Microbiology is the study of organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and others.

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What's the composition of Actinobacteria's hyphae?

I'd like to know which chemical compounds form hyphae in Actinobacteria. Is it the same structure of the cell wall? Thank you
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What type of bacterial colony is this?

I am having trouble identifying the microorganism in the picture. I think the shape is rhizobium and probably a bacillus, but I can't narrow it down from here. It was grown on agar plate with ...
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What triggers the formation of biofilm? [closed]

How does a bacterial biofilm form? In general, not specific to a certain industry or type of surface. I know how it forms; I understand reversible attachment, irreversible attachment, growth, ...
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329 views

Do all Gram negative bacteria cause septic shock?

Do all Gram negative bacteria cause septic shock? If they don't could they if you attacked them with an antibiotic that could lyse the cell? For example any antibiotic that attacks the cell wall, ...
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Pink E.coli cell pellet. Reasons?

I've harvested IPTG induced E.coli BL21DE3 cells' suspension culture by spinning at 5000 rpm/15 min/4 degrees C. The pellet after spin looked pale pink colored. What could be the reasons?
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How small does a nanobot have to be to “swim through the brain” and access any neuron it wants to?

I read on this question What is in the space between neurons in a brain? that there is actually not much empty space in a brain. But my question is slightly different. Is there a visual demonstration ...
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DNA polymerase I exonuclease activity

Does DNA polymerase I in bacteria use forward or reverse exonuclease activity to remove RNA primers? One of my books says it uses 5' to 3', but another says it uses 3' to 5' exonuclease activity. ...
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28 views

What are some places biofilms could develop?

I'm trying to think of places a biofilm could develop other than on medical equipment or food processing equipment such as stainless steel mechanized blades or knives. I'm thinking more along the ...
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28 views

What is the common diet of food-related IBS patients? Besides most patients being lactose intolerant, what other intolerances do they face?

I am currently writing a paper on irritable bowel syndrome, and I was wondering what the common diet of a patient with food-related IBS consists of. I've already begun discussing the pathogenesis of ...
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How often does bacterial transformation happen?

I have been reading: M. Dröge, A. Pühler, W. Selbitschka, "Horizontal gene transfer among bacteria in terrestrial and aquatic habitats as assessed by microcosm and field studies", Biol. Fertil. ...
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29 views

How many eukaryotes are there on Earth?

I have been reading: William B. Whitman, David C. Coleman, and William J. Wiebe, "Prokaryotes: The unseen majority", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, pp. 6578–6583, June 1998. [Full Text] [PDF] ...
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Effect of flask position in shaking incubator affects growth kinetics

During some cultivation experiments for my bachelor thesis I noticed that in liquid culture my bacteria (E. coli) grew differently, according to the position in the shaking incubator. Because the ...
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57 views

How exactly can dsRNA be introduced to a cell?

Is it just by viruses or are there other means by which it gets into cells, such as plasmid uptake?
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74 views

Identify the pink mold infecting refrigerated lemons [closed]

I made lemon juice 6 month ago. I just washed the lemon using brush and then cut them into pieces. Then I put one layer of lemon in the bottle followed by one layer of sugar Again one layer of lemon ...
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1answer
70 views

Are all functions of a human cell known? [closed]

Please bear with me as I'm intruding into your world from a computer science background. In programming, once you have created a program, you know all functions of that program. Thus, 100% knowledge ...
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30 views

Molecular Cloning- Blunt end restriction endonucleases

I work in a microbiology lab where we do a lot of cloning. I have always used restriction endonucleases to cleave the DNA to have sticky ends and not blunt ends. I currently am working on a project ...
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31 views

Alkaline Phosphatase

What is the predominant purpose of Alkaline Phosphatase in skeletal muscle fibers and liver cells. I know that it is a hydrolase enzyme that speeds up the degredation of proteins, lipids, starch and ...
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52 views

Why is the ebola virus so intense now?

So i'm looking into the ebola crisis and it seems the death toll is really getting crazy. I understand that it's a cytomegalovirus and that it basically overwhelms the immune system due to it's size ...
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25 views

Does adding antibiotic after 5-10 mins of innoculation affect the protein yield or growth?

I've asked a lab colleague the same question. She said, it would loosen the bacterial cells in the LB medium and plasmids would come out. Is that true? and why?
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What do we know about the cellular structure, processes, environment, and immediate ancestors of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA)?

I am up for all scientifically sound speculations, and sources are highly welcome. I've looked into this quite a bit myself via scholar.google, the wiki article, and /r/askscience. I'm really looking ...
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Which pathways Montelukast can alter in blood pH and water homeostasis?

I am thinking which pathways Montelukast can alter in blood pH homeostasis, since there is an indication that Montelukast can increase the perfusion of intra-abdominal organs. It alters those ...
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33 views

What is a good source that will help me classify protists?

I am a 15 year old that enjoys looking at the micro world. The only issue that I have is that I can't find a good online source that will help me classify the name of the micro organism that I'm ...
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2answers
62 views

Why would yeast grow but not produce alcohol?

I'm studying for my intro to microbiology test and I have a question asking why a culture of yeast responsible for producing alcohol would be growing, but not producing alcohol? The multiple choice ...
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387 views

What do you call a virus when it's cured?

When a cure has been found for a virus, can it be called such anymore? Virus implies it's something you've contracted that you just have to live with until (hopefully) your body can overwhelm and ...
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What is this microscopic image from Peter Gabriel's New Blood album cover?

This image appears on the cover of Peter Gabriel's album New Blood. It appears to be a photograph of some microscopic biological cell. But it doesn't look like a blood cell to me. What kind of ...
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Is there any way the food industry can benefit from biofilms?

I realize all of the disadvantages, but I am wondering if the food industry can actually benefit from the formation of biofilms.
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How do Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus precipitate the curd of swiss cheese?

I learned in my food microbiology class that Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus precipitate the curd of swiss cheese. However, I was wondering what type of mechanisms do these ...
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100 views

Answer the questions in one word with help of clues and images given [closed]

Name the things associated with Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek - (6 pictures are given for help and four of them are associated with these clues) a)Leeuwenhoek was the first to describe these and hence ...
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53 views

Did the Britons 100 years ago have different intestinal flora and fauna?

Note: this is not a question about history, but about human digestive system over time :) I know a lot of colleagues who traveled for business trips to India. All of them caught terrible diarrhea ...
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72 views

Fermentation to acetic acid

How much time is needed for the fermentation to acetic acid production cycle, and the conversion of apple vinegar in a sealed container incubated at 37 °C? Should be in the fully closed? What is ...
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muscle contractions cell biology questions?

An increase in cAMP/PKA always results in muscle contractions. In smooth muscle contraction, calcium binds to troponin. Stimulation of adrenergic beta receptors on smooth muscles cause muscle ...
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104 views

Does “Garbage Enzyme cleaner” contain cleaning enzymes?

There are many recipes which call for using fruit peel fermentation process to make a concentrated enzyme cleaner solution, some variations call to add bakers yeast. So the question arises that does ...
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10 views

Switch gut microbiota due to diet and effect on calorie uptake

I have seen peer-reviewed papers mentioning the daily changes in gut microbiota composition according to dietary changes. See for example this paper: http://genomebiology.com/2014/15/7/R89 My ...
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46 views

What does it mean to perform in vitro experiments with mutant bacteria?

I came across the following sentence while reading the paper: Nanchen, Annik, et al. "Cyclic AMP-dependent catabolite repression is the dominant control mechanism of metabolic fluxes under glucose ...
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What is this fuzzy, black fungus that grew on my plates in the 4⁰C room?

I often find the fungus below growing on my (ostensibly) sterile plates in the 4⁰C room. Presumably it takes a few days to reach this size. The colony looks puffy and dimpled in the middle, like a ...
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70 views

If someone were to die on the moon, would their body decay? [closed]

I heard that the footprints of Neil Armstrong are still there, so I was wondering if someone were to die there, would they remain preserved, too? If not how long would it take for them to decay?
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1answer
38 views

What is the expected effect of pH on the activity of a fungal pectinase?

I am working on an enzyme assay for a fungal pectinase.I assayed the enzyme in different buffers from pH 1-12.5 However,the enzyme has good activities starting from pH1-10.5. Is it possible to have ...
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Are there any species which can live off rocket fuel and cosmic radiation? [closed]

It was recently reported that cosmonauts have found sea plankton on the outside of the space station. Space agencies are nowadays very careful to sterilize their interplanetary landers, and orbiting ...
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35 views

Rhizosphere vs. Endorhiza?

In microbiology and the naming of the various areas of the plant as it relates to microbial inhabitance, I am confused as to the difference between the terms endorhiza and rhizosphere. In this case I ...
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133 views

What is the mechanism of oxygen uptake in E. coli?

How does E. coli uptake oxygen? Most of the literature I found is concerned with response to oxygen level supplied in the medium, as opposed to how much is actually transported inside. Can they shut ...
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86 views

Is there a difference between drinking water straight from the tap compared to leaving it to sit?

An idle question - if a glass if filled from the tap and consumed immediately, it contains some dissolved oxygen from the physical process of moving through the pipes & tap. If left out ...
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37 views

Can a plate with incompletely filled LB agar be used?

I am falling short of LB agar plates and I have a plate with less LB agar poured. I meant, the plate is not fully filled with the agar (it was the last plate I poured the medium into). Some part of ...
4
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1answer
106 views

DpnI over-digestion

We have a long protocol that we are optimizing that includes DpnI digestion of a PCR product (to remove any of the template DNA if it's methylated, and while we're not certain in the blind tests, ...
3
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1answer
73 views

Consumption of NAD+ in glycolysis

Out of 10 steps in glycolysis, only one reaction- Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (PGP), uses NAD+ and thereby producing NADH. Furthermore, this very step is solely ...
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70 views

Organisms in food deposits

I have just discovered that my kitchen sink pipe has been leaking for quite some time (possibly months) which has resulted in water and food deposits collecting in my cupboard. I smeared some of the ...
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Genetically modified Klebsiella Planticola nearly bulldozers plant life as we know it?

The article "The Bacterium That (Almost) Ate the World" by Elaine Ingham (see also here or here) describes a genetically modified bacterium that would break down cellulose plant matter into alcohol: ...
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Calculation of the bacterial growth rate from a spectrophotomer growth curve

Typically the microbial growth in liquid cultures is monitored by turbidity. Data is obtained with a spectrophotometer to measure optical density at 600nm. The slope of the bacterial kinetic curve in ...
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1answer
57 views

Can we attack viruses by attaching proteins and such to their shells?

Haven't looked into this to very long, but an initial search didn't return anything. HIV uses certain co-receptors to enter our cells. Could we flood the blood stream with specially designed ...
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27 views

What is the specific use of a capsule in E.coli?

In evolutionary terms, will the capsule cease to exist someday or will it improve ? Does it provide any boost to the organism in any way which harms us ? Can't we remove capsules or engineer E.coli ...
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383 views

What happens to lactic acid I eat?

Let's say I drink some Kefir Milk, what happens to the lactic acid in the Kefir Milk that has entered my digestive system?