Microbiology is the study of organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and others.

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How do microbes develop resistance to anitmicrobial peptides?

I would like to better understand how bacteria use the "strategy" of alternations to lipid A and membrane proteins in order to resist antimicrobial peptides of the immune system? It is my ...
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39 views

Of people who develop Alzheimer disease, are those people genetically predisposed to it?

I have read a lot lately about microbiological pathogens that are found in blood vessels in the brain of patient's with Alzheimer disease (positive association). So, I am confused whether there are ...
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50 views

How to obtain virus samples?

I'm trying to observe the behavior of simple viruses in different environments. I'm just looking for simple viruses like the common cold and the flu virus nothing major. Is there a way to obtain them? ...
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57 views

How exactly are petri dishes used (e.g. in medicine)? [closed]

I know that petri dishes with a growth medium are used to grow micro organisms. I guess this works as follows: The petri dish has to be kept sterile. To make it easier, I guess one could cool it. ...
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Can Biologists identify all viruses?

I went to the doctor today with my girlfriend, and the doctor said that she had a virus but doesn't know which one and she should let the infection heal with some rest. The fact that the doctor ...
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56 views

What is the advantage of using plant-derived antibacterials rather than bacteria-derived antibacterials?

So obviously we have a big problem with antibiotic resistance. Most of our antibiotics originate from bacteria themselves (or are synthetic variations on scaffolds which originate from bacteria). I ...
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35 views

How do cell repair mechanism ratios change as they age?

I have seen that embryonic stem cells are shown to use homologous repair for double strand breaks rather then non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). [1] I am wondering if something also happens to a ...
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12 views

Microbiology- Pseudomonas aeruginosa, BSAC data

I tested Pseudomonas aeruginosaagainst various antibiotics, using Stokes and Kirby-Bauer. When I compared my results with BSAC data it was completely different (understandable) but why for a lot of ...
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31 views

Values of Miu_max and Ks from parameter estimation?

Background I have this simple biomass growth model: $$ \mu = \mu_{max}\cdot \left(\frac{S}{K_S+S}\right) \cdot \left(\frac{1}{1+S/K_{iS}}\right) \cdot \left(\frac{K_{iP}}{K_{iP}+P}\right) \\ ...
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1answer
326 views

Relationship between turgor pressure and osmotic pressure?

I would like to know if there is a relationship between osmotic pressure (inside and outside of a cell) and turgor pressure. If so, is there a way to formalize it mathematically? Thank you in ...
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74 views

Experimental Analysis: What are possible reasons for this increase in N₂O production?

My professor wanted us to each conduct an experiment for class on something we thought would interesting. My experiment was very simple, but I'm not sure how to interpret my results. (Please note that ...
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24 views

How would substances that have anti bacterial characteristics interact with yeast? [closed]

This question has its origins at home brewers where the question was asked how would substances with anti bacterial qualities interact with yeast a fungus? No one at home brewers was really sure so I ...
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37 views

Oral Fordyce spots

This is an image of a Fordyce spot I found while Googling. I don't know how to interpret this image. Is this an image of a single Fordyce spot? I mean "single" as in a single spot when viewed by the ...
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182 views

difference between “Petri dishes” and “Petri plates”? [closed]

In microbiology, we often hear "we use Petri dishes to prepare our cultural media". Which is correct — "Petri dishes" or "Petri plates"?
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1answer
194 views

How sterile is working next to a bunsen burner?

When I was still doing lab work, many people would just wear gloves and work next to a bunsen burner because the clean benches were all in use. This was mostly for plating bacteria like Bacillus ...
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2answers
333 views

Can bacteria release free DNA into their environment?

Natural transformation AKA natural competence involves the uptake of DNA into a competent bacterium (for horizontal gene transfer or as a food source). My question is about where this extracellular ...
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1answer
120 views

Why does chlorination still work?

Chlorination has been used for over a century to disinfect water supplies. Why haven't microorganisms evolved immunity to this chlorine by now?
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66 views

Favored Conditions of Bacterial Growth

I have read that bacteria "thrive" in warm places. Naturally, I am very interested in why this is the case. Humans for instance thrive also in relatively warm conditions if it's too cold or too warm ...
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69 views

Why a particular species of bacteria give rise to particular type of colony? [closed]

Bacterial colony varies in form, elevation, margin, opacity, chromogenesis etc. What gives definite character to a colony and what is the source of all the diversity? Is the reason similar to that of ...
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1answer
28 views

Why would a bacterial population show initial growth when it is in unfavorable growth conditions?

This figure shows the anaerobe E. faecalis grown in aerobic conditions, E. coli grown in restricted conditions that are not specified. Why do they show an increase in abundance initially? The black ...
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18 views

What exactly are polyphenols and what benefits do they provide to humans?

I say somewhere that they are antioxidants, but I was wondering if the two terms are synonymous or if that is just one of many things polyphenols can do.
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130 views

Two different sized colonies from the same species of bacteria. What does it mean? [closed]

I have got two different sized colonies in a plate of Salmonella Paratyphi, identified by biochemical methods. What does two different sized colonies mean? What kind of question can I investigate in ...
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3k views

Why is 70% ethanol preferred for aseptic techniques?

Are other concentrations (say 80%) less effective,or is this just for convenient manufacturing? Is the concentration chosen only because it is less volatile than 100 percent ethanol and hence safer?
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3answers
68 views

How do you interpret this microbiology/ bacteriology research figure?

This is a figure from a research article that I am to do a senior presentation for. It is showing bacterial replication of an enteric bacteria population. The researchers hypothesize that the ...
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2answers
192 views

Difference between protozoa, protists, protoctista?

Are these different classes of organisms or simply different names for the same?
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1answer
75 views

Why don't bacteria eat food leftovers?

I have thrown a dirty spoon after eating some pasta into one of my desk drawers (doesn't do me much honor). It stayed there for around a year. My house is warm and I think there is enough humidity for ...
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1answer
68 views

Plasmid choosing

To design a experiment in feeding of C. elegans. It has to choose a plasmid vector to insert the gene of interest that can feed to C. elegans. Many paper are using pL4440 for the feeding vector, ...
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Which Lactobacillales (Lactic acid bacteria — LAB) strains are capable of degrading starch?

I've been researching bacteria strains but am having trouble finding amylolytic LAB strains with amylolytic and lactic acid producing character. The only species I've found, that are capable of ...
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25 views

Symbiosis of Pseudomonas Fluorescens

Have a modest background in molecular biology and presently considering a project that requires some knowledge of botany. Specifically, I seek details on the epiphytic relation between the microbe ...
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2answers
57 views

Bacteria Replication

I learned this at a lecture, but somehow I have trouble in understanding this. It is said that the bacteria such as E.coli need 20 minutes to divide, but its chromosome require 40 minutes to multiply. ...
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3answers
204 views

Does a microwave oven disinfect food?

Imagine I am preparing food, just about to put it into a microwave oven, and some of it falls on the floor. Assuming it got some bacteria or other organisms (viruses?) on it, will the microwave ...
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1answer
56 views

Common genes and enzymes involved in pathogen entry into host

Many microbes like Salmonella, E.coli, Legionella pneumophila etc. enter host cells via cystoskeleton remodeling of the host cell. Do all microbes follow the same path or there are any other ways for ...
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1answer
64 views

How can E. coli affect C. elegans expression?

Plasmids can be transferred to E. coli. These transformed E. coli can be fed to C. elegans to silence its gene expression by RNAi. How can E.coli release RNAi to C. elegans? Even if we assume E. ...
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15 views

Counting of surface bacteria in real time

I'm fairly new to microbiology (okay, I'm forced to look into it for a group project). What I'm looking for is a way to quantitatively get an estimate of the number of microbes (bacteria and/or ...
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1answer
55 views

Why do some bacteria have an asymmetric replication?

Our teacher said that Bacillus subtilis has an asymmetrical replication fork. I know that this happens only in some strain of the bacteria . She asked us to find an explication for this mechanism , ...
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Why are viruses considered microbes?

My question is simple. Why is a virus considered a microbe? Considering a microbe is considered to be a "living" unit of life, which viruses are not.
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32 views

Nucleoside analogs that cause mutation

I'm confused with this explanation in my book: 2-aminopurine is incorporated into DNA in place of adenine but can pair with cytosine, so an AT pair becomes a CG pair. This sentence seems odd to me. ...
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32 views

Is there a good easy protocol for extracting proteins(enzymes) from fungal mycelium?

I quantify the enzyme (polygalacturanase)activity by DNSA method.To determine endo-polygalacturonase activity I'm searching for a good easy enzyme extracting method.Any suggestions for a suitable ...
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1answer
575 views

How heavy are all foreign microorganisms in and on the human body?

I define "foreign microorganism" as a microorganism which is not produced by the human body (not antibodies or leukocytes) including bacteria, viruses, fungi, biofilm aggregates or small lifeforms ...
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30 views

“Antibiotic resistance” equivalent in archaea for selection during cloning

I'm beginning to work with halophilic archaea and I'm trying to figure out a good way to select for cells that have taken up a plasmid. Obviously, one can't use antibiotic resistance since they are ...
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28 views

Enrichment of slow growing microbes: Large Test Tubes as an alternative?

Well, i would like to enrich bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidisers from soil samples using Minimal Salt media. They are slow growing microbes. I would like to enrich them with the aim to produce ...
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Blood testing for chlamydia

I am working with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The main test for this species is the naat test, which is based on amplification. But I would like to know how the bacteria affects the blood ...
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3answers
376 views

Can ampicillin resistant bacteria survive penicillin plate?

in my molecular bio class we were asked a trick question: If the bacteria has a plasmid with that grants it ampicillin ressistance, can the bacteria survive if placed in penicillin? I gave it a ...
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1answer
24 views

How can I interface cAMP signal or membrane potential from slime mold to an electrode?

I am very much interested in measuring cAMP (cyclic adenosine mono phosphate) signal and membrane potential from amoeba. Since I want to try this as a hobby, what are the basic steps I must do to view ...
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1answer
46 views

How many diseases can be linked to disruption in the microbiome of a human?

I was listing to the radio and heard recent research found a link between children and higher cases of asthma when certain bacteria are missing from the microbiome. How many other diseases can be ...
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32 views

Soy kefir that never revitalises in animal milk

If I have kefir grains from goat and I make soy kefir and never revitalise the kefir grains in an animal milk, will that bacteria still be beneficial for the gut? What type of bacteria does it make? ...
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217 views

How does Cro protein expressed by lambda phage kill its host?

I read that the DNA segment of lambda phage integrated in host DNA could switch between lysogenic state where cI represses the expression of Cro and lytic state where Cro expression takes over and ...
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4answers
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Are all pathogens parasites?

If parasites are organisms that feed on other living organisms, then aren't all pathogens parasites? I've emphasised on 'feed' because I guess the pathogens just eat us (i.e. take nutrients to ...
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1answer
73 views

What are the differences and similarities between fimbriae and adhesins in microbes adherence factor?

Adherence factors in microbes is to attach to a host cell or to an extracellular matrix. So what is the difference and similarities between fimbriae and adhesins?
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Can mutation rate be increased for instance by mutagenesis targeting the DNA polymerase?

I am studying a non-cultivable bacterium living in an insect host, and I would like to generate some random mutants of this bacteria while preserving the insect. I am wondering if one way to do so ...