Microbiology is the study of organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and others.

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Direct spread of Parvovirus B19 from blood to Brain stem and CSF

Parvovirus can spread in blood (viremia) to bone marrow. It is detected in some stages of infection in Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, I am thinking if it can spread directly with facilitated ...
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69 views

What is “bacto” peptone?

Standard recipes for yeast medium often include "bacto-peptone". Is this the same as bacteriological peptone? Is there an authoritative source that spells it out?
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31 views

Regulation of Cra protein level in E coli

Catabolite Activator/Repressor, Cra protein (formerly known as Fructure Repressor FruR) plays a significant role in central carbon metabolism of E coli. Its activity is inhibited by ...
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46 views

Tc and Th1 interaction and viral immune response

Tc is T cell which can give T killer cells and T helper cells. T helper cells (Th1) see the pathogen presented by antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells and macrophages). They then secrete antigens ...
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39 views

Vitamin D oral intake, transportation and absorption

Several factors affecting vitamin D and its active form absorption and storage acidity of stomach (not significant effect) cytopathic effects of viruses cytopathic effects of bacteria where the ...
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1answer
48 views

Any forms of pneumonia that can be caught?

I am aware of the fact that there are several different types of pneumonia. However, I am wondering if any of these types of pneumonia are contagious from person to person. Is this possible?
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31 views

To have TBE vaccine during allergic times with mild asthmatic symptoms?

My assistant says that if you have asthmatic symptoms you cannot have TBE (Tick Born Encephalitis) vaccine, although you are living in the active zone of TBE. Cases mild allergic symptoms allergic ...
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64 views

Is a sequential double transformation acceptable?

Standard protocol states having two compatible vectors being transformed simultaneously during the same procedure. I've come across a situation in which transforming one vector, obtaining results, and ...
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1answer
75 views

How do Gram + bacteria use a proton gradient for F-type ATPase?

Does anyone know of any papers showing how Gram positive Fermiculates or Actinobacteria use a H+ gradient for an F-type ATPase, It seems impossible since there is no outer LPS membrane to maintain ...
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29 views

Can inhibition of lymphocytes migration be a direct cause of chronic inflammation?

Here is the original slide: I am thinking about the "cord factor" sentence in a more general case. Assume you inhibit Leucocytes migration. How does this lead to accumulation of macrophages in the ...
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1answer
34 views

Cells created using differently aligned proteins

I remember reading that scientist were making cells (I assume bacteria), that used differently oriented proteins to create a whole new class of life. Because apparently right and left aligned proteins ...
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1answer
55 views

Can SIRS occur without Sepsis from Infection?

I am thinking this figure It suggests me that there has to be Sepsis that infection can lead to SIRS. I am thinking particularly the pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans where respiratory ...
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1answer
31 views

How does HBeAg change to Anti-HBe in acute hepatitis

I am thinking this figure which can also be drawn like this How does HBeAg change to Anti-HBe? There are some triggers that stimulate Anti-HBe production after HBeAg level is done. I think ...
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23 views

What is the relation between HBeAG and Anti-HBc

I am analysing this picture about acute hepatitis, viral infection of HBV, where are standard antibodies and antigens of HBV: HBsAg serum antigen HBeAg some antigen in blood anti-HBc antibody in ...
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2answers
48 views

What's the fastest legal way for the nutrients in a dead body to re-enter the ecosystem?

Apologies for weirdness. Of the various legal methods of disposing of a human corpse, which one ensures the nutrients which compose the body get back into the wider ecosystem the fastest? Unless ...
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2answers
72 views

Can a fungus become resistant to a chemical such as Potassium Permanganate?

A friend used potassium permanganate solution to treat tinea on the hands/feet but after some initial success, the tinea seems to be making a comeback. Could the fungus develop resistance to potassium ...
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1answer
228 views

What kind of a microscope do I need to see cell organelles?

I would like to study cells and looking for a microscope that would allow me to see: groups of cells individual cell cells organelles I would like to target insects and mammal tissue. I would be ...
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1answer
18 views

S. pyogenes' skin infection diagnostics

S. pyogenes is "flesh-eating" bacteria. It results from life-theatening myonecrosis caused by this organism. S. pyogenes avoids phagocytosis (mediated primarily by capsule, M and M-like proteins, C5a ...
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3answers
91 views

Why do 6-8% of diphtheria patients do not develop natural immunity after being affected?

I am thinking of why some patients do not have natural immunity after exposure to the A-B toxin of diphthria. I think the A-B exotoxin is the key factor causing this disease and should trigger memory ...
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1answer
28 views

How host defends against S. pneumoniae capsule?

The host response involves at least phagocytosis and probably localised acute inflammatory response at least after the colonisation. I am thinking how the host can defend against pneumolysin which ...
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1answer
52 views

What does this sentence about toxemia and Clostridium tetani mean?

I know that Cl tetani is not invasive and strictly localised. I think toxemia means spread in the blood. I am thinking this sentence The volume of infected tissue is small, and the disease is ...
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1answer
77 views

Do bacteria with capsular antigen always have a capsule?

Assume some bacteria have capsular antigen. Do these bacteria always have a capsule? I think not, I think the antigen only makes it possible.
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2answers
116 views

Can Listeria monocytogenes endotoxin act as an A-B toxin?

I think no, but I am not sure since Listeria is Gram-positive and probably has lipopolysaccharide (exception among Gram positive bacteria). Can Listeria monocytogenes' endotoxin act like exotoxin ...
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56 views

Capsule and Antiphagocytosis as a pathogenesis factor

I am thinking the pathogenesis factor (capsule) of Pseudomonas aeruginose as an example: antiphagocytosis $\to$ anti antibodies (I think AB is antibodies) and complement; anbiotics ...
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1answer
14 views

Pathogenesis of Group B Streptococci and C5a

I am thinking the pathogenesis of the C5a in GBS. I think the pathogenesis happens like C5a-peptidase in acid environment (Sialic acid, capsule) $\to$ cleaves C'-derived Neu chemoattractant C5a ...
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179 views

What is the benefit of using Gonoline-Euroline in combination? [closed]

I was heard that this combination first Gonoline and other culture another culture on Euroline is good one. What is the benefit of using Gonoline-Euroline in combination?
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1answer
31 views

What are the best detection medias for cholera?

I heard this fact that you can use some [hypertriade] for vibrio cholera diagnosis which has compontents sucrose (yellow) mannose (yellow) arabinose (do not ferment; stay dark pink) I did not find ...
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2answers
87 views

What is the right spelling for this agar? [closed]

I could not spell the agar [gonoline-uroline] which I heard yesterday. My spelling is so wrong that I could not find it in Google. What is the right spelling for this agar?
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33 views

Shigella's O antigen (PAI synthesised) and passage through host defences

The O antigen is synthesised by Pathology islands (PAI). O antigen may be a factor why Shigella survives the passage through host defences. I am interested in which step of pathogenesis. There are ...
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1answer
172 views

Difference between Cary-Blair and Amies transport media for Staphylococcus and Streptococcus?

I normally use Amies medium, but I today heard that Cary-Blair is also possible. When should you use Cary-Blair medium?
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1answer
27 views

Difference between Fulminant and Acute Meningococcemias

Fulminant seems to mead rapid. There is however some articles with both phrases: "fulminant meningococcecemia" (about 5000 Google matches) and "acute meningococcecemia" (about 3000 Google matches). I ...
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1answer
16 views

Is Rheumatic fever more Chronic than acute?

It follows from the complication of S.pyogenes' pharyngitis. I am thinking how the inflammatory response behaves: acute or chronic or something between. I think chronic disease is better description ...
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31 views

How to start Diagnostics of Enterobacteriaceae?

I am thinking what is the Diagnostics for Enterobacteriacea and particularly Shigella, Yersinia, Vibrio, Campylobacteriacea, Helicobacter pylori, salmonella and Proteus. I got today advice that start ...
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1answer
29 views

Is the regulation of lactose operon different between Gram + and Gram -?

I know that in E. coli the lactose operon is shut down by CAP protein when binding cAMP. Is this true also for Gram positive bacteria?
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19 views

How are lophotrichous flagella of helicobacter pylori produced?

I am thinking the mechanism is something like first adhesins (mucinase). Howevever, this does not seem to be enough. How are the flagella of H. pylori produced?
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15 views

Do Yersinia genus spp have anything movement factors?

It can spread in blood (Type III secretion system -> apoptosis). I am interested if there is any others ways to move. Do Yersinia spp have anything virulence factors to move?
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1answer
15 views

Has H.pylori paracellular activity?

I know that it has transcellular activity i.e. it can pass through neighbouring cells. However, I am not completely sure if it does not have paracellular activity, see this: H. pylori did not ...
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330 views

I don't wash my hands and never get sick. Any theories? [closed]

I have only been sick a few times in my life(I'm 21 and probably 3-4 times) and even when I am sick I don't feel that bad and I am over it within a day or two. My family has always given me slack for ...
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21 views

To understand clearly extraintestinal diseases

Extradistestinal disease seems to prefer to "bowel" diseases, I think this is about diseases outside gastrointestinal tract so stomach. Consider diseases ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease ...
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2answers
42 views

Is there any format for official Physiological/Medicine answers? [closed]

Assume you have an exam which has 5 extensive questions and 60 minutes. You do not have time to cover most if you write everything in essay format. If you start to write essays, you do not really have ...
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62 views

Replication of DNA in E. coli: what are DARS and RIDA?

I understand what is DnaA, its role in replication and the fact that it's only active when binding ATP. I don't understand what are DARS and RIDA and how they control the amount of DnaA-ATP:DnaA-ADP
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111 views

How does activation of adenylcyclase lead to increased cAMP and diarrhea?

I am trying find explanation for these mechanisms Tox plasmid -> exotoxin (enterotoxin) -> activation of adenylcyclase -> \up cAMP enterocytes -> release of H2O, electrolytes in gut lumen -> ...
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1answer
36 views

What is the maximum amount of different bacteria in the drinking water in Europe?

I am looking for a statistical amounts which are allowed. Some students say it is 0 for all bacteria, which I think is false. I found this USA source. I found there Total Coliforms (including fecal ...
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1answer
11 views

How does Mupirocin affect in staphylococcal infection?

I found this sentence confusing Transitor carriers of staphylococcal infections 70% because of mupirocin i/n. Mupirocin is drug which affects some way. I am not ...
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1answer
31 views

Staphylococcus AG structure?

I found this statement in my study materials in the section of Staphylococcus The AG structure: protein AG (species specific); polysaccharide AG (serotype specific). I know what is ...
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1answer
54 views

Difficulty in developing certain vaccines

I have a college level background in Biology, say at the level of Campbell. I am very curious to know why it's extremely difficult to develop vaccines for certain diseases. Two cases which I am really ...
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1answer
49 views

Why PPD test in patients without M.tuberculosis often slightly positive?

I got this question which I interpret as Why PPD test in patients without M. tuberculosis often have slightly positive PPD reaction i.e., a lifelong slightly positive skin test reaction? because ...
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3answers
77 views

Why HIV patients have greater virulence of M.tuberculosis?

I am reading Murray Microbiology book. Some facts M. tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen. At the time of exposure, M. tuberculosis enters the respiratory airways and infectious particles ...
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1answer
172 views

For people who work in microbiology labs, what software do you use to manage your strains?

It's just a small microbiology lab that currently records everything on paper, and there's quite few mutants as well. Is Excel commonly used for this sort of thing? Or is there a better software to ...
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60 views

Why bacteria produce light?

After seeing this video I am curious to know why the free living bacteria produce light. What advantage will they have ? Or is it just an "unintentional" result of one of their pathways ?