Microbiology is the study of organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and others.

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417 views

What kind of a microscope do I need to see cell organelles?

I would like to study cells and looking for a microscope that would allow me to see: groups of cells individual cell cells organelles I would like to target insects and mammal tissue. I would be ...
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1answer
34 views

How host defends against S. pneumoniae capsule?

The host response involves at least phagocytosis and probably localised acute inflammatory response at least after the colonisation. I am thinking how the host can defend against pneumolysin which ...
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1answer
21 views

S. pyogenes' skin infection diagnostics

S. pyogenes is "flesh-eating" bacteria. It results from life-theatening myonecrosis caused by this organism. S. pyogenes avoids phagocytosis (mediated primarily by capsule, M and M-like proteins, C5a ...
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1answer
134 views

Do bacteria with capsular antigen always have a capsule?

Assume some bacteria have capsular antigen. Do these bacteria always have a capsule? I think not, I think the antigen only makes it possible.
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1answer
83 views

What does this sentence about toxemia and Clostridium tetani mean?

I know that Cl tetani is not invasive and strictly localised. I think toxemia means spread in the blood. I am thinking this sentence The volume of infected tissue is small, and the disease is ...
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2answers
271 views

Can Listeria monocytogenes endotoxin act as an A-B toxin?

I think no, but I am not sure since Listeria is Gram-positive and probably has lipopolysaccharide (exception among Gram positive bacteria). Can Listeria monocytogenes' endotoxin act like exotoxin ...
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1answer
15 views

Pathogenesis of Group B Streptococci and C5a

I am thinking the pathogenesis of the C5a in GBS. I think the pathogenesis happens like C5a-peptidase in acid environment (Sialic acid, capsule) $\to$ cleaves C'-derived Neu chemoattractant C5a ...
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1answer
35 views

What are the best detection medias for cholera?

I heard this fact that you can use some [hypertriade] for vibrio cholera diagnosis which has compontents sucrose (yellow) mannose (yellow) arabinose (do not ferment; stay dark pink) I did not find ...
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1answer
17 views

Has H.pylori paracellular activity?

I know that it has transcellular activity i.e. it can pass through neighbouring cells. However, I am not completely sure if it does not have paracellular activity, see this: H. pylori did not ...
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1answer
228 views

What is the benefit of using Gonoline-Euroline in combination? [closed]

I was heard that this combination first Gonoline and other culture another culture on Euroline is good one. What is the benefit of using Gonoline-Euroline in combination?
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2answers
93 views

What is the right spelling for this agar? [closed]

I could not spell the agar [gonoline-uroline] which I heard yesterday. My spelling is so wrong that I could not find it in Google. What is the right spelling for this agar?
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1answer
53 views

Shigella's O antigen (PAI synthesised) and passage through host defences

The O antigen is synthesised by Pathology islands (PAI). O antigen may be a factor why Shigella survives the passage through host defences. I am interested in which step of pathogenesis. There are ...
0
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1answer
336 views

Difference between Cary-Blair and Amies transport media for Staphylococcus and Streptococcus?

I normally use Amies medium, but I today heard that Cary-Blair is also possible. When should you use Cary-Blair medium?
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1answer
35 views

Difference between Fulminant and Acute Meningococcemias

Fulminant seems to mead rapid. There is however some articles with both phrases: "fulminant meningococcecemia" (about 5000 Google matches) and "acute meningococcecemia" (about 3000 Google matches). I ...
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1answer
21 views

Is Rheumatic fever more Chronic than acute?

It follows from the complication of S.pyogenes' pharyngitis. I am thinking how the inflammatory response behaves: acute or chronic or something between. I think chronic disease is better description ...
4
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1answer
46 views

Is the regulation of lactose operon different between Gram + and Gram -?

I know that in E. coli the lactose operon is shut down by CAP protein when binding cAMP. Is this true also for Gram positive bacteria?
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0answers
26 views

How are lophotrichous flagella of helicobacter pylori produced?

I am thinking the mechanism is something like first adhesins (mucinase). Howevever, this does not seem to be enough. How are the flagella of H. pylori produced?
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1answer
18 views

Do Yersinia genus spp have anything movement factors?

It can spread in blood (Type III secretion system -> apoptosis). I am interested if there is any others ways to move. Do Yersinia spp have anything virulence factors to move?
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1answer
894 views

I don't wash my hands and never get sick. Any theories? [closed]

I have only been sick a few times in my life(I'm 21 and probably 3-4 times) and even when I am sick I don't feel that bad and I am over it within a day or two. My family has always given me slack for ...
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1answer
29 views

To understand clearly extraintestinal diseases

Extradistestinal disease seems to prefer to "bowel" diseases, I think this is about diseases outside gastrointestinal tract so stomach. Consider diseases ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease ...
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2answers
50 views

Is there any format for official Physiological/Medicine answers? [closed]

Assume you have an exam which has 5 extensive questions and 60 minutes. You do not have time to cover most if you write everything in essay format. If you start to write essays, you do not really have ...
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1answer
283 views

How does activation of adenylcyclase lead to increased cAMP and diarrhea?

I am trying find explanation for these mechanisms Tox plasmid -> exotoxin (enterotoxin) -> activation of adenylcyclase -> \up cAMP enterocytes -> release of H2O, electrolytes in gut lumen -> ...
0
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1answer
48 views

What is the maximum amount of different bacteria in the drinking water in Europe?

I am looking for a statistical amounts which are allowed. Some students say it is 0 for all bacteria, which I think is false. I found this USA source. I found there Total Coliforms (including fecal ...
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1answer
35 views

Staphylococcus AG structure?

I found this statement in my study materials in the section of Staphylococcus The AG structure: protein AG (species specific); polysaccharide AG (serotype specific). I know what is ...
0
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1answer
16 views

How does Mupirocin affect in staphylococcal infection?

I found this sentence confusing Transitor carriers of staphylococcal infections 70% because of mupirocin i/n. Mupirocin is drug which affects some way. I am not ...
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2answers
608 views

What are artifacts in microbiology?

What kind of objects can be qualified as artifacts? How do we distinguish such objects?
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1answer
71 views

Difficulty in developing certain vaccines

I have a college level background in Biology, say at the level of Campbell. I am very curious to know why it's extremely difficult to develop vaccines for certain diseases. Two cases which I am really ...
7
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1answer
133 views

Any food crops that could grow in a desert provided that they get fertilizer and water

I am working on an idea to provide nearly unlimited amounts of water in desert regions. To make this commercially viable. I would use the water to irrigate desert sand and grow crops. Given my ...
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1answer
1k views

What are the differences between G+ and G- bacteria?

The distinction between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is based upon the Gram staining method, that reflects the bacterial wall physical properties. However, this classification involves ...
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1answer
55 views

Can germs develop surfactant resistance in a harmful way?

Germs can develop antimicrobial resistance. It is a problem serious enough to deserve an FAQ page on the WHO website (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs194/en/). But how about surfactant ...
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1answer
95 views

Why does sulfonamid not inhibit the growth of Rickettsia?

Sulfonamid is an antimicrobial agent, why has it no effect on the growth of Rickettsia?
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0answers
68 views

What are current abiogenesis hypotheses for first food source?

What is the very first abiogenetic piece of reproducing life (small piece of RNA + ribosome that randomly occurred?) hypothesized to have used as an energy source? I'd be interested in sources to what ...
4
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1answer
108 views

Need for proper air filter for bioreactor?

I am going to build a simple bioreactor for microalgae growth. I already have fluid filters pore size: 0.2um, diameter: 25mm https://nl.vwr.com/app/catalog/Product?article_number=514-4039 I wonder ...
2
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1answer
63 views

observed luminescence in a piece of plaice

A plaice fish bought for human feed has been cleaned and cooked. Some parts of the raw body have been left out of the fridge at about 22°C for about 15 hours. During the following night a ...
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1answer
177 views

List of all reported bacteria

I would like to know were to download a table file with all reported bacteria and its corresponding PHYLUM, CLASS, ORDER and FAMILY. Basically, its the same table than this one from GOLD genomes but ...
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1answer
56 views

Looking for raw cell videos from a light microscope

First off, I'm not looking for online lectures. I am trying to find creative commons licensed videos of live cells moving around without annotation or anything extra. I would prefer a few minutes of ...
3
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1answer
99 views

When might an inhibitor of bacterial transformation be useful?

I am part of a project elucidating some structures that are required for bacterial transformation. We have the opportunity to screen inhibitors of the system to stop it from functioning. I am not a ...
0
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1answer
21 views

How to get conservation of vaccine candidates between hundreds of bacterial strains?

We have identified vaccine candidates via an ex-vivo RNA-seq approach. Next step would be to perform conservation of these candidates (about 20) between multiple bacterial strains (about 200). I would ...
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3answers
203 views

Assay for Beta-galactosidase activity in single cell microscopy

I'd like to be able to measure the activity of $\beta$-galactosidase in living cells with simple optical (maybe fluorescence) microscopy. Ideally I'd like to do a minimum of genetic engineering, and ...
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0answers
1k views

Bacterial 16S rRNA PCR amplification with universal primers

I am doing an experiment to amplify the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria present in gut contents of fish. After extracting DNA, I perform one-step PCR with universal bacterial primers (27F, 1492R) and I ...
2
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0answers
69 views

What are the ingredients of Pheromone Trap using for controlling Fruit flies of cucumber?

Pheromone Traps are used for fruit fly control. But I have no idea which ingredients or chemicals are used for preparing Pheromone trap
6
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1answer
402 views

Alternatives to CFU plating for measuring number of viable cells?

I am hoping to measure growth rates of a bacterial culture in several growth conditions. I am concerned that these growth conditions may cause cell death, which would lead to a decreased ...
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40 views

Improving throughput of CFU plating?

In a separate question I've described my general experimental setup where I need to measure the number of live cells in a growing bacterial culture in a fairly rapid and high-throughput manner. In ...
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1answer
121 views

explanation of conjugation experiment in bacteria

In this paper (On the expression of a structural gene) I am confused about what is being plotted in Figure 6. The x-axis contains the fraction of radioactive day and y-axis contains the enzyme ...
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1answer
195 views

At what temperature does DNA re-anneal?

If primers weren't present in PCR at what temperature would DNA re-anneal? I am wondering how primers manage to bind on DNA strands before DNA manages to anneal back together.
2
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0answers
45 views

Shortest route for a Nitrogen atom from fossil fuel to a protein in your body? [closed]

Millions of years ago fossil fuels originated from plants. A nitrogen atom from fossil fuel is now inside in a protein molecule in your body. What is the shortest path that the nitrogen atom ...
6
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1answer
292 views

Models of quorum sensing for multi-agent systems

Quorum sensing is a system of stimulus and responses correlated to population density that is used by bacteria to coordinate gene-expression. I am looking for a simple computational/mathematical model ...
2
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1answer
51 views

How can a respiratory infection lead to a skin infection?

Example of a case: 5 children develop a bright red rash on the face and turns violet after a few days and then disappears. Then maculopapular rash appears on the trunk, buttocks and extremities. It ...
2
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1answer
80 views

Aerobe or facultative anaerobe organism that metabolizes acetate?

I'm assuming bacteria, but will take any suggestions. Organism must survive primarily on the acetate (plus trace elements), but I can give/take electrons, if necessary. Not interested in strict ...
4
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1answer
484 views

How do I measure bacterial growth in agar dishes (either by cell mass or by cell count)?

I am doing an experiment in which I am growing S. mutans in agar dishes, and I am not sure how I would measure the growth of the S. mutans. I am also not sure if I would do this by measuring cell mass ...