Diabetes cause death by starvation?

The main cause for diabetes is lack of insulin in the body. Insulin is the hormone that allows body cells to absorb glucose from the blood. With out insulin, the body cells can't get glucose from the ...
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1answer
71 views

Do mitochondria use ATP in order make another ATP from glucose?

Do mitochondria use ATP in order make another ATP from glucose, or does it use another source of energy to convert glucose to ATP?
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1answer
82 views

What are the lifetimes of cellular components on organelle or molecular level?

I was thinking that even though I know how generally the cell works, I don't really have a feeling of how volatile it is. I want to know what is the lifetime/turnover rate of different constituents of ...
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1answer
58 views

Why is duck fat less saturated than cow fat?

Why does the composition of fat in animals vary? Is there an evolutionary advantage to producing fat that is less or more saturated?
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1answer
49 views

Anaerobic respiration choice in E. coli

Under anaerobic conditions E. coli has two options to generate ATP: fermentation (substrate-level phosphorylation), and respiration (proton gradient, chemisomotic phosphorylation). Which is favored? ...
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1answer
121 views

What marine animals exhibit deep hibernation/aestivation?

Do marine animals exhibit deep hibernation/aestivation as land-based creatures do? If not, Why?
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0answers
16 views

What Are the Exit Routes of Vaccine Adjuvants?

The digestive and respiratory systems are set up to process externally introduced "stuff." Most vaccines are given via an intramuscular route. What happens to the virus and the adjuvant materials ...
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1answer
50 views

Selective Androgen Receptor Agonist

I'm looking for an inducer that strongly activates the androgen receptor, but not the glucocorticoid receptor that is not DEA regulated. I know that SARMS (Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators) are ...
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1answer
28 views

Feedback affecting myocyte metabolism in humans

I understand that there are several reserves available to muscle that can be tapped for ATP, and that each reserve is being used to some degree at all times. Are these reaction rates purely due to ...
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0answers
24 views

Regulation of Cra protein level in E coli

Catabolite Activator/Repressor, Cra protein (formerly known as Fructure Repressor FruR) plays a significant role in central carbon metabolism of E coli. Its activity is inhibited by ...
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2answers
50 views

Why isn't phosphorus or nitrogen a limiting nutrient for animals?

Nitrogen and Phosphorus are usually the limiting nutrient for plants, especially for algae. Phosphorus is used for DNA, ATP and phospholipids, and Nitrogen is used for pretty much every protein a ...
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2answers
242 views

Can animals make their own unsaturated fatty acids?

I know that animals can't make poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and so require them from dietary sources. For eg.Omega -3 and Omega 6 fatty acids. My questions : Can animals synthesize other ...
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1answer
30 views

Could the Warburg effect be used to starve cancer cells in situ?

What is wrong with the following chain of reasoning? Nearly all cancer cells rely on high rates of glucose uptake (upto 200 times more than normal cells). This is known as the the Warburg effect. ...
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1answer
79 views

What is an irreversible reaction?

There are reactions with large Delta G negative values. Why these reactions are irreversible? As in: out of 10 steps of Glycolysis, 3 are irreversible steps. I need an explanation for why they are ...
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2answers
79 views

Why isn't the phosphoglycerate kinase reaction of the glycolysis pathway irreversible?

Step 7 of the glycolysis pathway is the conversion of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate into 3-phosphoglycerate by the action of the enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase, resulting in the production of 2 ATP ...
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1answer
50 views

What is the energy consumption of the brain?

What is the energy consumption of the brain, and is there a difference in consumption when waking and sleeping?
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1answer
54 views

How do Gram + bacteria use a proton gradient for F-type ATPase?

Does anyone know of any papers showing how Gram positive Fermiculates or Actinobacteria use a H+ gradient for an F-type ATPase, It seems impossible since there is no outer LPS membrane to maintain ...
6
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1answer
222 views

In Japan, mean human body is 36.0 °C, why so different from Europe?

The Japanese Wikipedia states that the mean human body temperature is 36.0 °C (here, row "ヒト"). The statement is referenced by data from the Japanese government. Actually all of my Japanese friends ...
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1answer
110 views

Is lemon water an alkalizing agent in the body?

I was recently having a discussion with someone about whether lemon water actually increases the pH of your body (by which I assume they mean the blood); their claim was that once Citric acid was ...
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4answers
2k views

Do any organisms recycle their own waste internally?

I thought of this question yesterday and it turns out it's surprisingly hard to Google.
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1answer
3k views

Why is my faeces black in color after eating Oreos

Why is my faeces black in colour the morning after I eat some Oreos? Day 1 : Eat a handful of Oreos & the next morning your stool is black. Day 3 : Eat a handful of cocoa flavored biscuits & ...
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2answers
69 views

carbohydrates and lipids as a source of energy? why?

Why carbohydrates and lipids basically used as a sources of energy? Why only proteins are used as building blocks of all the creations? Yes there are some parts of cells like cell walls in which ...
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3answers
259 views

Are all body atoms really recycled several times during a life?

I heard a point, that all (human) body atoms are recycled withing short period like few years. Recycled means "old" atoms are replaced by "new" ones during metabolism, leaving only structure ...
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1answer
61 views

How much solar energy required to compensate food?

Just curious, how much solar energy can power an (herbivore) animal? Specifically, is it enough sunlight on Mercury (4 to 10 times brighter than on Earth) to "feed" a zebra? Will it be sufficient at ...
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1answer
40 views

Is it easier to burn a calorie of fat or a calorie of a carbohydrate?

Say someone eats 100 calories of chocolate vs. 100 calories of carrots. Something tells me that eating the chocolate will lead to you generating more fat. Will it? Is it harder to burn the calories ...
4
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1answer
103 views

What constitutes the determination of a normal blood glucose level?

Several on-line resources (e.g. MedlinePlus) suggest: Normal range for non-diabetic people who are fasting should range between: 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) Non-diabetic people who ...
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2answers
51 views

Why do humans circulate monosaccharides instead of disaccharides as in plants?

Plants transport food mostly in the form of disaccharides like sucrose but humans transport them in the form of a monosaccharide - glucose. What is the reason behind this ?
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1answer
56 views

How to relate human metabolic model reactions and cancer drug targets / reactome items?

Trying to find a way to take a cancer drug (from CancerDR, for instance) and infer the metabolic reactions that are affected by it in the Human Metabolic Model. Essentially, I would like to know ...
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1answer
41 views

How usable is the Human Metabolic Model to predict biomass?

In order to use the Human Metabolic Model for Flux Balance Analysis of specific cancer cell lines, we would like to know what sort of flux values have been determined for the Human Metabolic Model. ...
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1answer
24 views

What are good data on the Human Metabolic Model and where can I get them?

Trying to get a good SBML representation of the Human Metabolic Model for use in Flux Balance Analysis and drug targetting (i.e. gene knockout) simulations. What are good sources for these data? ...
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1answer
36 views

Where can I find the metabolic network for the human erythrocyte?

Where can I find the metabolic network of the human erythrocyte (red blood cell), in SBML format? The red blood cell metabolic network is a model that's usually employed in the literature [see refs ...
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2answers
113 views

How to determine the actual flux in the human metabolic model of a cell line?

The problem to be solved is to determine what the flux values are for the different reactions in the human metabolic model. As far as I understand, a good way to do that would be to use gene ...
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1answer
51 views

Isoprenoid Diphosphate Concentration in Yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae

Isoprenoid Diphosphate(IPP) is an important metabolites which is precursor in lot of secondary metabolites like Dolichol diphosphate, ubiquinone, prenylated proteins and carotenoid (not synthesized ...
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3answers
83 views

Assay for Beta-galactosidase activity in single cell microscopy

I'd like to be able to measure the activity of $\beta$-galactosidase in living cells with simple optical (maybe fluorescence) microscopy. Ideally I'd like to do a minimum of genetic engineering, and ...
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1answer
667 views

Why our body does not produce polyunsaturated fatty acids?

Our body does not produce two polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): linoleic acid and alfa-linolenic acid. I am thinking reasons for it. Saturated fatty acids have more energy than unsaturated. ...
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1answer
134 views

Why does beta-2-Thienylalanine inhibit bacterial growth?

I'm trying to obtain a better understanding of the Guthrie Test, which checks whether people have a disease called PKU. The Guthrie test uses bacteria to check for Phenylalanine (the amino acid) in ...
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1answer
5k views

What are the differences between white and brown adipose tissue?

What are the differences between white and brown adipose tissue? Here are some that I have come across: ...
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2answers
3k views

Why is glucose our primary source of energy?

Is there any evolutionary reason for glucose being the "main" molecule used as a source of energy, beginning with glycolysis and subsequently cellular respiration (after being converted to two ...
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1answer
28 views

Genotoxic agent and their metabolic pathway

What are the mechanics (set of biochemical reactions) allowing a given genotoxic agent to modify the mutation rate at a given spot? to induce only a given type of mutation (from Gs to Cs for ...
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1answer
83 views

How can we distinguish blended flavors?

As far as I know, humans can distinguish between 5 basic tastes based on various molecules in food and their interactions. There's a level to all 5 so there can be an endless variety of tastes, and we ...
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1answer
72 views

Aerobe or facultative anaerobe organism that metabolizes acetate?

I'm assuming bacteria, but will take any suggestions. Organism must survive primarily on the acetate (plus trace elements), but I can give/take electrons, if necessary. Not interested in strict ...
2
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0answers
58 views

How is Energy Generated in Cats?

I recall reading that much of the energy a cat produces from its food comes from proteins which I assume would produce energy via being catabolised into amino acids which in turn, if glucogenic, would ...
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0answers
48 views

Why is a nicotinamide-tryptophan combination used to treat affective episodes in a few older clinical trials?

At least one of the journal articles that reported on such clinical trials allured to the nicotinamide-tryptophan pathway that I assume must be related to the metabolism of tryptophan into serotonin ...