Microbiology is the study of organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and others.

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How to learn biomathematics?

I'm currently an undergraduate math student and researching on the internet I discover that exists an area called "biomathematics". Looks so interesting. They use the graph theory and topology to ...
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171 views

How to obtain bacteria samples?

Would anyone know how to go about obtaining samples of Salmonella or E. coli for purely educational purposes? Note: I just want to look at the stuff under a microscope.
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146 views

Can someone explain the color-changing unit (CCU) to me?

I've been physically carrying out serial tenfold dilutions on samples of Ureaplasma to work out the color-changing units (CCU). As a definition, the CCU is the highest dilution at which there is a ...
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89 views

E. coli, risk of infection?

There has been a warning about E. coli contaminated water in South Florida. Now I'm wondering are there empirical data or historic cases which show a correlation between E.coli levels in tap water and ...
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970 views

What are the differences between G+ and G- bacteria?

The distinction between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is based upon the Gram staining method, that reflects the bacterial wall physical properties. However, this classification involves ...
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81 views

Are there any bacteria, in our environment, able to break down nitrate under aerobic conditions?

Given a fix volume of water saturated with dissolved oxygen through aeration. Suppose that ammonium, Nitrosomonas, and Nitrobacter are always available in the water. We know that some of the ammonium ...
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163 views

Is there a practical upper limit to amount of nucleotides or genes in a transformed plasmid?

I'm currently working on a synthetic biology project which involves working with lots of different parts. I would ultimately like to integrate these genes by transforming a single plasmid. I've heard ...
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1answer
33 views

First genomic survey of human skin fungal diversity

"The researchers found that a single type of fungus, belonging to the genus Malassezia, is predominant on the head and trunk. Hands, which harbor a great diversity of bacteria, are home for relatively ...
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42 views

Endophytic Xylariaceae: diversity and taxonomy inferred from rDNA sequence analyses

"Thailand is considered as one of the areas containing a high percentage of unknown taxa of Xylariaceae (Rogers 2000). In Thailand, several studies on endophytic fungi have been documented, namely, ...
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85 views

Wheat anthracnose outbreaks caused by Colletotrichum cereale in the USA

"Wheat anthracnose outbreaks caused by C. cereale were problematic during the 1940s in the USA, but presently do not limit production of this crop, despite the fact that the fungus still inhabits ...
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143 views

By what mechanism is Streptococcus bovis acting as a risk factor for colorectal cancer?

Streptococcus bovis bacteremia/endocarditis is considered a risk factor for colorectal cancer. What pathophysiological mechanism may link the two together?
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519 views

Writing methods section on PCR amplication in a paper

Considering that I am writing a paper for a journal, could the following phrase be understood? or should I put the 'step-by-step' way by giving numbers? PCR Amplification and sequencing PCR ...
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50 views

“Oblong to Allantoids” … Is it valid?

I read on the text book: The characteristic of Dinemasporium are: superficial, cupulate to Discoid conidiomata with brown satae, Phialid conidiogenous cells that give rise to hyaline, oblong to ...
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732 views

Is it possible for a person to become “reinfected” with the same strain of a virus?

If a person contracts a virus, viral conjunctivitis for example, is it possible for the individual to become "reinfected" with the exact same strain of the virus once the person has it treated and the ...
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108 views

Highly spherical Radiolaria; does this image accurately depict the organism?

If I understand correctly, Cenosphaera spp. is a type of Radiolaria, which is a type of zooplankton. The following is an image of Cenosphaera spp. is from the supplementary material (Figure S2) of ...
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22 views

Looking for detailed nutrient/energy flow at the bottom of the freshwater food chain

I am trying to model the production and consumption of nutrients and waste at the bottom of the food chain in freshwater ecosystems. I can only find broad information on the Internet and don't know ...
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1answer
35 views

What is a good review book/source for microbiological diagnosis?

I am trying to find the diagnosis figure for different bacteria where phases are illustrated. I am using at the moment: 1) First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2013 and 2) Medical Microbiology by Murray et ...
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1answer
112 views

Lineage selection in plasmid evolution

I've been reading through Paulsson (2002) and I am not sure what he means by "lineage selection" in the second to last section. The paper deals with plasmid replication, and mostly concentrates on the ...
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199 views

What type of photosynthesis is performed by phytoplankton?

I am not a biologist, but I know there exist three variants of photosynthesis, namely C3, C4 and CAM. I would like to know what type is used by the ocean's phytoplankton? It might also be that ...
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28 views

How is the appropriately-stratified gut microbiome acquired in organisms performing horizontal transmission?

I am studying horizontal transmission of primary symbionts in insect reproduction. This reminded me of an earlier question I had asked, in which I learned that humans analogously acquired their ...
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1answer
145 views

What molecular processes are involved in pseudopodial extension?

I am curious as to the processes and mechanisms involved in the extension of pseudopodia in amoeba. How does the cell know and control the direction and extent of pseudopodia formation at a molecular ...
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1answer
372 views

How is the exogenous DNA protected from degradation during bacterial transformation?

During transformation, a bacterium can take up DNA from its environment. A small fraction of bacterial species are known to be naturally competent, meaning that they can engage in this sort of ...
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269 views

Definition of Dye- Reduction Test?

Can some one give a simple explanation or definition on what a dye-reduction test is.
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28 views

Multiplication to formalize Microbiological Processes

I am not from the field, but have a question regarding modeling in biology: I know that some processes can be modeled with the mathematical multiplication operation, and wondered if anyone could ...
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193 views

Where would Saccharomyces cerevisiae be found in highest concentrations in environment?

I have bakers asthma specifically to 'Sc' yeast, and know to avoid bakeries, breweries, etc... I have figured out to not disturb rotting leaf piles, and fermenting bark mulch. Where else? What ...
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1k views

Why are pili more common in Gram negative bacteria than in Gram positive?

Although pili have been observed in some species of Gram positive bacteria, the preliminary research that I have done indicates that pili are significantly more common in Gram negative bacteria. Is ...
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159 views

Is every part of a virus important for replication?

Is every component of a virus absolutely essential for its infection and replication in a host cell? Or can you just have parts of it to cause infection?
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41 views

Can viral proteins cause infection? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: HIV Rapid Tests Can proteins found on the surface of RNA viruses cause infection without the presence of the actual RNA and other components used in the virus?
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49 views

Solid phase use in HIV rapid tests

I have another question in regards to my HIV test research. The rapid tests like Orasures Oraquick contains a strip of synthetic peptides that are used to represent proteins found in the envelope ...
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146 views

HIV Rapid Tests

The hiv antigens that are used in the oral rapid tests, are they infectious? The tests do not contain any actual virus but I am curious if the antigens themselves could somehow create the virus on ...
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405 views

If re-boiling does not curdle the milk, can that be taken as an indicator that the milk hasn't developed the bacteria (and their toxins)?

Usually when left in hot temperature, the milk curdles (which I know when I boil it and it starts separating). If the re boiling does not curdle the milk, can that be taken as an indicator that the ...
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884 views

Bacterial cell lysis - what solution to use?

I am trying to determine how quickly detergents act on bacterial cells (cell lysis). I would like to compare some detergents at difference concentrations for bacteriolytic activity. I don’t care about ...
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2answers
129 views

Are all known germs benign in small enough quantities? i.e. Why do we wash our hands?

We know that we wash our hands because germs can get into our body through the nose, the mouth, the eyes, cuts, etc. But I doubt we can completely clean our hands of germs every time we wash them, ...
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96 views

What types of archaea have been found in animals?

I am curious as to the species or "types" of archaea that have been found to reside within animals symbiotically. One of the only ones I can think of off the top of my head are methanogens, which live ...
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704 views

How much weight/volume do microbes occupy within the human body?

Microorganisms constitute the bulk of all the biomass on Earth. I weighed myself yesterday, and wondered how much less I would weigh if I were completely free of bacteria and microbes, inside and out. ...
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84 views

Colonial Cells Demonstrating Cell Specialization

Are there any living examples of cellular colonies demonstrating very primitive cellular specialization? If so, what do we know about how they assimilate? How independent are the individual cells ...
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213 views

Would two species of yeast with similar genome sizes have the same number of genes or chromosomes?

Similar organisms generally have similar genome sizes. Given this, would two species of yeast have the same number of genes and chromosomes? Edit: Fixed with thanks to @daniel-standage
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327 views

How was the diversity between ethanol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation evolved?

Quite simply, some organisms metabolize glucose under anaerobic conditions via Glucose->(2) Pyruvic Acid->(2)Ethyl Alcohol. Some organisms, however, metabolize to lactic acid. When did such a process ...
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78 views

Should we be looking for extra-terrestrial life on comets?

I have just read What elements are a possible basis for life? and I find myself wondering whether instead of seeking advanced life-forms at remote locales a La SETI, and perhaps fundamentally ...
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383 views

Can the RNA in the HIV virus make viral enzymes without entering the nucleus?

If the provirus was not formed yet, can the virus make viral enzymes? (I know that it already has some, but supposing it doesn't)
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200 views

What does “cellular” mean in this context?

I came across a confusing word when I was reading a Scientific American story, “Controversial Spewed Iron Experiment Succeeds as Carbon Sink” (by David Biello). It goes like this: “One key to the ...
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308 views

Can Naegleria fowleri enter through the eyes ( example rinsing/splashing eyes with water)

I understand that it primarily enters the body through the nose by by "feeding on the olfactory neurons in the nose" as answered here in a different question. Would the nerve cells in the eyes present ...
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618 views

“Acellular” designation for organisms

Why do some biologists refer to single-celled organisms such as Amoeba and Paramecium as acellular (i.e., without cells) rather than unicellular (i.e., one cell)?
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Why does milk contained in cartons of milk expand?

In the morning, I went to the fridge to drink some chocolate milk. At night, when I took out the same carton of milk, the packaging seems expanded, like some kind of air is inside. Explain please !
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Sparking during electroporation of plasmid DNA into bacterial cells

During electroporation of bacterial cells (I work with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but I think this applies to E. coli as well), sometimes I get sparking. I've read this is due to salts present, ...
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224 views

What is the effect of garlic on intestinal flora?

Now that we can compare whole microbiomes, has there been investigations on the effect of garlic (or diallyl disulfide, its main ingredient) on intestinal flora? From the proven antimicrobial ...
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1answer
48 views

Salvaging a plasmid from a cell culture stored at the incorrect temperature

I have E. coli with transformed plasmid on agar in a vial. It has been stored at -20 degree C without glycerol stock for 18 hours. This is a continuation of: Survival of E. coli on agar plate at -20 ...
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380 views

Survival of E. coli on agar plate at -20 degree C without glycerol stock

If I kept E. coli transformed with plasmid at -20˚C without making glycerol stock, will it survive? Actually I have kept it this way for 18 hours. What will happen with it? Will it grow in fresh ...
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238 views

Models of quorum sensing for multi-agent systems

Quorum sensing is a system of stimulus and responses correlated to population density that is used by bacteria to coordinate gene-expression. I am looking for a simple computational/mathematical model ...
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119 views

Mutation-immunity in Luria-Delbruck experiment

If experiments like those of Luria and Delbruck on E. coli and T1 phage are the main source of our confidence in the mutation-immunity model, is it then highly unlikely that there are other types of ...