Microbiology is the study of organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and others.

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Is this case Histoplasma capsulatum?

A 62­ year-­old male was admitted to the hospital complaining of shortness of breath. His chest X­-ray showed a rightsided cavitary lesions. His medical history indicated he had smoked one pack of ...
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37 views

Do toxin producing strains of E. coli constantly produce toxin or only under certain conditions?

Background E. coli is prevalent everywhere but only some strains produce toxins harmful to humans, such as E. coli O157:H7. Questions 1) Would anyone know if these strains are always producing ...
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87 views

Colonial Cells Demonstrating Cell Specialization

Are there any living examples of cellular colonies demonstrating very primitive cellular specialization? If so, what do we know about how they assimilate? How independent are the individual cells ...
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401 views

Can the RNA in the HIV virus make viral enzymes without entering the nucleus?

If the provirus was not formed yet, can the virus make viral enzymes? (I know that it already has some, but supposing it doesn't)
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40 views

Optimization of E. coli growth in D₂O (heavy water)

I would like to find a method of increasing the biomass of my D2O cultures because my current method is not yielding enough protein. I would like to also minimize the amount of H2O in my culture. My ...
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27 views

What is the specific use of a capsule in E.coli?

In evolutionary terms, will the capsule cease to exist someday or will it improve ? Does it provide any boost to the organism in any way which harms us ? Can't we remove capsules or engineer E.coli ...
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61 views

Science experiments at home with Minimal Cost

What is a good recipe for making agar at home for a minimal cost? Are there materials that could be found in the kitchen cabinet?
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64 views

How do penicillin resistant bacteria grow slower in the presence of penicillin?

We put 2 flasks inoculated with Bacillus cereus in 37⁰C: one with 100μg/ml penicillin + 50μg/ml chloramphenicol and the other without penicillin. We found that the OD is higher in the one without the ...
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35 views

Cells created using differently aligned proteins

I remember reading that scientist were making cells (I assume bacteria), that used differently oriented proteins to create a whole new class of life. Because apparently right and left aligned proteins ...
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99 views

Can SIRS occur without Sepsis from Infection?

I am thinking this figure It suggests me that there has to be Sepsis that infection can lead to SIRS. I am thinking particularly the pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans where respiratory ...
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1answer
38 views

How does HBeAg change to Anti-HBe in acute hepatitis

I am thinking this figure which can also be drawn like this How does HBeAg change to Anti-HBe? There are some triggers that stimulate Anti-HBe production after HBeAg level is done. I think ...
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2answers
49 views

What's the fastest legal way for the nutrients in a dead body to re-enter the ecosystem?

Apologies for weirdness. Of the various legal methods of disposing of a human corpse, which one ensures the nutrients which compose the body get back into the wider ecosystem the fastest? Unless ...
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76 views

Can a fungus become resistant to a chemical such as Potassium Permanganate?

A friend used potassium permanganate solution to treat tinea on the hands/feet but after some initial success, the tinea seems to be making a comeback. Could the fungus develop resistance to potassium ...
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31 views

How host defends against S. pneumoniae capsule?

The host response involves at least phagocytosis and probably localised acute inflammatory response at least after the colonisation. I am thinking how the host can defend against pneumolysin which ...
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52 views

Why PPD test in patients without M.tuberculosis often slightly positive?

I got this question which I interpret as Why PPD test in patients without M. tuberculosis often have slightly positive PPD reaction i.e., a lifelong slightly positive skin test reaction? because ...
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1answer
62 views

Why bacteria produce light?

After seeing this video I am curious to know why the free living bacteria produce light. What advantage will they have ? Or is it just an "unintentional" result of one of their pathways ?
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43 views

Can germs develop surfactant resistance in a harmful way?

Germs can develop antimicrobial resistance. It is a problem serious enough to deserve an FAQ page on the WHO website (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs194/en/). But how about surfactant ...
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90 views

How HIV Affects and Its Treatment using Combination Therapy

Can someone please help me with the following questions. I've written my specific questions right after the text question. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus. Its genome is a single ...
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3answers
120 views

Assay for Beta-galactosidase activity in single cell microscopy

I'd like to be able to measure the activity of $\beta$-galactosidase in living cells with simple optical (maybe fluorescence) microscopy. Ideally I'd like to do a minimum of genetic engineering, and ...
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139 views

At what temperature does DNA re-anneal?

If primers weren't present in PCR at what temperature would DNA re-anneal? I am wondering how primers manage to bind on DNA strands before DNA manages to anneal back together.
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195 views

How to deduce if RNA virus infection or DNA virus infection

Is there any general rule to say this must be RNA virus infection and the other one DNA virus infection? Example of a case: 5 children develop a bright red rash on the face and turns violet after a ...
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1answer
86 views

Is iodised salt harmful to the lactofermentation process?

I was discussing sauerkraut recipes with someone on IRC a minute ago, and they warned me not to use iodised salt in the process. My first (and so far, the only successful) batch is one I made with ...
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3answers
2k views

Why do cell membranes have a lipid bilayer?

Many cells have a cell membrane composed of two layers of lipids, why is it two layers and not just one? What purpose do the membranes serve?
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51 views

“Oblong to Allantoids” … Is it valid?

I read on the text book: The characteristic of Dinemasporium are: superficial, cupulate to Discoid conidiomata with brown satae, Phialid conidiogenous cells that give rise to hyaline, oblong to ...
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215 views

What does “cellular” mean in this context?

I came across a confusing word when I was reading a Scientific American story, “Controversial Spewed Iron Experiment Succeeds as Carbon Sink” (by David Biello). It goes like this: “One key to the ...
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1k views

Is there a free alternative to Gelcompar for comparing banding patterns across multiple gels?

In order to run my microbial community samples from my experiments through DGGE, I was required to use multiple gels. Thus it is necessary to compare banding patterns across more than one gel. ...
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24 views

Physiological markers of some antibiotic resistance and DNA? [on hold]

I am studying antibiotic resistance through DNA on Physiology. I am particularly interested its effect on Physiology: heart rate blood pressure pacemakers of the heart mean electrical axis ...
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28 views

What triggers the formation of biofilm? [closed]

How does a bacterial biofilm form? In general, not specific to a certain industry or type of surface. I know how it forms; I understand reversible attachment, irreversible attachment, growth, ...
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18 views

Effect of flask position in shaking incubator affects growth kinetics

During some cultivation experiments for my bachelor thesis I noticed that in liquid culture my bacteria (E. coli) grew differently, according to the position in the shaking incubator. Because the ...
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1answer
43 views

Molecular Cloning- Blunt end restriction endonucleases

I work in a microbiology lab where we do a lot of cloning. I have always used restriction endonucleases to cleave the DNA to have sticky ends and not blunt ends. I currently am working on a project ...
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33 views

Alkaline Phosphatase

What is the predominant purpose of Alkaline Phosphatase in skeletal muscle fibers and liver cells. I know that it is a hydrolase enzyme that speeds up the degredation of proteins, lipids, starch and ...
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26 views

What do we know about the cellular structure, processes, environment, and immediate ancestors of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA)? [closed]

I am up for all scientifically sound speculations, and sources are highly welcome. I've looked into this quite a bit myself via scholar.google, the wiki article, and /r/askscience. I'm really looking ...
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24 views

How do Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus precipitate the curd of swiss cheese?

I learned in my food microbiology class that Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus precipitate the curd of swiss cheese. However, I was wondering what type of mechanisms do these ...
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30 views

Are there any species which can live off rocket fuel and cosmic radiation? [closed]

It was recently reported that cosmonauts have found sea plankton on the outside of the space station. Space agencies are nowadays very careful to sterilize their interplanetary landers, and orbiting ...
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69 views

Genetically modified Klebsiella Planticola nearly bulldozers plant life as we know it? [closed]

The article "The Bacterium That (Almost) Ate the World" by Elaine Ingham (see also here or here) describes a genetically modified bacterium that would break down cellulose plant matter into alcohol: ...
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53 views

What is Mycoplasma Lyo medium?

Used for instance in this article The role of genital mycoplasmas as pathogens - - are generally neglected by diagnostic laboratories in the United Kingdom, possibly due to the lack of a ...
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40 views

Regulation of Cra protein level in E coli

Catabolite Activator/Repressor, Cra protein (formerly known as Fructure Repressor FruR) plays a significant role in central carbon metabolism of E coli. Its activity is inhibited by ...
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42 views

Vitamin D oral intake, transportation and absorption

Several factors affecting vitamin D and its active form absorption and storage acidity of stomach (not significant effect) cytopathic effects of viruses cytopathic effects of bacteria where the ...
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1answer
31 views

What are the best detection medias for cholera?

I heard this fact that you can use some [hypertriade] for vibrio cholera diagnosis which has compontents sucrose (yellow) mannose (yellow) arabinose (do not ferment; stay dark pink) I did not find ...
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22 views

How are lophotrichous flagella of helicobacter pylori produced?

I am thinking the mechanism is something like first adhesins (mucinase). Howevever, this does not seem to be enough. How are the flagella of H. pylori produced?
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53 views

What are current abiogenesis hypotheses for first food source?

What is the very first abiogenetic piece of reproducing life (small piece of RNA + ribosome that randomly occurred?) hypothesized to have used as an energy source? I'd be interested in sources to what ...
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988 views

Bacterial 16S rRNA PCR amplification with universal primers

I am doing an experiment to amplify the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria present in gut contents of fish. After extracting DNA, I perform one-step PCR with universal bacterial primers (27F, 1492R) and I ...
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57 views

What are the ingredients of Pheromone Trap using for controlling Fruit flies of cucumber?

Pheromone Traps are used for fruit fly control. But I have no idea which ingredients or chemicals are used for preparing Pheromone trap
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28 views

Improving throughput of CFU plating?

In a separate question I've described my general experimental setup where I need to measure the number of live cells in a growing bacterial culture in a fairly rapid and high-throughput manner. In ...
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1answer
74 views

What are some readily available, easy to test, bacteria? [closed]

I want to do a science fair experiment about how bacteria interact with 5-carbon vs. 6-carbon sugars, and I want a bacteria that is easy to test and is readily available. Any ideas?
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38 views

What are the characteristic structures of bacillus M. tuberculosis and what they cause?

I answered to this question: In most forms of the disease, the bacillus M. tuberculosis spreads slowly and widely in the lungs, causing the formation of hard nodules (tubercles) in the ...
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0answers
23 views

Can antiviral antibodies help viral infections which has many serotypes? [on hold]

For instance Dengue virus has four serotypes. Infection by a different serotype causes only a more serious infection. 2) Which are the most common virus infections that has many serotypes?
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41 views

Can viral proteins cause infection? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: HIV Rapid Tests Can proteins found on the surface of RNA viruses cause infection without the presence of the actual RNA and other components used in the virus?
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56 views

Solid phase use in HIV rapid tests [closed]

I have a question in regards to my HIV test research. The rapid tests like Orasures Oraquick contains a strip of synthetic peptides that are used to represent proteins found in the envelope region of ...
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46 views

Where can I find approximate rates of sequestration of CO₂ for different species of algae? [on hold]

For a study, I want to compare the rates of CO₂ sequestration and fixation of a few different species of algae. I could not find any data on the sequestration rates. Any pointers to where I can find ...