The study of the molecular processes of the nucleus and cell function.

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12
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2answers
114 views

How can we verify predictions of protein folding in silico?

Currently, there is a lot of research focused on solving the folding patterns of proteins using computers (Folding@Home, https://fold.it/portal/, etc.). The question that I have is: How do you know ...
0
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1answer
38 views

How is cancer associated with host pathogen interaction?

Does cancer by any chance fall under host pathogen interaction domain? What I mean to ask is that, is there pathogen interaction involved in cancer? I went through this article: ...
2
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0answers
27 views

Does blood typing still provide a use for ancient tissue analysis?

Modern techniques. In recent years, DNA sequencing has become extremely cheap. This, compounded by the ability to PCR miniscule samples to viable samples for analysis, means that aDNA can be ...
2
votes
2answers
49 views

How can 3' end polyadenylation protect cellular RNA from ribonuclease degridation?

In this link, it states: It is worth noting that all intracellular RNAs are protected from RNase activity by a number of strategies including 5' end capping, 3' end polyadenylation, and folding ...
0
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1answer
32 views

What is meant by clonal isolates?

With respect to this website: http://horfdb.dfci.harvard.edu/ what does the term clonal isolates mean?
3
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0answers
101 views

E. coli not growing in liquid medium

We are regularly doing bacterial transformation and subculture from plate to liquid media to extract DNA. This usually goes very well and is straightforward, but occasionally, the colonies that grew ...
3
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0answers
113 views

Storing Taqman plates with polymerase in fridge before running

I'm going to be running some Taqman assays on cDNA generated from RNA collected from various samples, and will end up running a bunch of plates (right now the setup is 1/2 a plate per sample, ...
3
votes
1answer
61 views

Specific numbers of nucleotides in Okazaki fragments

Okazaki fragments are formed during replication of the lagging DNA strand. What determines the length of these fragments?
1
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0answers
29 views

What will happen to transcription if histone acetyltransferases are removed from a eukaryotic cell?

If HATs are destroyed in a eukaryotic cell, how will gene expression level be affected? Will all gene expression be affected or just be slowed down and most gene will still be expressed?
0
votes
1answer
45 views

(Genetics) Is a silencer the same as gene silencing (heterochromatin)?

Is silencer the same as gene silencing? I know that gene silencing refers to those heterochromatin concentrated at the telomeres or centromere. It is also related to methylation. But what about a ...
1
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0answers
25 views

What is a “NuMA protein”?

I just got out of a lecture on mitosis and this part was incredibly confusing. After searching my textbook it doesn't cover it that well either. The professor mentioned a NUMA protein that is ...
1
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0answers
61 views

Importance of organic chemistry in biochemistry/molecular biology? [closed]

I'm halfway through my biochemistry and molecular biology degree in Australia and i'm concerned about a lack of organic chemistry. My friends studying biochemistry back home in Canada take units upon ...
3
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2answers
41 views

Macrophages and what they consume

Do macrophages in the dermis consume any foreign invader to the body, or simply pathogens and cellular debris? For example, would macrophages consume vitamins or medications injected into the dermal ...
5
votes
1answer
69 views

Is it possible to express a mutant gene only in a specific tissue?

Imagine that someone tries to develop a knockout mouse for a gene, but this result in lethality for the homozygous. Is it possible to express that mutant gene only in a specific tissue of interest to ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Reliability of Sanger sequencing

Hailed as the "gold standard" of sequencing, I was wondering to what Sanger sequencing owes its incredible accuracy to. If possible, I would like a quantification of the accuracy (because I doubt it ...
4
votes
2answers
72 views

Does suffocation pain involve nociceptors?

I never suffocated myself so not entirely sure, but when you suffocate, it's painful, right? But of course different kind of pain than being injured or sick. What I'm wondering is, if the "painful" ...
5
votes
1answer
52 views

Do non-enzyme catalysed reaction pathways exist?

Can their be a kind of chemical reaction pathway in a cell, that is catalyzed or regulated but NOT necessarily by enzymes? I could not find anything on Google. I have almost no background in biology, ...
4
votes
1answer
56 views

blue/white screening - results are opposite as expected

We inserted GFP-gene into plasmid Bluescript SK+, transformed E. coli with this construct, and then plated on an agar plate with Ampicillin and X-gal to do a blue/white screening. We got blue colonies ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

OCT-1 transport in Enterocytes [closed]

Does Oct-1 transport lactate or any of its products and in which direction (intracellularly to extracellular, the opposite, or inter-nuclear). The literature talks about Oct-1's role in neuronal ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

What are the factors on which protein-protein interaction depend? [closed]

Does protein-protein interaction only happens when one of them is basic and the other acidic? Do protein interactions also depend on the protein structure? Are there more factors?
3
votes
1answer
42 views

DNA length and annealing kinetics

I have a mixture plasmids and undesired short linear fragments that share the same sequences. During denaturation and annealing, I would like the plasmids to 'find each other' before annealing to the ...
10
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2answers
101 views

Do macrophages get nutritional value from the pathogens that they eat?

X-posted on reddit AskScience here. I know that macrophages engulf foreign bodies and transport them to various waste excretion pathways (sorry if the terminology is wrong), and if the foreign bodies ...
5
votes
0answers
73 views

SDS Laemmli Gel that did not solidify [closed]

In my lab class this week my partner and I were making a SDS-PAGE Laemmli Gel. We made the resolving gel solution which was made of 30% Acrylamide, DI water, 1.5 M Tris-HCL pH8.8, and 20% SDS. We ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Retrovirus Production

I have been having difficulties with low transduction efficiencies of my retrovirus production. I expand my plasmid of interest (on MiG-GFP plasmid) in DH5α E Coli for ~24 hours, purify with Qiagen ...
2
votes
1answer
89 views

How to isolate host cell RNA (tRNA,mRNA,rRNA) from viral RNA?

A retrovirus with RNA genome infected a host cell. You would like to isolate the host cell’s RNA (rRNA, tRNA, and mRNA) from the virus RNA. What properties can you rely on to determine the three types ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

Workspace preparation and cleanup for DNA work [duplicate]

What steps should be taken in a molecular lab environment to help ensure that DNA samples/stocks are not contaminated, or contaminate other objects in the lab?
4
votes
2answers
35 views

Transformation efficiency

I accidentally spun down the cells after heat shock treatment before adding the media into the tubes while doing transformation? will the transformation work?
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Question about cytoskeleton coordination

I am trying to study for a biology and I am having some confusion over the following topic. Can anyone help explain/ shed some light on the concepts of Rho family GTPases. Is it true that we have Rho ...
3
votes
3answers
80 views

What physical force attracts the anti-codon on tRNA to the codon on mRNA during translation?

What physical force attracts the anti-codon on tRNA to the codon on mRNA during translation? I know that these two bond together, but what actually makes the tRNA move through the cytoplasm to the ...
1
vote
2answers
34 views

How does the placement of it's motor domain affect the directionality of a motor protein?

I'm going over some of my notes, and I have written down that motor proteins with + cytoskeletal directionality have a reversed schematic representation relative to - directed motor proteins. Then I ...
2
votes
2answers
59 views

What is meant by nucleated in this context?

Hi I am little confused in one of my classes; because the teacher will say that " the actin is nucleated by the ARP 2/3 complex" or "microtubles are nucleated by the centrosome". Unless I am ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

Which is the guideline to choose a molecular target to identify vertebrate hosts from arthropod bloodmeals?

There are some molecular targets to identify vertebrate hosts from arthropod bloodmeals including the Cyt b gene and the COI gene. Which are the standards or characteristics that I have to bear in ...
3
votes
1answer
27 views

Why introduction of an extra copy of a gene related to pigmentation causes RNA interference in Petunia?

RNAi became famous after Fire and Mello experiment in C.elegans; however, it had been observed before. In the 80's, Jorgensen was trying to increase pigmentation of Petunia flowers by introducing ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

DNA polymerase in PCR (polymerase chain reaction)

Can the DNA polymerase in PCR (polymerase chain reaction) recognize both DNA and RNA for use them as template? I want to know is it possible if my primers bind to an contaminant RNA and then any DNA ...
2
votes
0answers
24 views

Can encoding of miRNAs in introns not cause dysregulation of gene expression?

For example, consider a gene X which has an intron which encodes a miRNA that downregulates expression of another gene Y. When the gene X is translated, this miRNA will appear as a byproduct of ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

What factors, other than its homochirality, make our “brand” of biology unique? [closed]

If humans were to discover organisms on another planet, it is supposed that (unless both we and they were seeded by the same source) we would have nothing to fear from alien pathogens, as they would ...
4
votes
1answer
29 views

Oligonucleotide purification with desalting

I have ordered 36bp oligonucleotides that anneal to each other and create sticky ends to be cloned in a vector afterwards. I have tried cloning many times with different methods and I failed. Now I ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Why can't some organisms match miRNA perfectly to the target mRNA like in plants? [closed]

What causes other organisms to be impaired in making perfect matches like plants do and is there a way to increase matching?
2
votes
1answer
27 views

Does mung bean nuclease cleave a phosphate group when it's chewing off 5' or 3' ssDNA ends?

I'm looking to create blunt ends from sticky ends with mung bean nuclease for subsequent ligation. Does anyone know full mechanism by which mung bean nuclease will do this? In particular after the ...
6
votes
2answers
85 views

Why do mitochondria fuse together?

Contrary to all of the textbook images of mitochondria that I have seen over the years, I had just learned that the mitochondria within a cell form a dynamic branching network along microtubule ...
6
votes
2answers
54 views

Can molecular genetics make a boolean variable from a continuous variable?

In the same kind of idea than this question. Gene expression are regulated through complex interactions. The concentration of enhancers and repressors is an important aspect that dictate the level of ...
3
votes
2answers
48 views

Are restriction enzymes active at −20 °C?

I have digested my DNA with NotI enzyme and put it in the −20 °C freezer without heat inactivating it. Can restriction enzymes work at −20 °C? Should I expect STAR activity?
2
votes
1answer
122 views

Why does gaining a hydrogen in biology considered reducing a molecule? [closed]

I've learnt in chemistry that gaining electrons means reduction, while losing electrons means oxidation. But why is it in Biology textbooks I sometimes come across the term gaining hydrogen??
3
votes
1answer
130 views

What happens to the precursor protein's signal sequence after it is cleaved?

Where does this signal sequence "go" after it has been cleaved by signal peptidase and what is its next function?
2
votes
0answers
46 views

CRISPR Knock in

Using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, it is possible that after inducing a DSB with the Cas9 endonuclease guided with an RNA designed by the user and using a template DNA, get a desired Knock-In (KI) by ...
3
votes
1answer
107 views

What type of flask should I use to culture NTERA2 embryonic cancer stem cells?

I'm just starting my MSc research and I am in the process of making a list of equipments/consumables to order. Is there a specific flask in which I can culture NTERA2 (NTERA2/D1) cell line?
4
votes
2answers
60 views

How can (or did) Deinococcus radiodurans continue to evolve after developing resistance to mutation?

Deinococcus radiodurans has a remarkable ability to resist damage to its DNA due to radiation, dehydration or (to my knowledge) any other source. It keeps multiple copies of its genome and has a ...
0
votes
1answer
98 views

What are genome wide functional linkages?

There are two types of interaction classifications used to describe Protein-protein interactions, namely physical and functional. Whilst physical interactions are obvious in nature and methodological ...
5
votes
1answer
220 views

Why is E.coli used as a model?

Is there a reason for the choice of E.coli as a model for many bacterial systems? Other bacteria such as B.subtilis are also used, but why is E. coli preferred?
1
vote
1answer
25 views

How to correlate the pattern by which CAP activator from E.coli binds to DNA and its mechanism of action?

The catabolite activator protein (CAP) activates the expression of more than 100 genes involved in secondary sugar metabolism in E.coli. Apparently, it always binds in sites that are away from -10 and ...