Microbiology is the study of organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and others.

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Did Cyanobacteria alone create the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere 3.5 billion years ago?

In other words, is the conveniently close-to-Californian-Universities pools of such representative of accepted theory. With the immediate follow-up question, when did the much more impressive amount ...
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How does the body know to stop effector cell proliferation?

After a pathogen has been successfully neutralized, effector cells such as the plasma cells and the cytotoxic T cells which are specific for that pathogen decrease in numbers. What is the signal in ...
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26 views

Link between NaCl and sulfide reducing bacteria

Could there be any link between the consumption of NaCl and sulfide-reducing bacteria? In my study on mice, sulfide-reducing bacteria (SRB) are more abundant, in high-salt-fed group compared to the ...
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Has S.aureus ever been used against cancer?

Treating inoperable tumors with bacteria appears to be very effective, albeit being toxic to the patient as well. Has (live attenuated) Staphylococcus aureus ever been used against cancer? If the ...
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Red transcriptional reporter in Psudomonas putida

I need to build a transcriptional reporter in P. putida with high excitation wavelength,in order to decrease phototoxicity (I have been using mNeonGreen until now, and I would like to try something ...
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How do I “reinoculate” a petri dish with new bacteria?

Hypothetical question, intended to find a general procedure rather than case-specific recommendations: I have a petri dish full of growth medium with a large population of gram-negative, anaerobic ...
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Is diarrhoea advantageous to the microbe?

Diarrhoea is a common side effect of many feco-orally transmitted bacterial infections. How does diarrhoea help the pathogen? Should it not have a selective evolutionary advantage? Do all symptoms of ...
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33 views

Comments on Experimental result regarding Anti-Bacterial soap

After using soaps, we rinse our hands with water. Do bacteria from the water attach themselves to our hands again? If we wipe our hands to cloth after washing our hands, do bacteria from the cloth ...
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29 views

Why do gram-positive bacteria cause respiratory diseases more frequently than gram-negative bacteria? [closed]

My theory is that aerobic respiration by gram positive bacteria thrives in ideal conditions of the lungs therefore creates respiratory diseases?
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31 views

Is this bacteria or fungi?

I've been growing bacteria on an agar plate and after putting the dishes in the incubator, this is what I saw. I'm new to bacteria identification, and is this just contamination by fungi or is this ...
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45 views

What prevent us from synthesizing a cell from “scratch”?

In this recent article "Design and synthesis of a minimal bacterial genome", they created a minimal cell with only 473 genes. However, they didn't synthesize all of the necessary components of the ...
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Can viruses be toxic?

Bacteria can produce toxins like endotoxins and exotoxins. In diseases like cholera or tetanus they can harm infected people due to these toxins. Now, although viruses are much smaller and are ...
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Does alpha-amylase from different species have different *optimal* conditions?

Do the optimal conditions for the enzyme isoforms differ between species? Specifically, do the optimal pH and temperature for alpha-amylase differ for that enzyme produced by B. lichiniformis and A. ...
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40 views

What kind of organism grows in two-day-old lemon water? [closed]

I had a cup of lemon water on my desk that had been sitting out for 2-3 days. Today I took a sip without even realizing this. I looked at the water and it had something growing in it that looked like ...
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14 views

Growth charecteristics of Bacillus and Lactobacillus Species [closed]

Does anybody know weather the media (Hichrome Bacillus Agar) supports both Bacillus and Lactobacillus species, it is supposed to be the sample of the Lactobacillus plantarum spread on Hichrome ...
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1answer
29 views

What happens during the fermentation process of the eco-enzyme?

introduction about the eco-enzyme I have tried to make several ones at home, no matter what I am using, lemon or pineapple peels with brown or white sugar, the final products all show the similar ...
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Do plant and animal bacterial pathogen differ too much?

I will be involved in a plant disease produced by a bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax citrulli. I've previously worked with animal pathogens such as Haemophilus parasuis. Are there any big differences ...
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1answer
73 views

Why do many people prefer to grow microalgae in bottles?

I see many people growing Chlorella or Spirulina, types of microalgae, inside bottles... I see that they also insert CO2 into the bottles artificially... This question is basically comprised of two ...
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24 views

Why do we need to insert CO2 artifically to Microalgae pools?

Say I take a Chlorella culture and put it in mineral water inside a metal tub under the sun in the backyard --- Why do I need to insert CO2 to this? I mean, Chlorella that grows in freshwater lakes ...
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1answer
64 views

An experiment to test if a bacterial resistance gene is on the plasmid or chromosome?

So I have an E.coli strain phenotypicall resistant to the antibiotics ampicillin and rifampicin. How do I test if the AmpR gene is carried on a plasmid and not on the chromosome? In summary, I ...
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1answer
37 views

How many calories do gut bacteria burn?

It has become well-accepted that microbiota of the gut (a.k.a. gut bacteria) consume calories that are ingested and can have significant effects on energy metabolism in humans. For example, if you ...
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115 views

Whole gene sequence analysis to determine source infection [closed]

Is it possible to use whole gene sequence analysis to distinguish between a common source infection and a person-person disease transmission?
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21 views

What makes worms' eggs float or sink?

In parasitology while examining the stool sample, one important thing you do, is test whether the eggs float on water or sink. We never did that since our coursework limits itself to microscopic ...
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65 views

Can bacteria metabolize fatty acids for fuel?

I'm not a microbiologist, but rather a physiologist curious about microbial metabolism. Much like humans bacteria can utilize glucose, but when it comes to long chain, medium chain, or short chain ...
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Are there bacteria that respire anaerobically in aerobic conditions?

There are facultative aerobic bacteria that switch to aerobic respiration in an aerobic state, but are there any organisms that would still perform anerobic respiration even when shifted to aerobic ...
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1answer
21 views

What are the differences among food poisoning, gastroenetritis and diarrhoea?

I have now studied a major chunk of my microbiology course without understanding the basic difference between the three. The terminologies seem to be confusing. Is it a necessity for food poisoning to ...
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1answer
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Why are vegetations in Infective endocarditis common on the atrial side?

Robbin's Pathology says that vegetations of IE are more common on the atrial side in AV valves. In Liebmann Sack's Endocarditis, which is a sterile (non bacterial) type of endocarditis, the underside ...
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62 views

How can I make sure my UV-purificator kills bacteria?

I'm going to show a UV-purificator for water on science fair. How can I easily check if purificator kills most of the bacteria? I need a quick and possibly easy method.
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What would happen if there were no protists? [closed]

This is for an inquiry project for my biology 11 class. I need opinions from some professionals so please help out.:) if you dont mind also putting your name and what you do or what degree you that ...
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17 views

How does the snail shells' fertilizer compare to regular fertilizers?

May I ask about the quality of the fertilizer derived from the shells and their effectiveness compared to other fertilizers on the market ?
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1answer
30 views

How to transform snail shells into a fertilizer? [closed]

I heard that the chemical structure of the snail shell has elements that help in waste water treatment and in some cases as a fertilizer? What is the process used to render snail shells into ...
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1answer
31 views

Soft Agar Substitute

I've got petri dishes with a base agar layer ready for E. coli culturing. However, I do not have soft agar in which to dilute the E. coli before pouring it on to the plate. Any suggestions on what ...
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17 views

How to promote denitrifying microbe activity

I'm an amateur fresh-water aquarist looking at the problem of nitrate reduction (into largely-inert nitrogen gas) in a small-scale aquarium environment. The process of turning the byproducts of fish ...
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11 views

Function of NEZHA gene [closed]

What is the function of NEZHA? What effect does it have on microtubules and PLEKHA7? What happens after it has been knocked down?
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33 views

Earliest to use media after autoclaving?

I am autoclaving media to use later to inoculate yeast. How much time do I have to wait before using the media and adding the culture? Can I use it a few hours after autoclaving?
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How would one identify cellular transcription factors associated with a viral protein in a treated cell line?

I've been working as the computer guy for a microbiology lab for the past few months. I've always been interested in bench work, but my wet lab experience is rather limited and thus so is my ...
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Lifeforms concentrations of the categories of macromolecules, and Lipids

Lifeforms are formed of large, modular, organic molecules called macromolecules, large organic molecules called Lipids, and simpler molecules such as H2O. Macromolecules are commonly grouped into the ...
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Tardigrade genetic acceptance and experimentation?

Does this property of tardigrades, that when under extreme conditions they are more permeable and more easily accept sections of genes developed in other species, as I understand sometimes transfered ...
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Can tardigrades survive being eaten?

Compared to a tardigrade, the cockroach seems fragile. But can tardigrades survive the acidic environment of being eaten by most animals?
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Bacteria surviving a β-lactam antibiotic

What changes can occur in the cell wall of a bacteria for it to survive a β-lactam antibiotic? I think that because a bacteria possesses peptidoglycan in its cell wall, they are β-lactam sensitive, ...
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NMDS analysis - weird plots

I ran a NMDS analysis on 16S tag sequencing data on three different 16S regions, and would like to establish the regression coefficients (R, p) from this. All the data is stored within a combination ...
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using bioreactors for bacteria and yeasts

I have some questions about the OD to inoculate in a bioreactor and the OD for the induction using bacteria and yeasts (Pichia pastoris) to produce recombinant proteins. Which is the OD for the ...
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162 views

Why do bacteria die in a high sugar content environment?

I was reading some questions in the test bank. Then in Chapter 27, I wonder why the answer is A. (undergo death by plasmolysis). Is the high concentration of sugar that kills them or the effects of ...
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1answer
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Which literature/study/myth spurred the idea that urine is sterile?

There is a seemingly unfounded mantra that a person's urine is sterile who is not suffering from a UTI. So far I have found convincing evidence to the contrary; urine is not sterile. This poster ...
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111 views

How is a bacterial strain defined?

When a species of bacteria is referred to by its strain, are they a clone of single founder or is a certain amount variation allowed?
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26 views

30s ribosomal Inhibitor (Antibiotic)Question

I have a question regarding the mode of action of 30s ribosomal Inhibitors (antibiotcs) - tetracyclines. According to some online resources, the antibiotics enter the A-site, which prevents other tRNA ...
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How to identify genes in Ralstonia that synthesize PHB and promote granule formation?

The compound polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is of considerable industrial interest as a biodegradable substitute for plastic. PHB is synthesized from glycerol by the bacterium Ralstonia eutropha. PHB ...
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1answer
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How long can you effectively store a glycerol stock at -20 degrees Celsius?

I know that glycerol stocks are typically kept in a -80 °C freezer, however there are some people who do not have access to such equipment. How long would you be able to keep a glycerol stock at ...
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23 views

How do microbes develop resistance to anitmicrobial peptides?

I would like to better understand how bacteria use the "strategy" of alternations to lipid A and membrane proteins in order to resist antimicrobial peptides of the immune system? It is my ...
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Of people who develop Alzheimer disease, are those people genetically predisposed to it?

I have read a lot lately about microbiological pathogens that are found in blood vessels in the brain of patient's with Alzheimer disease (positive association). So, I am confused whether there are ...