Microbiology is the study of organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and others.

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“Acellular” designation for organisms

Why do some biologists refer to single-celled organisms such as Amoeba and Paramecium as acellular (i.e., without cells) rather than unicellular (i.e., one cell)?
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Survival of streptococcus after my scarlet fever

I'm currently sick because of scarlet fever but I got treated with antibiotics. I know that after 1.5 day using antibiotics the streptococci I release at home are dangerous anymore. But my question ...
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Did the Britons 100 years ago have different intestinal flora and fauna?

Note: this is not a question about history, but about human digestive system over time :) I know a lot of colleagues who traveled for business trips to India. All of them caught terrible diarrhea ...
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157 views

How does sucrose protect bacterial cells in lysozyme solutions?

I have a microbiology question. When we put bacterial cells in sucrose solution with concentration higher than 0.5M we observe plasmolysis - the cytoplasmic membrane detaches from the cell wall due ...
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156 views

By what mechanism is Streptococcus bovis acting as a risk factor for colorectal cancer?

Streptococcus bovis bacteremia/endocarditis is considered a risk factor for colorectal cancer. What pathophysiological mechanism may link the two together?
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491 views

How was the diversity between ethanol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation evolved?

Quite simply, some organisms metabolize glucose under anaerobic conditions via Glucose->(2) Pyruvic Acid->(2)Ethyl Alcohol. Some organisms, however, metabolize to lactic acid. When did such a process ...
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244 views

For people who work in microbiology labs, what software do you use to manage your strains?

It's just a small microbiology lab that currently records everything on paper, and there's quite few mutants as well. Is Excel commonly used for this sort of thing? Or is there a better software to ...
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123 views

Highly spherical Radiolaria; does this image accurately depict the organism?

If I understand correctly, Cenosphaera spp. is a type of Radiolaria, which is a type of zooplankton. The following is an image of Cenosphaera spp. is from the supplementary material (Figure S2) of ...
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331 views

Can Naegleria fowleri enter through the eyes ( example rinsing/splashing eyes with water)

I understand that it primarily enters the body through the nose by by "feeding on the olfactory neurons in the nose" as answered here in a different question. Would the nerve cells in the eyes present ...
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235 views

Short-term Lamarckism in asexual single cell organisms

I was reading through the Karr et al. (2012) whole-cell computational model. One of the things they did was to induce single-gene disruptions in their model. They observed several to be fatal, but: ...
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Can someone explain the color-changing unit (CCU) to me?

I've been physically carrying out serial tenfold dilutions on samples of Ureaplasma to work out the color-changing units (CCU). As a definition, the CCU is the highest dilution at which there is a ...
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Can Listeria monocytogenes endotoxin act as an A-B toxin?

I think no, but I am not sure since Listeria is Gram-positive and probably has lipopolysaccharide (exception among Gram positive bacteria). Can Listeria monocytogenes' endotoxin act like exotoxin ...
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108 views

Why HIV patients have greater virulence of M.tuberculosis?

I am reading Murray Microbiology book. Some facts M. tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen. At the time of exposure, M. tuberculosis enters the respiratory airways and infectious particles ...
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261 views

What type of photosynthesis is performed by phytoplankton?

I am not a biologist, but I know there exist three variants of photosynthesis, namely C3, C4 and CAM. I would like to know what type is used by the ocean's phytoplankton? It might also be that ...
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219 views

Where would Saccharomyces cerevisiae be found in highest concentrations in environment?

I have bakers asthma specifically to 'Sc' yeast, and know to avoid bakeries, breweries, etc... I have figured out to not disturb rotting leaf piles, and fermenting bark mulch. Where else? What ...
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76 views

How small does a nanobot have to be to “swim through the brain” and access any neuron it wants to?

I read on this question What is in the space between neurons in a brain? that there is actually not much empty space in a brain. But my question is slightly different. Is there a visual demonstration ...
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Use of salt as preservative

I know that salt is used as preservative as it dehydrates microbes. Is there any other advantage like - altering pH or inactivating microbial enzymes ?
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157 views

How to learn biomathematics?

I'm currently an undergraduate math student and researching on the internet I discover that exists an area called "biomathematics". Looks so interesting. They use the graph theory and topology to ...
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220 views

Anaerobic respiration choice in E. coli

Under anaerobic conditions E. coli has two options to generate ATP: fermentation (substrate-level phosphorylation), and respiration (proton gradient, chemisomotic phosphorylation). Which is favored? ...
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Why does the mixture of infant formula with saliva provide an ideal breeding ground for disease-causing micro-organisms?

From: http://www.nal.usda.gov/wicworks/Topics/FG/Chapter4_InfantFormulaFeeding.pdf Discard any infant formula remaining after a feeding. The mixture of infant formula with saliva provides an ideal ...
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594 views

Can Naegleria fowleri enter through your ear?

Is it possible to get infected with the amoeba, Naegleria fowleri, through your ears, or is the nose the only way it can enter to cause infection? How commonly is it found in your stool as well?
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What does it mean to perform in vitro experiments with mutant bacteria?

I came across the following sentence while reading the paper: Nanchen, Annik, et al. "Cyclic AMP-dependent catabolite repression is the dominant control mechanism of metabolic fluxes under glucose ...
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115 views

Do bacteria with capsular antigen always have a capsule?

Assume some bacteria have capsular antigen. Do these bacteria always have a capsule? I think not, I think the antigen only makes it possible.
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observed luminescence in a piece of plaice

A plaice fish bought for human feed has been cleaned and cooked. Some parts of the raw body have been left out of the fridge at about 22°C for about 15 hours. During the following night a ...
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45 views

How can a respiratory infection lead to a skin infection?

Example of a case: 5 children develop a bright red rash on the face and turns violet after a few days and then disappears. Then maculopapular rash appears on the trunk, buttocks and extremities. It ...
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436 views

Can the RNA in the HIV virus make viral enzymes without entering the nucleus?

If the provirus was not formed yet, can the virus make viral enzymes? (I know that it already has some, but supposing it doesn't)
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Salvaging a plasmid from a cell culture stored at the incorrect temperature

I have E. coli with transformed plasmid on agar in a vial. It has been stored at -20 degree C without glycerol stock for 18 hours. This is a continuation of: Survival of E. coli on agar plate at -20 ...
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Medium for Pseudomonas?

What is a good minimal medium for Pseudomonas bacteria? Do I need different media for different Pseudomonas species?
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Prokaryotic Ribosomes

During bacterial protein synthesis, when ribosomes attach to the cytoplasmic membrane and form a polysome, to what molecule are the ribosomes attaching? Is the polysome held to the cytoplasmic ...
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70 views

Science experiments at home with Minimal Cost

What is a good recipe for making agar at home for a minimal cost? Are there materials that could be found in the kitchen cabinet?
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Can Rubella virus pass into brain stem?

B19 virus (about 20 nm) can; which I think is partially because of its small size; not sure of genomics has something to do with the passing. Rubella's (also called German measles) size is then again ...
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How does the MMR vaccine affect lymph nodes in preventing measles?

I am trying to understand this statement about the Measles part of the MMR (Mumps, Measles and Rubella) vaccine Measles prevention: MMR (AB protect during primary and secondary viremia) Measles ...
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312 views

What kind of a microscope do I need to see cell organelles?

I would like to study cells and looking for a microscope that would allow me to see: groups of cells individual cell cells organelles I would like to target insects and mammal tissue. I would be ...
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95 views

How HIV Affects and Its Treatment using Combination Therapy

Can someone please help me with the following questions. I've written my specific questions right after the text question. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus. Its genome is a single ...
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35 views

Which strains of C. diphteria are causing Diphteria toxin?

I got this question: Diphteria toxin is produced only by those strains of C. diphtheria that have which of the following characteristics? Encapsulated glucose fermenters lysogenic for b-prophage ...
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E. coli, risk of infection?

There has been a warning about E. coli contaminated water in South Florida. Now I'm wondering are there empirical data or historic cases which show a correlation between E.coli levels in tap water and ...
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40 views

What is a good review book/source for microbiological diagnosis?

I am trying to find the diagnosis figure for different bacteria where phases are illustrated. I am using at the moment: 1) First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2013 and 2) Medical Microbiology by Murray et ...
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What is the common diet of food-related IBS patients? Besides most patients being lactose intolerant, what other intolerances do they face?

I am currently writing a paper on irritable bowel syndrome, and I was wondering what the common diet of a patient with food-related IBS consists of. I've already begun discussing the pathogenesis of ...
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How do Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus precipitate the curd of swiss cheese?

I learned in my food microbiology class that Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus precipitate the curd of swiss cheese. However, I was wondering what type of mechanisms do these ...
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Aerobe or facultative anaerobe organism that metabolizes acetate?

I'm assuming bacteria, but will take any suggestions. Organism must survive primarily on the acetate (plus trace elements), but I can give/take electrons, if necessary. Not interested in strict ...
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219 views

How to deduce if RNA virus infection or DNA virus infection

Is there any general rule to say this must be RNA virus infection and the other one DNA virus infection? Example of a case: 5 children develop a bright red rash on the face and turns violet after a ...
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Pink E.coli cell pellet. Reasons? [on hold]

I've harvested IPTG induced E.coli BL21DE3 cells' suspension culture by spinning at 5000 rpm/15 min/4 degrees C. The pellet after spin looked pale pink colored. What could be the reasons?
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What do we know about the cellular structure, processes, environment, and immediate ancestors of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA)? [closed]

I am up for all scientifically sound speculations, and sources are highly welcome. I've looked into this quite a bit myself via scholar.google, the wiki article, and /r/askscience. I'm really looking ...
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226 views

Image Processing Suite for bacterial microscopy: Schnitzcells or MicrobeTracker?

I am looking to start doing some work tracking the size and growth of individual bacterial cells in the microscope. In order to analyze the images I need software that can segment the cells, ...
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Shortest route for a Nitrogen atom from fossil fuel to a protein in your body? [closed]

Millions of years ago fossil fuels originated from plants. A nitrogen atom from fossil fuel is now inside in a protein molecule in your body. What is the shortest path that the nitrogen atom ...
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35 views

Elevated transaminases after blood transfusion?

This sparks HCV immediately in my mind. However, there may be other possibilities too. What can you deduce from elevated transaminases if you only know that the healthy adult patient received blood ...
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45 views

Endophytic Xylariaceae: diversity and taxonomy inferred from rDNA sequence analyses

"Thailand is considered as one of the areas containing a high percentage of unknown taxa of Xylariaceae (Rogers 2000). In Thailand, several studies on endophytic fungi have been documented, namely, ...
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How is the appropriately-stratified gut microbiome acquired in organisms performing horizontal transmission?

I am studying horizontal transmission of primary symbionts in insect reproduction. This reminded me of an earlier question I had asked, in which I learned that humans analogously acquired their ...
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How to obtain bacteria samples?

Would anyone know how to go about obtaining samples of Salmonella or E. coli for purely educational purposes? Note: I just want to look at the stuff under a microscope.
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List of all reported bacteria

I would like to know were to download a table file with all reported bacteria and its corresponding PHYLUM, CLASS, ORDER and FAMILY. Basically, its the same table than this one from GOLD genomes but ...