Microbiology is the study of organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and others.

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Spatial learning in microorganisms

Has there ever been an experiment performed that demonstrated a form of 'spatial memory' in a unicellular organism? I'm imagining something analogous to the classic 'rat in maze' experiments, but ...
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Autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms in anaerobic condition

Can both heterotrophic and autotrophic organism survive in anaerobic conditions? If an autotrophic organism does not produce carbon dioxide but requires oxygen, it should not be present in anaerobic ...
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Is there an advantage to antibacterial soap?

There are plenty of different hand soaps out there, as well as hand sanitizers. Is there an advantage to soaps that claim that they're antibacterial vs soaps that just say soap? In particular I'm ...
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51 views

How can I keep pond water “alive”?

I've been preparing wet slides for my kids to look at from pond water. I have a mason jar of pond water. What can I do to keep the microbes in the jar alive going forward so that we can look at it any ...
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1answer
45 views

Bacterial capsule vs. slime wall

I've read that the bacterial capsule protects the bacterium from phagocytes and prevents water (and nutrients, possibly?) leakage from the bacterium. A less organized and less dense version is called ...
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2answers
70 views

What is the difference between a spore and a cyst?

Last year I read a course in biology. During that course I learnt that Protozoa like Lamblia intestinalis or Entamoeba hystolitica form cysts in unfavourable conditions. This year I read a course in ...
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783 views

Why is triclosan not considered an antibiotic?

Triclosan is a chemical often referred to as a "biocide" instead of an "antibiotic". However, its mode of action seems to suggest that it is an antibiotic. Triclosan binds to bacterial enoyl-acyl ...
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51 views

CRISPR-Cas Systems

In the context of the bacterial systems (not the gene editing tool), I was wondering what happens to the foreign DNA after the Cas proteins have created a new spacer. It is really not clear to me, ...
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28 views

What is effectiveness of methyl-alcohol as sporicide?

Methyl-alcohol is the weakest alcohol in terms of bactericidal properties. However, I have read that it also works as sporicide. What is the effectiveness of methyl-alcohol in killing the spores of ...
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48 views

Why increasing the vector concentration does not increase the effeciency of bacterial transformation?

I was reading some old description of the protocols used for the transformation of bacterial cells. In the description I read that the transformation works best with low amount of DNA, and if we ...
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1answer
63 views

What can cause a lump in the middle of the neck? (homework case study) [closed]

What can cause an erythematous, fluctuant, nontender mass in the middle of the neck? Full Case Study: (Its the last of 6 cases and I just can't figure this one out, because of all the possibilities, ...
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43 views

When and How do pacemaker cells develop during the cell aggregation process of Dictyostelium discoideum?

I was reading a paper by Tang & Othmer about oscillations and waves in Dictyostelium discoideum. Under certain condition like starvation period in the life cycle of a Dictyostelium discoideum ...
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2answers
77 views

What is the difference between electrons and energy? [closed]

I'm studying microbiology right now and I have come across something confusing to me. I thought electrons provided energy to the cell by being incorporated into reducing powers and eventually driving ...
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1answer
48 views

What does the term “relay competent” mean?

I was reading the article of Dallon & Othmer (2010) which deals with cell aggregation in Dictyostelium discoideum. In the introduction of the paper it is said that cells becomes "relay competent". ...
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1answer
112 views

Inoculation vs. vaccination

Is there any actual difference between inoculation and vaccination or are these terms interchangeable? In case the difference exists, would it be correct to say that inoculation is purposefully ...
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69 views

E. coli not growing in liquid medium

We are regularly doing bacterial transformation and subculture from plate to liquid media to extract DNA. This usually goes very well and is straightforward, but occasionally, the colonies that grew ...
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1answer
25 views

Can the Staph streak method be used for culturing Neisseria on blood agar?

What I learned in class: Normally chocolate agar is needed to grow Haemophilus and Neisseria. The Staph streak technique can be used for culturing Haemophilus on blood agar by allowing the Staph to ...
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2answers
85 views

Why do slime molds pulsate when growing into their fruiting body?

An example can be seen in this Youtube video, where the slime mold pulsates as it engulfs a rock in order to form its fruiting body. Why does this pulsing happen?
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Why do flagella form a bundle only when they rotate counterclockwise during chemotaxis?

During Chemotaxis in bacteria with flagella, the flagellar rotation dictates how the cell moves. If the flagella rotate counterclockwise, then they form a bundle at one end of the cell (---O) and ...
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1answer
56 views

When do plasmids replicate relative to its host cell cycle?

For plasmids is so much shorter than their host cell's genome (about 1/1000 in my case), it will take only 1/1000 time for it to replicate. With respect to cell cycle, when will that replication ...
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35 views

The ring formation of ringworm

I know ringworm is caused by a fungus on the skin, nails or scalp but what causes the rash to form as a ring instead of like a normal spread out rash?
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2answers
189 views

Does freezing microorganisms such as probiotics kill them?

Does freezing microorganisms such as probiotics kill them? If not, what is the process that allows them to "come back to life" after the temperatures are increased? As an example, lets say you ...
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2answers
166 views

Are there single-celled organisms that have evolved from multi-cellular ones?

I'm reading this paper about transmissible cancer cells in clams (Metzger et al. 2015) and I was wondering if there are any single-cellular organisms that are around today that are suspected as having ...
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1answer
33 views

Microalgae without cell walls?

Most microalgae have rigid cell walls. Dunaliella Salina is a pretty famous example of an algae with no cell wall, but just a plasma membrane. Are there any other microalgae without a cell wall?. I ...
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1answer
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Reasons for the HIV-1 epidemic

So, the HIV-1 jump to humans occurred as early as the 1920s, but the AIDS epidemic didn't start until the early 1980s. Some things I don't understand about this: Why the delay? What is needed for a ...
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1answer
32 views

Regulation of V. cholerae virulence factors

So I know that several different environmental signals, such as pH, bile, and temperature, regulate virulence gene expression in V. cholerae. Specifically, they control expression of the genes ...
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1answer
54 views

Horizontal Gene Transfer

I understand the different ways bacteria can undergo horizontal gene transfer (transformation, transduction (phages), conjugation (plasmids)). Is there an experimental method to tell how a specific ...
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1answer
18 views

Ways to cause membrane damage to microalgae and yeast?

I am researching a way to monitor the membrane damage of cells. To do that I fist have to have reference points, namely, cells with damaged membranes. I am working with Dunalliela, Hematococcus (both ...
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1answer
55 views

Ethanol production by fermentation?

As bacteria are involved in the production of ethanol through fermentation and ethanol is also used as antiseptic that kills bacteria, so how and why bacteria are involved in the synthesis of such ...
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1answer
39 views

Are there mechanisms that limit the amounts of time conjugation and F-plasmid transfer can happen? If yes, what are they?

Not all bacteria have acquired F-plasmids through conjugation. Some of the mechanisms for this are unsuccesful conjugation events (mechanical disruption), no transfer due to integration in bacterial ...
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1answer
106 views

Why don't all bacteria have F-plasmids by now?

Some bacteria can undergo gene transfer by conjugation. Conjugation is a form of horizontal gene transfer, meaning from one (unrelated) bacterium to another (in contrast to vertical gene transfer, ...
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26 views

Why can't some organisms match miRNA perfectly to the target mRNA like in plants? [closed]

What causes other organisms to be impaired in making perfect matches like plants do and is there a way to increase matching?
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2answers
75 views

What happens during kefir fermentation process?

I’ve found many sources about the positive effects of kefir for the digestive system. However I haven’t found any information about the fermenting process. What is the exact biology (chemistry?) ...
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Why is acid alcohol used as a decorizer in the acid fast stain procedure, as opposed to a neutral alcohol?

Is it to neutralize the negative components of the cell membrane, thus preventing the positively charged dye from adhering to the cell membrane?
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1answer
137 views

Why are there no known photosynthetic archaea?

I'm taking a microbial physiology course and we noted that, while some archaea are phototrophic, there are no known photosynethetic archaea. Are there any physiological characteristics that make ...
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1answer
66 views

Survival of streptococcus after my scarlet fever

I'm currently sick because of scarlet fever but I got treated with antibiotics. I know that after 1.5 day using antibiotics the streptococci I release at home are dangerous anymore. But my question ...
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1answer
76 views

To which negatively charged components of the cell envelopes do the crystal violet complexes bind in gram staining?

The gram positive have negative components in the peptidoglycan layer in the form of teichoic acid phosphodiester bonds, and the gram negative have negative components in their outer membrane in the ...
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1answer
42 views

Why are plasmid genes not already incorporated into bacterial chromosomes if necessary for stressful situations?

If plasmids are important for bacteria to express specific genes under stressful conditions, why are these genes not already incorporated into their chromosome to begin with? What is the evolutionary ...
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Reasons preirradiation of negatively stained and plastic embedded specimens with a low electron dose improve stability to electron irradiation

It is known that preirradiation of negatively stained and plastic embedded specimens with a low electron dose improves their stability to electron irradiation. But my question is why this occurs? ...
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Clumping factor test

I'm come across this question and I'm somewhat confused: In the test for staphylococci, the clumping factor detects: staphylothrombin DNase mannitol fermentation Fimbriae fibrinogen-binding protein ...
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1answer
171 views

What allows Valonia ventricosa cells to get so big?

Valonia ventricosa are single celled algae that range between one and few centimeters. In rare cases they can reach sizes exceeding 5cm. Weirdly, a lot of the literature covering these organisms ...
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1answer
41 views

How can I isolate live Wolbachia endosymbionts from Drosophila [closed]

I am interested to culture Wolbachia bacteria in cell line.
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1answer
41 views

What Websites Have Image Libraries for Bacteria and other Microorganisms

What Websites Have Image Libraries for Bacteria and other Microorganisms? With age of cell phone microscopes and hand held spectrometers it would be interesting and valuable to be able to compare ...
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3answers
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Non-harmful bacterial invasion of cells

There are bacteria that can enter body cells as parasites. Could it be that some of these are benign, such that the guest will not kill the host cell it lives in (especially in human)?
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1answer
38 views

The damage of cancer cells

I read about the molecular biology of cancer, and I have a mess on my head and a lot of questions.. . My primary question is- The damage of the cancer cells is in the dna sequence or in the gene ...
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0answers
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Are there any viruses that are part of all land animals?

An article on I Fucking Love Science (linked to below) got me thinking, are there any viruses that have been so successful that they have spread to all land animals similar to Toxoplasmosis which has ...
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2answers
200 views

Growing E. coli at room temperature?

If I were to do a blue/white selection of transformed E. coli on LB agar ampicillin plates at room temperature (23⁰C) for about 2 days and 18 hours, will I run into the issue of satellite colonies or ...
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1answer
40 views

Medium for Pseudomonas?

What is a good minimal medium for Pseudomonas bacteria? Do I need different media for different Pseudomonas species?
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18 views

What are the main principles of the Bacteriological Code?

Although the Bacteriological Code is an important guideline for taxonomists and microbiologists, describing the criteria for delineating species and higher taxa of the prokaryotes, I, and plenty of ...
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2k views

Hot water and bacteria

I know that it is common to say, "use hot water when washing your hands" or when you've got a cut, "wash your hands with warm water," etc. I was wondering, why is this the case? Since bacteria grow in ...