Microbiology is the study of organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and others.

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Can inhibition of lymphocytes migration be a direct cause of chronic inflammation?

Here is the original slide: I am thinking about the "cord factor" sentence in a more general case. Assume you inhibit Leucocytes migration. How does this lead to accumulation of macrophages in the ...
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2answers
49 views

What's the fastest legal way for the nutrients in a dead body to re-enter the ecosystem?

Apologies for weirdness. Of the various legal methods of disposing of a human corpse, which one ensures the nutrients which compose the body get back into the wider ecosystem the fastest? Unless ...
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1answer
38 views

How does HBeAg change to Anti-HBe in acute hepatitis

I am thinking this figure which can also be drawn like this How does HBeAg change to Anti-HBe? There are some triggers that stimulate Anti-HBe production after HBeAg level is done. I think ...
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3answers
100 views

Why do 6-8% of diphtheria patients do not develop natural immunity after being affected?

I am thinking of why some patients do not have natural immunity after exposure to the A-B toxin of diphthria. I think the A-B exotoxin is the key factor causing this disease and should trigger memory ...
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1answer
62 views

Why bacteria produce light?

After seeing this video I am curious to know why the free living bacteria produce light. What advantage will they have ? Or is it just an "unintentional" result of one of their pathways ?
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1answer
267 views

What kind of a microscope do I need to see cell organelles?

I would like to study cells and looking for a microscope that would allow me to see: groups of cells individual cell cells organelles I would like to target insects and mammal tissue. I would be ...
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1answer
31 views

How host defends against S. pneumoniae capsule?

The host response involves at least phagocytosis and probably localised acute inflammatory response at least after the colonisation. I am thinking how the host can defend against pneumolysin which ...
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1answer
20 views

S. pyogenes' skin infection diagnostics

S. pyogenes is "flesh-eating" bacteria. It results from life-theatening myonecrosis caused by this organism. S. pyogenes avoids phagocytosis (mediated primarily by capsule, M and M-like proteins, C5a ...
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1answer
93 views

Do bacteria with capsular antigen always have a capsule?

Assume some bacteria have capsular antigen. Do these bacteria always have a capsule? I think not, I think the antigen only makes it possible.
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1answer
57 views

What does this sentence about toxemia and Clostridium tetani mean?

I know that Cl tetani is not invasive and strictly localised. I think toxemia means spread in the blood. I am thinking this sentence The volume of infected tissue is small, and the disease is ...
2
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2answers
145 views

Can Listeria monocytogenes endotoxin act as an A-B toxin?

I think no, but I am not sure since Listeria is Gram-positive and probably has lipopolysaccharide (exception among Gram positive bacteria). Can Listeria monocytogenes' endotoxin act like exotoxin ...
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1answer
14 views

Pathogenesis of Group B Streptococci and C5a

I am thinking the pathogenesis of the C5a in GBS. I think the pathogenesis happens like C5a-peptidase in acid environment (Sialic acid, capsule) $\to$ cleaves C'-derived Neu chemoattractant C5a ...
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1answer
31 views

What are the best detection medias for cholera?

I heard this fact that you can use some [hypertriade] for vibrio cholera diagnosis which has compontents sucrose (yellow) mannose (yellow) arabinose (do not ferment; stay dark pink) I did not find ...
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1answer
15 views

Has H.pylori paracellular activity?

I know that it has transcellular activity i.e. it can pass through neighbouring cells. However, I am not completely sure if it does not have paracellular activity, see this: H. pylori did not ...
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1answer
201 views

What is the benefit of using Gonoline-Euroline in combination? [closed]

I was heard that this combination first Gonoline and other culture another culture on Euroline is good one. What is the benefit of using Gonoline-Euroline in combination?
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2answers
87 views

What is the right spelling for this agar? [closed]

I could not spell the agar [gonoline-uroline] which I heard yesterday. My spelling is so wrong that I could not find it in Google. What is the right spelling for this agar?
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1answer
36 views

Shigella's O antigen (PAI synthesised) and passage through host defences

The O antigen is synthesised by Pathology islands (PAI). O antigen may be a factor why Shigella survives the passage through host defences. I am interested in which step of pathogenesis. There are ...
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1answer
200 views

Difference between Cary-Blair and Amies transport media for Staphylococcus and Streptococcus?

I normally use Amies medium, but I today heard that Cary-Blair is also possible. When should you use Cary-Blair medium?
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1answer
27 views

Difference between Fulminant and Acute Meningococcemias

Fulminant seems to mead rapid. There is however some articles with both phrases: "fulminant meningococcecemia" (about 5000 Google matches) and "acute meningococcecemia" (about 3000 Google matches). I ...
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1answer
16 views

Is Rheumatic fever more Chronic than acute?

It follows from the complication of S.pyogenes' pharyngitis. I am thinking how the inflammatory response behaves: acute or chronic or something between. I think chronic disease is better description ...
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1answer
33 views

Is the regulation of lactose operon different between Gram + and Gram -?

I know that in E. coli the lactose operon is shut down by CAP protein when binding cAMP. Is this true also for Gram positive bacteria?
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0answers
22 views

How are lophotrichous flagella of helicobacter pylori produced?

I am thinking the mechanism is something like first adhesins (mucinase). Howevever, this does not seem to be enough. How are the flagella of H. pylori produced?
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1answer
15 views

Do Yersinia genus spp have anything movement factors?

It can spread in blood (Type III secretion system -> apoptosis). I am interested if there is any others ways to move. Do Yersinia spp have anything virulence factors to move?
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1answer
467 views

I don't wash my hands and never get sick. Any theories? [closed]

I have only been sick a few times in my life(I'm 21 and probably 3-4 times) and even when I am sick I don't feel that bad and I am over it within a day or two. My family has always given me slack for ...
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1answer
24 views

To understand clearly extraintestinal diseases

Extradistestinal disease seems to prefer to "bowel" diseases, I think this is about diseases outside gastrointestinal tract so stomach. Consider diseases ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease ...
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2answers
43 views

Is there any format for official Physiological/Medicine answers? [closed]

Assume you have an exam which has 5 extensive questions and 60 minutes. You do not have time to cover most if you write everything in essay format. If you start to write essays, you do not really have ...
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1answer
149 views

How does activation of adenylcyclase lead to increased cAMP and diarrhea?

I am trying find explanation for these mechanisms Tox plasmid -> exotoxin (enterotoxin) -> activation of adenylcyclase -> \up cAMP enterocytes -> release of H2O, electrolytes in gut lumen -> ...
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1answer
44 views

What is the maximum amount of different bacteria in the drinking water in Europe?

I am looking for a statistical amounts which are allowed. Some students say it is 0 for all bacteria, which I think is false. I found this USA source. I found there Total Coliforms (including fecal ...
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1answer
33 views

Staphylococcus AG structure?

I found this statement in my study materials in the section of Staphylococcus The AG structure: protein AG (species specific); polysaccharide AG (serotype specific). I know what is ...
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1answer
11 views

How does Mupirocin affect in staphylococcal infection?

I found this sentence confusing Transitor carriers of staphylococcal infections 70% because of mupirocin i/n. Mupirocin is drug which affects some way. I am not ...
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2answers
362 views

What are artifacts in microbiology?

What kind of objects can be qualified as artifacts? How do we distinguish such objects?
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1answer
56 views

Difficulty in developing certain vaccines

I have a college level background in Biology, say at the level of Campbell. I am very curious to know why it's extremely difficult to develop vaccines for certain diseases. Two cases which I am really ...
7
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1answer
121 views

Any food crops that could grow in a desert provided that they get fertilizer and water

I am working on an idea to provide nearly unlimited amounts of water in desert regions. To make this commercially viable. I would use the water to irrigate desert sand and grow crops. Given my ...
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1answer
1k views

What are the differences between G+ and G- bacteria?

The distinction between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is based upon the Gram staining method, that reflects the bacterial wall physical properties. However, this classification involves ...
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1answer
43 views

Can germs develop surfactant resistance in a harmful way?

Germs can develop antimicrobial resistance. It is a problem serious enough to deserve an FAQ page on the WHO website (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs194/en/). But how about surfactant ...
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1answer
62 views

Why does sulfonamid not inhibit the growth of Rickettsia?

Sulfonamid is an antimicrobial agent, why has it no effect on the growth of Rickettsia?
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0answers
53 views

What are current abiogenesis hypotheses for first food source?

What is the very first abiogenetic piece of reproducing life (small piece of RNA + ribosome that randomly occurred?) hypothesized to have used as an energy source? I'd be interested in sources to what ...
4
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1answer
87 views

Need for proper air filter for bioreactor?

I am going to build a simple bioreactor for microalgae growth. I already have fluid filters pore size: 0.2um, diameter: 25mm https://nl.vwr.com/app/catalog/Product?article_number=514-4039 I wonder ...
2
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1answer
59 views

observed luminescence in a piece of plaice

A plaice fish bought for human feed has been cleaned and cooked. Some parts of the raw body have been left out of the fridge at about 22°C for about 15 hours. During the following night a ...
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1answer
160 views

List of all reported bacteria

I would like to know were to download a table file with all reported bacteria and its corresponding PHYLUM, CLASS, ORDER and FAMILY. Basically, its the same table than this one from GOLD genomes but ...
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1answer
47 views

Looking for raw cell videos from a light microscope

First off, I'm not looking for online lectures. I am trying to find creative commons licensed videos of live cells moving around without annotation or anything extra. I would prefer a few minutes of ...
3
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1answer
80 views

When might an inhibitor of bacterial transformation be useful?

I am part of a project elucidating some structures that are required for bacterial transformation. We have the opportunity to screen inhibitors of the system to stop it from functioning. I am not a ...
0
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1answer
21 views

How to get conservation of vaccine candidates between hundreds of bacterial strains?

We have identified vaccine candidates via an ex-vivo RNA-seq approach. Next step would be to perform conservation of these candidates (about 20) between multiple bacterial strains (about 200). I would ...
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3answers
120 views

Assay for Beta-galactosidase activity in single cell microscopy

I'd like to be able to measure the activity of $\beta$-galactosidase in living cells with simple optical (maybe fluorescence) microscopy. Ideally I'd like to do a minimum of genetic engineering, and ...
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0answers
991 views

Bacterial 16S rRNA PCR amplification with universal primers

I am doing an experiment to amplify the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria present in gut contents of fish. After extracting DNA, I perform one-step PCR with universal bacterial primers (27F, 1492R) and I ...
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0answers
57 views

What are the ingredients of Pheromone Trap using for controlling Fruit flies of cucumber?

Pheromone Traps are used for fruit fly control. But I have no idea which ingredients or chemicals are used for preparing Pheromone trap
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1answer
297 views

Alternatives to CFU plating for measuring number of viable cells?

I am hoping to measure growth rates of a bacterial culture in several growth conditions. I am concerned that these growth conditions may cause cell death, which would lead to a decreased ...
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0answers
28 views

Improving throughput of CFU plating?

In a separate question I've described my general experimental setup where I need to measure the number of live cells in a growing bacterial culture in a fairly rapid and high-throughput manner. In ...
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1answer
105 views

explanation of conjugation experiment in bacteria

In this paper (On the expression of a structural gene) I am confused about what is being plotted in Figure 6. The x-axis contains the fraction of radioactive day and y-axis contains the enzyme ...
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1answer
140 views

At what temperature does DNA re-anneal?

If primers weren't present in PCR at what temperature would DNA re-anneal? I am wondering how primers manage to bind on DNA strands before DNA manages to anneal back together.