Microbiology is the study of organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and others.

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E. coli, risk of infection?

There has been a warning about E. coli contaminated water in South Florida. Now I'm wondering are there empirical data or historic cases which show a correlation between E.coli levels in tap water and ...
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1answer
34 views

What is a good review book/source for microbiological diagnosis?

I am trying to find the diagnosis figure for different bacteria where phases are illustrated. I am using at the moment: 1) First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2013 and 2) Medical Microbiology by Murray et ...
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1answer
72 views

Aerobe or facultative anaerobe organism that metabolizes acetate?

I'm assuming bacteria, but will take any suggestions. Organism must survive primarily on the acetate (plus trace elements), but I can give/take electrons, if necessary. Not interested in strict ...
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161 views

Image Processing Suite for bacterial microscopy: Schnitzcells or MicrobeTracker?

I am looking to start doing some work tracking the size and growth of individual bacterial cells in the microscope. In order to analyze the images I need software that can segment the cells, ...
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0answers
39 views

Shortest route for a Nitrogen atom from fossil fuel to a protein in your body?

Millions of years ago fossil fuels originated from plants. A nitrogen atom from fossil fuel is now inside in a protein molecule in your body. What is the shortest path that the nitrogen atom ...
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44 views

Why do fresh cavities form from the margins of sliver amalgam fillings on teeth?

Silver amalgam fillings predominantly contain silver a known bactericidal agent and mercury which a known toxin and has bactericidal property. So how is it that the plaque bacteria survive near the ...
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29 views

Elevated transaminases after blood transfusion?

This sparks HCV immediately in my mind. However, there may be other possibilities too. What can you deduce from elevated transaminases if you only know that the healthy adult patient received blood ...
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42 views

Endophytic Xylariaceae: diversity and taxonomy inferred from rDNA sequence analyses

"Thailand is considered as one of the areas containing a high percentage of unknown taxa of Xylariaceae (Rogers 2000). In Thailand, several studies on endophytic fungi have been documented, namely, ...
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27 views

How is the appropriately-stratified gut microbiome acquired in organisms performing horizontal transmission?

I am studying horizontal transmission of primary symbionts in insect reproduction. This reminded me of an earlier question I had asked, in which I learned that humans analogously acquired their ...
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1answer
160 views

How to obtain bacteria samples?

Would anyone know how to go about obtaining samples of Salmonella or E. coli for purely educational purposes? Note: I just want to look at the stuff under a microscope.
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1answer
147 views

List of all reported bacteria

I would like to know were to download a table file with all reported bacteria and its corresponding PHYLUM, CLASS, ORDER and FAMILY. Basically, its the same table than this one from GOLD genomes but ...
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1answer
837 views

What are the differences between G+ and G- bacteria?

The distinction between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is based upon the Gram staining method, that reflects the bacterial wall physical properties. However, this classification involves ...
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1answer
22 views

Difference between Fulminant and Acute Meningococcemias

Fulminant seems to mead rapid. There is however some articles with both phrases: "fulminant meningococcecemia" (about 5000 Google matches) and "acute meningococcecemia" (about 3000 Google matches). I ...
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15 views

Do Yersinia genus spp have anything movement factors?

It can spread in blood (Type III secretion system -> apoptosis). I am interested if there is any others ways to move. Do Yersinia spp have anything virulence factors to move?
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1answer
29 views

Staphylococcus AG structure?

I found this statement in my study materials in the section of Staphylococcus The AG structure: protein AG (species specific); polysaccharide AG (serotype specific). I know what is ...
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1answer
419 views

Can Naegleria fowleri enter through your ear?

Is it possible to get infected with the amoeba, Naegleria fowleri, through your ears, or is the nose the only way it can enter to cause infection? How commonly is it found in your stool as well?
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1answer
109 views

Lineage selection in plasmid evolution

I've been reading through Paulsson (2002) and I am not sure what he means by "lineage selection" in the second to last section. The paper deals with plasmid replication, and mostly concentrates on the ...
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1answer
191 views

Would two species of yeast with similar genome sizes have the same number of genes or chromosomes?

Similar organisms generally have similar genome sizes. Given this, would two species of yeast have the same number of genes and chromosomes? Edit: Fixed with thanks to @daniel-standage
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1answer
43 views

Can Alzheimer's disease be caused by Slow Prion infection?

I found this claim in my study materials with explanation of amyloi plaques, in comparison to CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease). Its characteristic are Long doubling time of at least 5.2 days (I ...
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1answer
45 views

Any forms of pneumonia that can be caught?

I am aware of the fact that there are several different types of pneumonia. However, I am wondering if any of these types of pneumonia are contagious from person to person. Is this possible?
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1answer
31 views

To have TBE vaccine during allergic times with mild asthmatic symptoms?

My assistant says that if you have asthmatic symptoms you cannot have TBE (Tick Born Encephalitis) vaccine, although you are living in the active zone of TBE. Cases mild allergic symptoms allergic ...
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1answer
59 views

How do Gram + bacteria use a proton gradient for F-type ATPase?

Does anyone know of any papers showing how Gram positive Fermiculates or Actinobacteria use a H+ gradient for an F-type ATPase, It seems impossible since there is no outer LPS membrane to maintain ...
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1answer
85 views

How does activation of adenylcyclase lead to increased cAMP and diarrhea?

I am trying find explanation for these mechanisms Tox plasmid -> exotoxin (enterotoxin) -> activation of adenylcyclase -> \up cAMP enterocytes -> release of H2O, electrolytes in gut lumen -> ...
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3answers
59 views

Why HIV patients have greater virulence of M.tuberculosis?

I am reading Murray Microbiology book. Some facts M. tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen. At the time of exposure, M. tuberculosis enters the respiratory airways and infectious particles ...
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1answer
44 views

Why does sulfonamid not inhibit the growth of Rickettsia?

Sulfonamid is an antimicrobial agent, why has it no effect on the growth of Rickettsia?
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1answer
91 views

explanation of conjugation experiment in bacteria

In this paper (On the expression of a structural gene) I am confused about what is being plotted in Figure 6. The x-axis contains the fraction of radioactive day and y-axis contains the enzyme ...
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2answers
48 views

Is this necrotizing skin infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus?

A 5-year-old boy returns from summer camp with several minor cuts and abrasions on legs. He has fever and extensive cellulitis, subcutaneous tissue and muscles are involved. Necrotic tissues were ...
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1answer
94 views

Is this case Histoplasma capsulatum?

A 62­ year-­old male was admitted to the hospital complaining of shortness of breath. His chest X­-ray showed a rightsided cavitary lesions. His medical history indicated he had smoked one pack of ...
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1answer
34 views

Do toxin producing strains of E. coli constantly produce toxin or only under certain conditions?

Background E. coli is prevalent everywhere but only some strains produce toxins harmful to humans, such as E. coli O157:H7. Questions 1) Would anyone know if these strains are always producing ...
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1answer
82 views

Colonial Cells Demonstrating Cell Specialization

Are there any living examples of cellular colonies demonstrating very primitive cellular specialization? If so, what do we know about how they assimilate? How independent are the individual cells ...
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1answer
349 views

Can the RNA in the HIV virus make viral enzymes without entering the nucleus?

If the provirus was not formed yet, can the virus make viral enzymes? (I know that it already has some, but supposing it doesn't)
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1answer
23 views

What is the specific use of a capsule in E.coli?

In evolutionary terms, will the capsule cease to exist someday or will it improve ? Does it provide any boost to the organism in any way which harms us ? Can't we remove capsules or engineer E.coli ...
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1answer
54 views

Science experiments at home with Minimal Cost

What is a good recipe for making agar at home for a minimal cost? Are there materials that could be found in the kitchen cabinet?
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1answer
58 views

How do penicillin resistant bacteria grow slower in the presence of penicillin?

We put 2 flasks inoculated with Bacillus cereus in 37⁰C: one with 100μg/ml penicillin + 50μg/ml chloramphenicol and the other without penicillin. We found that the OD is higher in the one without the ...
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1answer
33 views

Cells created using differently aligned proteins

I remember reading that scientist were making cells (I assume bacteria), that used differently oriented proteins to create a whole new class of life. Because apparently right and left aligned proteins ...
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1answer
37 views

Can SIRS occur without Sepsis from Infection?

I am thinking this figure It suggests me that there has to be Sepsis that infection can lead to SIRS. I am thinking particularly the pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans where respiratory ...
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1answer
24 views

How does HBeAg change to Anti-HBe in acute hepatitis

I am thinking this figure which can also be drawn like this How does HBeAg change to Anti-HBe? There are some triggers that stimulate Anti-HBe production after HBeAg level is done. I think ...
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2answers
46 views

What's the fastest legal way for the nutrients in a dead body to re-enter the ecosystem?

Apologies for weirdness. Of the various legal methods of disposing of a human corpse, which one ensures the nutrients which compose the body get back into the wider ecosystem the fastest? Unless ...
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2answers
67 views

Can a fungus become resistant to a chemical such as Potassium Permanganate?

A friend used potassium permanganate solution to treat tinea on the hands/feet but after some initial success, the tinea seems to be making a comeback. Could the fungus develop resistance to potassium ...
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1answer
27 views

How host defends against S. pneumoniae capsule?

The host response involves at least phagocytosis and probably localised acute inflammatory response at least after the colonisation. I am thinking how the host can defend against pneumolysin which ...
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1answer
47 views

Why PPD test in patients without M.tuberculosis often slightly positive?

I got this question which I interpret as Why PPD test in patients without M. tuberculosis often have slightly positive PPD reaction i.e., a lifelong slightly positive skin test reaction? because ...
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1answer
56 views

Why bacteria produce light?

After seeing this video I am curious to know why the free living bacteria produce light. What advantage will they have ? Or is it just an "unintentional" result of one of their pathways ?
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1answer
36 views

Can germs develop surfactant resistance in a harmful way?

Germs can develop antimicrobial resistance. It is a problem serious enough to deserve an FAQ page on the WHO website (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs194/en/). But how about surfactant ...
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1answer
86 views

How HIV Affects and Its Treatment using Combination Therapy

Can someone please help me with the following questions. I've written my specific questions right after the text question. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus. Its genome is a single ...
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3answers
90 views

Assay for Beta-galactosidase activity in single cell microscopy

I'd like to be able to measure the activity of $\beta$-galactosidase in living cells with simple optical (maybe fluorescence) microscopy. Ideally I'd like to do a minimum of genetic engineering, and ...
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1answer
88 views

At what temperature does DNA re-anneal?

If primers weren't present in PCR at what temperature would DNA re-anneal? I am wondering how primers manage to bind on DNA strands before DNA manages to anneal back together.
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1answer
165 views

How to deduce if RNA virus infection or DNA virus infection

Is there any general rule to say this must be RNA virus infection and the other one DNA virus infection? Example of a case: 5 children develop a bright red rash on the face and turns violet after a ...
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1answer
72 views

Is iodised salt harmful to the lactofermentation process?

I was discussing sauerkraut recipes with someone on IRC a minute ago, and they warned me not to use iodised salt in the process. My first (and so far, the only successful) batch is one I made with ...
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3answers
1k views

Why do cell membranes have a lipid bilayer?

Many cells have a cell membrane composed of two layers of lipids, why is it two layers and not just one? What purpose do the membranes serve?
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1answer
48 views

“Oblong to Allantoids” … Is it valid?

I read on the text book: The characteristic of Dinemasporium are: superficial, cupulate to Discoid conidiomata with brown satae, Phialid conidiogenous cells that give rise to hyaline, oblong to ...