The study of the molecular processes of the nucleus and cell function.

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Can you knockout specific receptors in an adult?

Sorry I don't have a good understanding of this topic, but I'm guessing that "receptor knockout" is related to/a part of "gene knockout"? And If I understand correctly, gene knockout is currently ...
7
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1answer
2k views

How tolerant are ants to cold?

There was a trail of what are commonly known as sugar ants (small, brown, hyperactive) in my kitchen. Three of them walked onto an ice tray placed in their path. They only walked a short distance on ...
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1answer
187 views

Operators and Enhancers/Silencers

Wikipedia has two images, of a eukaryotic gene and of a prokaryotic gene. They show the difference that the prokaryotic gene also has an operator while the eukaryotic gene does not. Both also have ...
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2answers
76 views

Why mutations in genes involved in general processes like DNA repair increase the risk of developing specific types of cancer?

For example, mutation in MHS2, which encodes a protein involved in the repair of mismatches that occur during DNA replication, dramatically increases the risk of developing colon cancer. (There are ...
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39 views

What are the effects of non-ultraviolet light radiation on DNA?

I am trying better understand the effects of varying the frequency of light on DNA, however, most of what comes up is "UV light" and how it is damaging to DNA (presumably by ionization). Have there ...
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Is there a program that simulates biology on a molecular level?

Is there a computer program that simulates biology on a molecular level? Software that has rules that simulates the rules of molecular-biology?
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19 views

Degenerate primer designing software

Can any one provide online free degenerate primer designing software. I have tried couple of them like CODEHOP is one where BLOCK formatting step finding difficulty, can anyone help me out....
2
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2answers
63 views

How important is non-binding site of protein?

Just a curious question: What will happen if i remove most protein sequence that encoded for non-binding site of Restriction Enzyme to make a new enzyme, can the new restriction enzyme still work?
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51 views

What is the advantage of using plant-derived antibacterials rather than bacteria-derived antibacterials?

So obviously we have a big problem with antibiotic resistance. Most of our antibiotics originate from bacteria themselves (or are synthetic variations on scaffolds which originate from bacteria). I ...
3
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69 views

In CRISPR bacteria, how does viral genomes get integrated into the spacers of CRISPR? Also, in its use, where does Cas9 cut the DNA?

I've been out of Biology for about a year polishing my programming skills. I know CRISPR/Cas9 allows targeted 'cutting' of DNA via RNA-guidance. Few questions regarding this. Regarding to its ...
3
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0answers
21 views

What are flagged primers? [on hold]

I'm interested in amplifying a sequence for further use with Gibson Assembly. I want to create overhang regions in my DNA fragment so there would be complementarity to the plasmid I'm trying to insert ...
3
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3answers
64 views

miRNA targets mRNAs

If we observe that a miRNA, say hsa-mir-233, targets a mRNA, say XXX, in a given tissue in disease condition, can we say that always hsa-mir-233 targets mRNA XXX regardless of type of tissue and ...
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1answer
12k views

Why is ATP the preferred choice for energy carriers?

Why is ATP the most prevalent form of chemical energy storage and utilization in most cells?
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17 views

Yew seed dormancy reduction

Yew seeds have very long dormancy when artificially planted. They are also adapted to passage through digestive systems of animals that eat/transport them. But could the dormancy be shorter (or the ...
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1answer
33 views

gene transformation from plant to plant - transgenic plant

I want to know if the expression of a transfered gene depends on source of the gene, if e.g.: 1] I isolate a gene from plant and transfered it to the same plant? 2] I isolate a gene that is highly ...
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0answers
43 views

Why do PCR manufacturers recommend assembling the reaction mix on ice?

Many PCR manufacturers recommend preparing the reaction mix for the reaction on ice. For example, here is NEB's recommendation for their Q5 polymerase. Other manufacturers also include similar steps: ...
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3answers
2k views

Does a man contain all the genes needed to make a woman?

This question is brought on by a Sci Fi novel I am thinking about writing. The plot device involves a colonist in charge of building a population on a new planet who loses his supply of embryos and so ...
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1answer
53 views

Homework Question: Confused about figure related to cDNA and gDNA

what is the answer in blank? I think the loop structure for the top blank is an intron. I think RNA is the answer for the bottom blank, but it is cDNA, so it can't be RNA. I cannot figure out ...
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1answer
20 views

Degree of complementarity

Apologies in advance for asking bit naive question. I have looked up for this concept a lot but didn't find anything. The wikipedia (I know its not authentic all the time, but I think works well for ...
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4answers
686 views

Photosynthesis: What Powers the Splitting of Water?

The splitting of water is an endergonic (non-spontaneous) reaction, and thus would require energy (chemical work to be done) in order to happen. In Photosystem II, an enzyme catalyzes this splitting, ...
2
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1answer
59 views

What does it mean to clone a gene?

When I look up information related to the identification of disease genes, texts will often refer to the gene being "first cloned." What does "clone" mean in this context? Is it simply a synonym for ...
2
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0answers
32 views

PCR that worked previously is now only showing primer dimers and a smear on gel

PCR amplification of a promoter sequence for gel extraction worked beautifully using Phusion HF enzyme with GC (higher error but less picky) buffer. However, DNA concentration from the gel extraction ...
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0answers
16 views

Amputation of part of the cytoplasm of the amoeba? [closed]

We ampute a part of the cytoplasm of the amoeba many times and we observe that amoeba is not divided This experience allows to deduce the cause of the division of amoeba Do that have relation with ...
2
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1answer
24 views

genetic complementation problem

I've attached the picture of the problem. SO, based on the information I managed to assemble two large cistrons. (if the combination of two mutants yield (-) mutations are on the same chromosome) ...
2
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1answer
229 views

What is the role of glycine in the running buffer for SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

We used pH6.8 in stacking and pH8.8 in resolving gel. In the class, the professor explained that the glycine change is like: ...
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1answer
591 views

basic programming and bioinformatics [closed]

As a molecular biology graduate student I have decided to learn some basic programming and bioinformatics since everybody says that it is crucial. For example, what would you learn if you need to work ...
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3answers
31 views

importance of cDNA sequencing of a specific gene in different plants

i want to know what if i made a sequence of cDNA of a specific gene in different plants - what is the important from the sequence and can if found difference between plants , and can i use this ...
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33 views

Can genes be expressed sequentially?

As I understand it, any gene on an exposed/unpacked region of a chromosome is continuously being expressed. Regulatory genes may increase or decrease the amount of protein synthesised due to its ...
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29 views

Biological modeling languages - some basic issues

I am trying to get used to with couple of modeling languages in biological context like SBML, BioPAX, Kappa and BEL. Some basic issues came up to my mind that are unclear to me even after a lot of ...
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2answers
11k views

What's the difference between shotgun sequencing and clone based sequencing?

Whilst I appreciate this is a large topic, what are the main differences between shotgun sequencing and clone based sequencing?
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0answers
29 views

Gel Electrophoresis

we add Etbr within the agarose gel but we do not add Etbr directly in native PAGE ?when we make agarose gel, we add Etbr before its solidification but we do not add Etbr when the native PAGE gel is in ...
2
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2answers
71 views

Why is beta actin commonly used as a control in Western blots?

It is about the western blot question. The paper:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1931312813001145. In the western blot experiment in this paper, they use beta actin as control. And ...
2
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2answers
63 views

Why does agrose gel runs horizontally, and SDS-PAGE gel runs vertically?

It seems in electrophoresis, agrose gel always runs horizontally, and SDS-PAGE gel always runs vertically, why?
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0answers
11 views

Function of pseudogenes and its process through translation

Can pseudogenes be translated and function properly or will it be seen as a mutation instead?
5
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1answer
84 views

How is adrenaline a ligand?

I keep reading that adrenaline is a ligand, however from what I understand a ligand is a molecule or ion which donates a pair of electrons to a central transition metal ion in a complex. How then is ...
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136 views

Electroporation vs gene guns [closed]

What are the pros and cons of using electroporators (left) and gene guns (right) for transformation in terms of: Price Target organism Efficacy Ease of use Maintenance
3
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2answers
130 views

Immunodominant Peptide

Can someone please explain me the concept of Immunodominant peptide in simple language?? I did read the wiki article but did not understand it clearly. Please help! (I have not studied biology since ...
0
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1answer
64 views

Is there any way to make protein pass through cell membrane?

Protein cannot pass cell membrane because it's a large molecule. Until now, is there any technique that can make protein pass through the cell membrane in vivo? I want to create a protein-drug that ...
3
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2answers
73 views

Question about proto-oncogenes and oncogenes?

My textbook says: Growth-promoting genes are called proto-oncogenes. Some can be changed into oncogenes by a point mutation that alters the ability of the proto-oncogene to be switched off. They ...
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2answers
39 views

General transcription factors vs. DNA Binding transcription factors

I know that DNA binding transcription factors are trans-acting, but what about general transcription factors? Are they cis or trans acting?
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21 views

What is the difference between basal transcription and activated transcription?

My professor keeps mentioning these two forms of transcription and I'm completely confused as to what the difference is between them. I didn't even realise there were two different types of ...
2
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1answer
204 views

How long can a human neuron live outside the body in a controlled environment?

Have there been any experiments that have kept neurons alive (stationary), without preserving methods such as freezing? If yes, then how long were the cells kept alive for?
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15 views

What is the difference between cell, membrane and animal based assay?

I am reading a review about MRP1, discussing it's ability to extrude different compounds from cell interior. When describing the different experiments conducted to observe the MRP1's reaction to ...
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1answer
46 views

Can we create custom gene/protein?

Does it possible to create any custom gene or protein we want with current technology? I have a protein sequence or a gene sequence about 4000 bp write down on my computer, is there anyway to "print" ...
2
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1answer
185 views

How to find the concentration of an enzyme?

I need to know the concentration of pectinase enzyme (sigma aldrich) which has stated 5KU, 5U/mg protein (lowry) and lot result 20U/mg protein in the label of the enzyme bottle. This is all it has ...
3
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2answers
153 views

How does Cro protein expressed by lambda phage kill its host?

I read that the DNA segment of lambda phage integrated in host DNA could switch between lysogenic state where cI represses the expression of Cro and lytic state where Cro expression takes over and ...
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0answers
23 views

Is pathlength correction vital to be included while quantifying protein

I am trying to quantify protein in serum/plasma samples. I have carried out biuret assay for my samples using microplate reader. While performing I encountered the doubt whether I should include ...
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37 views

Gene sequence and DNA [closed]

can anyone help me with this? It shows two gene sequences for a sheep and a goat. ...
5
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2answers
102 views

Non-ribosomal peptide synthesis: why Glutathione cannot be produced by the ribosome?

Case: I am writing a summary for a class in protein structure and function, and was asked to describe some different ways that peptides are synthesized (that does not involve the ribosome). I ...