The study of the molecular processes of the nucleus and cell function.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

0
votes
1answer
30 views

How do normal cell division chance into a tumor forming cell division? [closed]

Or its better to say what happens at molecular level that tumors are formed? I tried normal google search and google books but couldn't find any appropriate explanation. I am trying to understand why ...
3
votes
1answer
22 views

For a recombinant pUC19 plasmid with cut sites at Hind III and EcoO109i, does lactose need to be present for the gene of interest to be expressed?

I am growing E. coli transformed with the plasmid pUC19 with an insert of an enzyme in rat brain between the mentioned cut sites (EcoO109i and HindIII). I have isolated and created the recombinant ...
7
votes
1answer
378 views

Why should phospholipid non-polar tails be “protected” in the membrane bilayer?

lipids are arranged within the membrane with polar head towards the outer side and non polar tails towards inner side, this ensures that the non polar tail is protected from aqueous environment. My ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Similarity between lncRNA and Enhancers

Please read it carefully. Question below is purely based on computational experiments: I have been running an analysis algorithm (pretty new one) on lncRNAs and its showing pretty much the same ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Lifetime of secondary messengers such as Calcium or IP3

Can anyone suggest me literature on the lifetime of secondary messengers such as calcium or IP3? A book would be preferred. What I am specifically looking for is a validation that secondary messengers ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

How to isolate two plasmids from E. Coli strand?

I have an E. coli cell line I use to express a protein using a two plasmid system. One confers AmpR and one KanR. For mutagenesis I would like to separate the plasmids to increase efficiency of the ...
8
votes
2answers
98 views

How do we find antibiotics?

So the last class of antibiotics were made in 1984 (I think), which makes it appear as though they are hard to find(/design maybe). How is it then they were discovered? Was it by chance? I know some ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Why are there so many regulatory mechanisms in gene expression? [closed]

first time posting here, apologies if this is a stupid question. I am a layman, so I might be ignorant to some already well-known or obvious concepts in biology. From what I understand, gene ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Why is tRNA called an adaptor molecule?

All I know about adaptor is that it is a device that converts attributes of one electrical device or system to those of an otherwise incompatible device or system. Thank you.
3
votes
1answer
88 views

How does a protein reach its substrate within the cell?

After a protein has been synthesized and its the final tertiary/quartenary adopted, how does it reach its substrate within the cell and what causes it to interact with it? The transcription factors ...
5
votes
1answer
65 views

Do two compatible tRNA codons bond together?

Can two tRNA with complementary anti-codons link together? For instance UUU with AAA. If not, why not?
1
vote
2answers
65 views

Material recommendation: molecular biology for mathematicians and computer scientists [closed]

I am wondering if there are some introductory learning resources on molecular biology designed specifically for scientists with heavily math-oriented curricula (math/physics/computer science). They ...
4
votes
0answers
99 views

Does Cas9 require a nuclear localization signal (NLS) for it to work in a Eukaryote?

I'm trying to establish if it's required to add a NLS to Cas9 when expressed (or transfected) in a Eukaryotic cell. Several papers report using a viral NLS, but is it absolutely necessary? Could ...
4
votes
0answers
43 views

Does depolymerisation take place at the minus end of microtubule?

Wikipedia says that Dynamic instability refers to the coexistence of assembly and disassembly at the 'ends' of a microtubule. but Karp's Cell Biology, 7th edition says Dynamic instability ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

What do arranging and assigning mean in sequence annotation?

Please could someone explain these lines to me in a simple way These sequences were then arranged based on some overlapping regions present in them. This required generation of overlapping ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Plasmolysis vs Flaccidity in cells

When is a cell said to be flaccid and when is it called plasmolysed? So far I found that there is a specific relation to osmosis.
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Are there specific non-protein substances that pathogens release into their host?

Reading research articles, I have found out that proteins called effectors get released into the host cell when a pathogen attacks a host. My question is, whether pathogens also release non-protein ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

CRISPR Cas9 most updated paper protocol

I am collecting literature to start a new project on CRISPR Cas9 gene editing. I must put together a protocol to start asap. I am intending to use the following paper as guidance: "Genome ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

What is a “noninvasive” biomarker for a disease? [closed]

What is a "noninvasive" biomarker for a disease? I know what a biomarker is, but what makes it noninvasive?
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Optimum gibson assembly overlap length

Does anyone know the optimum length of overlap your primers should have to your vector for gibson assembly. Most manufacturers say to do at least 20 bp on both side but don't give a maximum. Sometimes ...
3
votes
1answer
45 views

Enzyme Inhibition in relation to Aspirin

I've been trying to learn a bit more about pharmacology, so bear with my ignorance. In short, I see that aspirin (in part) works by inhibiting cycloxygenase isoenzymes and that this inhibiting is ...
0
votes
2answers
64 views

What is meant by “Expression” of Non-Coding RNA?

I was having a look at lncRNAdb and its help says: The ENCODE project gene annotation list, GENCODE, has predicted that the human genome contains 14,470 lncRNAs whereas only a small proportion of ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

SSR Association Mapping [closed]

I do association mapping of SSR with the help of the bioinformatics tool "Tassel v 2.1". Can any one tell me about Ls Mean in GLM. Actually, when I click on "add Ls Mean data" for output the software ...
2
votes
1answer
79 views

Programs/software to graph biological data [closed]

I am curious about what sort of programs people in my field of academia are using to graph their data. I am a master student in biochemistry, and have more or less only used excel (on rare occasions I ...
1
vote
2answers
55 views

CRISPR/Cas for editing the human genome [closed]

I know, that the CRISP/Cas approach for "cutting" the human genome is not completely suitable if we can't say not suitable at all. Because we have many repeats and this approach can bring to our ...
3
votes
1answer
48 views

What is a regulable promoter? And how does one regulate it?

I'm reading a patent where they (in S. cerevisae YNP5 strain): downregulate the ERG9 gene by replacing the native ERG9 promoter with the regulable MET3 promoter What's a regulable promoter and ...
3
votes
2answers
83 views

Is “A” inhibiting “B” and vice-versa, a positive feedback loop?

If product A inhibits the expression of product B, and product B inhibits the expression of product A, is this a positive feedback loop? My thinking was to consider the scenario that A starts off ...
1
vote
2answers
72 views

Why is DNA Shuffling more efficient than Point Mutation?

In a related post on Biology-SE the following insightful comment was made: The advantage of DNA shuffling over introducing single mutations is that you have to screen fewer mutants and the ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Random Mutagenesis vs Directed Evolution as Strategies to boost expression

Do people use random mutagenesis (say using UV) to generate host variants that have high expression of a metabolite / enzyme? I've seen it mentioned as a strategy but it confuses me as to why. How ...
3
votes
1answer
80 views

Does size matter?

As I compare the morphologic differences between mouse models and the human disease for which they are analogous, I have become interested in what difference interspecies size has on molecular ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Difference between pulse coupling and diffusive coupling In biological oscillators

What are the differences between pulse coupling found among neuron cells and diffusive coupling found in cells that exhibit calcium waves? Moreover, in both methods, is it a strict requirement that ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Transgenic zebrafish: what are some reasons for the constructs not working?

My Master's project is about generating some zebrafish transgenic lines and for that purpose I've cloned 2 new constructs, taking the promoter from a pre-existing plasmid and the vector backbone (...
4
votes
1answer
62 views

Directed evolution: Point mutation vs Insertion-Deletion vs Shuffling

When attempting enzyme function improvement via Directed Evolution I can see three different strategies to generating variation for the gene sequence: Point mutations Insertion / Deletions Shuffling ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

What is the role of Glycine in SDS-PAGE [duplicate]

We are using glycine in SDS-PAGE running buffer. What does it actually do? I found out that it maintains the pH and prevents sample damage. Does it play any other role and can it have any alternative?
0
votes
0answers
4 views

Plant symbiosis, alternative regulation pathways to AON and miRNA399?

I am currently studying systemic repression of both arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes. I know of the AON pathway (which works through CLE and NARK). I also know of ...
1
vote
2answers
65 views

Are there proteins that stabilize mRNA:RNA polymerase or mRNA:ribosome complex?

Actinomycetes are known for their ability to produce rich variety of natural products, and particularly, polyketides. Many of the genes that encode the biosynthetic pathways are pretty big, as they ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Yeast Strain with squalene synthase / farnesyltransferase (ERG9) gene deleted

I was interested in obtaining a yeast strain without the enzyme farnesyltransferase (Which catalyses conversion of FPP to Squalene). The Euroscraf database has thousands of yeast strains with ...
3
votes
1answer
72 views

Genomic DNA resuspension after ethanol precipitation

I am having trouble resuspending purified human genomic DNA. The genomic DNA is purified using phenol:chlorofom from ~ 1 mL of blood. After ethanol precipitation, I normally see a large pellet which ...
1
vote
2answers
63 views

difference between transcriptional activator and general transcription factors?

What is the difference between transcriptional activator and general transcription factors? Are they same or different, and do the transcriptional activators first attract general transcription ...
1
vote
0answers
77 views

Genomic DNA extraction protocol by salting out with NaCl, how to improve yield

In these papers A rapid non-enzymatic method for the preparation of HMW DNA from blood for RFLP studies A simple salting out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells Modified salting-...
4
votes
1answer
39 views

How much time do the different mechanisms of gene regulation need to take effect?

I am thinking of the major regulatory mechanisms, like general transcription factors, activators, repressors, and RNA interference. If non-active regulator genes using each of the different ...
4
votes
2answers
85 views

How to safely conserve my current DNA methylation marks?

I read the Wikipedia article on DNA methylation Let's say I want to extract and then stock my current DNA methylation marks somewhere so that I can use it safely 20 years in the future for a medical ...
4
votes
1answer
48 views

A good software for agent based modelling?

Hello i'm gonna start my master degree in systems biology and i'm thinking of working with agent based modelling, but i really don´t know which platform can be the best to simulate interactions ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

When should you use a stringent plasmid

I was wondering if anyone had good examples of when you would want to use a stringent plasmid vs a relaxed plasmid in a research setting. Thanks
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Do any gaps in DNA during cell division (meiosis in particular) lead to crossover?

I have some gaps in the knowledge abour crossover. I know, that crossover is connected with reparation process. I'd like to know if all gaps in chromosomes lead to crossover (reparation based on 2d ...
7
votes
1answer
56 views

Does copper exacerbate wounds?

There is a three edged stiletto (weapon, not shoe) with a triangular cross-section that is often touted as being "extra dangerous" because of the triangular puncture it makes, and its copper ...
5
votes
1answer
83 views

Can difference in the expression potential of alleles lead to dominance?

Several hour ago I was in thoughts what allele dominance really means on molecular level. As we know from basic genetics, if the organism had Aa type of some gene ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Why do RNAi pathway proteins exist in the nematode when they can cause them harm?

When dsRNA is injected in plant, Dicer cuts it and prevents disease. Why would the plant parasite, M. incognita - a nematode, die when dsRNA was injected in it? It should have saved it. Again, to be ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Artificial Synthesis of Animal Cells

If we know the elements with which a certain type of cell is composed of (I am particularly talking about Animals, and Humans more importantly), why aren't we able to make cells on our own then, in a ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

UV light-induced mutagenesis during gel extraction

this is a very short question I did not find the answer for online, neither on this nor other fora. At the beginning of my cloning protocol, I extracted the band with the sequence of interest directly ...