Microbiology is the study of organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. This includes organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and others.

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observed luminescence in a piece of plaice

A plaice fish bought for human feed has been cleaned and cooked. Some parts of the raw body have been left out of the fridge at about 22°C for about 15 hours. During the following night a ...
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51 views

How can a respiratory infection lead to a skin infection?

Example of a case: 5 children develop a bright red rash on the face and turns violet after a few days and then disappears. Then maculopapular rash appears on the trunk, buttocks and extremities. It ...
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465 views

Can the RNA in the HIV virus make viral enzymes without entering the nucleus?

If the provirus was not formed yet, can the virus make viral enzymes? (I know that it already has some, but supposing it doesn't)
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56 views

Salvaging a plasmid from a cell culture stored at the incorrect temperature

I have E. coli with transformed plasmid on agar in a vial. It has been stored at -20 degree C without glycerol stock for 18 hours. This is a continuation of: Survival of E. coli on agar plate at -20 ...
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43 views

Why are plasmid genes not already incorporated into bacterial chromosomes if necessary for stressful situations?

If plasmids are important for bacteria to express specific genes under stressful conditions, why are these genes not already incorporated into their chromosome to begin with? What is the evolutionary ...
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71 views

Prokaryotic Ribosomes

During bacterial protein synthesis, when ribosomes attach to the cytoplasmic membrane and form a polysome, to what molecule are the ribosomes attaching? Is the polysome held to the cytoplasmic ...
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74 views

Science experiments at home with Minimal Cost

What is a good recipe for making agar at home for a minimal cost? Are there materials that could be found in the kitchen cabinet?
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28 views

Can Rubella virus pass into brain stem?

B19 virus (about 20 nm) can; which I think is partially because of its small size; not sure of genomics has something to do with the passing. Rubella's (also called German measles) size is then again ...
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97 views

How does the MMR vaccine affect lymph nodes in preventing measles?

I am trying to understand this statement about the Measles part of the MMR (Mumps, Measles and Rubella) vaccine Measles prevention: MMR (AB protect during primary and secondary viremia) Measles ...
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452 views

What kind of a microscope do I need to see cell organelles?

I would like to study cells and looking for a microscope that would allow me to see: groups of cells individual cell cells organelles I would like to target insects and mammal tissue. I would be ...
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103 views

How HIV Affects and Its Treatment using Combination Therapy

Can someone please help me with the following questions. I've written my specific questions right after the text question. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus. Its genome is a single ...
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1answer
38 views

Which strains of C. diphteria are causing Diphteria toxin?

I got this question: Diphteria toxin is produced only by those strains of C. diphtheria that have which of the following characteristics? Encapsulated glucose fermenters lysogenic for b-prophage ...
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98 views

E. coli, risk of infection?

There has been a warning about E. coli contaminated water in South Florida. Now I'm wondering are there empirical data or historic cases which show a correlation between E.coli levels in tap water and ...
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44 views

What is a good review book/source for microbiological diagnosis?

I am trying to find the diagnosis figure for different bacteria where phases are illustrated. I am using at the moment: 1) First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2013 and 2) Medical Microbiology by Murray et ...
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1answer
56 views

Horizontal Gene Transfer

I understand the different ways bacteria can undergo horizontal gene transfer (transformation, transduction (phages), conjugation (plasmids)). Is there an experimental method to tell how a specific ...
2
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1answer
42 views

What is the common diet of food-related IBS patients? Besides most patients being lactose intolerant, what other intolerances do they face?

I am currently writing a paper on irritable bowel syndrome, and I was wondering what the common diet of a patient with food-related IBS consists of. I've already begun discussing the pathogenesis of ...
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76 views

How do Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus precipitate the curd of swiss cheese?

I learned in my food microbiology class that Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus precipitate the curd of swiss cheese. However, I was wondering what type of mechanisms do these ...
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81 views

Aerobe or facultative anaerobe organism that metabolizes acetate?

I'm assuming bacteria, but will take any suggestions. Organism must survive primarily on the acetate (plus trace elements), but I can give/take electrons, if necessary. Not interested in strict ...
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242 views

How to deduce if RNA virus infection or DNA virus infection

Is there any general rule to say this must be RNA virus infection and the other one DNA virus infection? Example of a case: 5 children develop a bright red rash on the face and turns violet after a ...
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24 views

Why does bacillus thuringiensis produce bt toxin?

Background : B.thuringiensis produces an inactive crystalline toxin during sporulation which when ingested by an insect, gets activated and causes pore formation in gut , subsequently leading to death ...
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53 views

How can I keep pond water “alive”?

I've been preparing wet slides for my kids to look at from pond water. I have a mason jar of pond water. What can I do to keep the microbes in the jar alive going forward so that we can look at it any ...
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52 views

CRISPR-Cas Systems

In the context of the bacterial systems (not the gene editing tool), I was wondering what happens to the foreign DNA after the Cas proteins have created a new spacer. It is really not clear to me, ...
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35 views

What is effectiveness of methyl-alcohol as sporicide?

Methyl-alcohol is the weakest alcohol in terms of bactericidal properties. However, I have read that it also works as sporicide. What is the effectiveness of methyl-alcohol in killing the spores of ...
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49 views

The ring formation of ringworm

I know ringworm is caused by a fungus on the skin, nails or scalp but what causes the rash to form as a ring instead of like a normal spread out rash?
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115 views

Pink E.coli cell pellet. Reasons? [closed]

I've harvested IPTG induced E.coli BL21DE3 cells' suspension culture by spinning at 5000 rpm/15 min/4 degrees C. The pellet after spin looked pale pink colored. What could be the reasons?
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34 views

What do we know about the cellular structure, processes, environment, and immediate ancestors of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA)? [closed]

I am up for all scientifically sound speculations, and sources are highly welcome. I've looked into this quite a bit myself via scholar.google, the wiki article, and /r/askscience. I'm really looking ...
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69 views

What are the ingredients of Pheromone Trap using for controlling Fruit flies of cucumber?

Pheromone Traps are used for fruit fly control. But I have no idea which ingredients or chemicals are used for preparing Pheromone trap
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277 views

Image Processing Suite for bacterial microscopy: Schnitzcells or MicrobeTracker?

I am looking to start doing some work tracking the size and growth of individual bacterial cells in the microscope. In order to analyze the images I need software that can segment the cells, ...
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46 views

Shortest route for a Nitrogen atom from fossil fuel to a protein in your body? [closed]

Millions of years ago fossil fuels originated from plants. A nitrogen atom from fossil fuel is now inside in a protein molecule in your body. What is the shortest path that the nitrogen atom ...
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38 views

Elevated transaminases after blood transfusion?

This sparks HCV immediately in my mind. However, there may be other possibilities too. What can you deduce from elevated transaminases if you only know that the healthy adult patient received blood ...
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45 views

Endophytic Xylariaceae: diversity and taxonomy inferred from rDNA sequence analyses

"Thailand is considered as one of the areas containing a high percentage of unknown taxa of Xylariaceae (Rogers 2000). In Thailand, several studies on endophytic fungi have been documented, namely, ...
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39 views

How is the appropriately-stratified gut microbiome acquired in organisms performing horizontal transmission?

I am studying horizontal transmission of primary symbionts in insect reproduction. This reminded me of an earlier question I had asked, in which I learned that humans analogously acquired their ...
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226 views

How to obtain bacteria samples?

Would anyone know how to go about obtaining samples of Salmonella or E. coli for purely educational purposes? Note: I just want to look at the stuff under a microscope.
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180 views

List of all reported bacteria

I would like to know were to download a table file with all reported bacteria and its corresponding PHYLUM, CLASS, ORDER and FAMILY. Basically, its the same table than this one from GOLD genomes but ...
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38 views

The damage of cancer cells

I read about the molecular biology of cancer, and I have a mess on my head and a lot of questions.. . My primary question is- The damage of the cancer cells is in the dna sequence or in the gene ...
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2k views

What are the differences between G+ and G- bacteria?

The distinction between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is based upon the Gram staining method, that reflects the bacterial wall physical properties. However, this classification involves ...
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3answers
42 views

What are some places where biofilms could develop? [closed]

I'm trying to think of places where a biofilm could develop other than on medical equipment or food processing equipment such as stainless steel mechanized blades or knives. I'm thinking more along ...
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2answers
263 views

Why would yeast grow but not produce alcohol?

I'm studying for my intro to microbiology test and I have a question asking why a culture of yeast responsible for producing alcohol would be growing, but not producing alcohol? The multiple choice ...
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1answer
35 views

Difference between Fulminant and Acute Meningococcemias

Fulminant seems to mead rapid. There is however some articles with both phrases: "fulminant meningococcecemia" (about 5000 Google matches) and "acute meningococcecemia" (about 3000 Google matches). I ...
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18 views

Do Yersinia genus spp have anything movement factors?

It can spread in blood (Type III secretion system -> apoptosis). I am interested if there is any others ways to move. Do Yersinia spp have anything virulence factors to move?
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29 views

To understand clearly extraintestinal diseases

Extradistestinal disease seems to prefer to "bowel" diseases, I think this is about diseases outside gastrointestinal tract so stomach. Consider diseases ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease ...
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35 views

Staphylococcus AG structure?

I found this statement in my study materials in the section of Staphylococcus The AG structure: protein AG (species specific); polysaccharide AG (serotype specific). I know what is ...
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1answer
145 views

Lineage selection in plasmid evolution

I've been reading through Paulsson (2002) and I am not sure what he means by "lineage selection" in the second to last section. The paper deals with plasmid replication, and mostly concentrates on the ...
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1answer
290 views

Would two species of yeast with similar genome sizes have the same number of genes or chromosomes?

Similar organisms generally have similar genome sizes. Given this, would two species of yeast have the same number of genes and chromosomes? Edit: Fixed with thanks to @daniel-standage
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252 views

Growing E. coli at room temperature?

If I were to do a blue/white selection of transformed E. coli on LB agar ampicillin plates at room temperature (23⁰C) for about 2 days and 18 hours, will I run into the issue of satellite colonies or ...
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1answer
108 views

What is the expected effect of pH on the activity of a fungal pectinase?

I am working on an enzyme assay for a fungal pectinase.I assayed the enzyme in different buffers from pH 1-12.5 However,the enzyme has good activities starting from pH1-10.5. Is it possible to have ...
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93 views

Can Alzheimer's disease be caused by Slow Prion infection?

I found this claim in my study materials with explanation of amyloi plaques, in comparison to CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease). Its characteristic are Long doubling time of at least 5.2 days (I ...
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1answer
52 views

Any forms of pneumonia that can be caught?

I am aware of the fact that there are several different types of pneumonia. However, I am wondering if any of these types of pneumonia are contagious from person to person. Is this possible?
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32 views

To have TBE vaccine during allergic times with mild asthmatic symptoms?

My assistant says that if you have asthmatic symptoms you cannot have TBE (Tick Born Encephalitis) vaccine, although you are living in the active zone of TBE. Cases mild allergic symptoms allergic ...
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156 views

How do Gram + bacteria use a proton gradient for F-type ATPase?

Does anyone know of any papers showing how Gram positive Fermiculates or Actinobacteria use a H+ gradient for an F-type ATPase, It seems impossible since there is no outer LPS membrane to maintain ...