The study of the molecular processes of the nucleus and cell function.

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Enzyme immobilization: Factors that help or hurt success

Are there any factors to consider that can help / hurt the chance to get a successful immobilized enzyme catalyst? i.e. The relative attractiveness of a live host synthesis vs an immobilized enzyme. ...
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1answer
44 views

Lookup for transporter locations in humans

I am interested in several transporters and cotransporters (eg SLC12A1/2 and many others), more precicely, in (human) organism that are made of cells containing those transporters. So does anyone know ...
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22 views

Computer Models of E Coli / Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite pathways

Are there mathematical models one can use to predict the expression levels of a foreign gene inserted into a well studied host organism like E Coli or S cerevisiae? I'm not, obviously, looking for ...
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18 views

codon optimization / enzyme active site improvement

Does one necessarily have to use de novo synthesis of DNA when attempting protein expression improvement by codon optimization? Or are there other ways? e.g. Say the gene coding for the enzyme needed ...
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20 views

Do you have a comprehensive protocol using xGen blocking oligo? [closed]

Specifically used with genomic DNA and to help prevent non-specific binding
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1answer
52 views

What is the P in LogP? [closed]

How does this value actually get calculated? Logarithms are usually written as log(base 10) of x So what is the 'P' equivalent of 'base 10'? I know it stands for octanol/water, but what does that ...
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1answer
67 views

What is two-start or zigzag model of 30 nm chromatin fibre?

I read some webpages describing the two-start model but could not get it. I'll be obliged if someone helped me understand the topic. The websites I have been through are: ...
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0answers
20 views

What is the site on an enzyme that binds either exitatory or inhibitory molecules? [closed]

A site on an enzyme where either exitatory or inhibitory molecules can bind is called a(n): A) electron transport site B) active site C) coenzyme D) metabolic pathway E) allosteric site If you ...
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1answer
22 views

How can dopamine modulate synaptic strength?

Does dopamine act on G protein coupled receptor, leading to more Ca2+ channels on the postsynaptic knob? Also, how is the specificity of the location (of the brain) that dopamine acts on controlled? ...
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3answers
189 views

How does the body switch between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

Lets take the case of a person doing heavy exercise. Aerobic respiration is taking place, but oxygen is about to be finished up. Glycolysis occurs, Krebs cycle finishes. Now NADH and FADH enter ...
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1answer
83 views
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1answer
56 views

How do the major and minor grooves in the DNA helix arise?

I understand that they arise due to the pairing of bases of two opposite stands and are sites through which important proteins needed for replication and transcription of DNA interact. But I don't get ...
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1answer
31 views

How to induce a steady increase in cyctoplasmic [Ca2+] in HEK293T cells? And is there any simple marker/method to confirm it?

We are trying to find out whether increase or decrease of cytoplasmic calcium concentration affects the interaction of two proteins, using co-IP in HEK293T cells as a readout. In different forums and ...
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1answer
38 views

Molecular/cellular biology textbook to consolidate what I know about molecular/cell biology

I'm a medical student (who is halfway through med school) looking for a textbook that will consolidate some of the biology I already know. While I've read a lot of books that go into great detail ...
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3answers
40 views

Statistically, why is the number of mutated genes in eggs treated with chemical mutagenesis one?

Excerpted from the Guide to Research Techniques in Neuroscience [1]: In chemical mutagenesis, a scientist applies a mutagenizing chemical, such as ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) or ...
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0answers
76 views

Can bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells be destroyed by resonance?

Radiotherapy has been used to treat cancer. Can the resonances by coordinated electromagnetic waves (and/or other forms of waves), of various frequencies, amplitudes and pulse rates, directed from ...
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0answers
25 views

Hydrogen bonding and the blocking thereof in nucleic acids during nuclear processes

In transcription, RNA polymerase unwinds the DNA double helix and begins attaching RNA nucleotides to the template strand. In its wake, the DNA double helix closes back—this is only natural, seeing as ...
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1answer
50 views

Does DNA polymerase I require a $3^\prime$ end?

DNA polymerase III adds nucleotides in the $5^\prime \rightarrow 3^\prime$ direction because it can only add nucleotides to the $3^\prime$ end of the previous nucleotide. This is why it requires a ...
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1answer
39 views

What's the mixture of plasma and haemoglobin called [closed]

I know of oxyhaemoglobin but the mixture of plasma and haemoglobin in the blood gives what?
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1answer
51 views

What's the mixture of carbon and haemoglobin called [closed]

I know of oxyhaemogloblin , the mixture of oxygen and haemoglobin , but carbon and haemoglobin combination is what's confusing
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0answers
17 views

Problem with phosphorylated and total forms of antibodies

Antibodies are available that can detect both phosphorylated and total endogeneous levels of the given protein. I have a question here, why is it necessary to have equal amounts of total protein? This ...
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0answers
30 views

How to cut out a specific named gene from plant DNA

Suppose one has extracted RNA from a plant, converted it to the corresponding cDNA & amplified it but now wants to cut out a particular, already-sequenced gene out from it, how does one proceed? ...
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1answer
58 views

Negative feedback loop and oscillations

According to the textbook Alberts Molecular Biology of the Cell (5th ed., p. 902), negative feedback loops cause oscillations when they are long delayed. I just can't figure out why. Except for ...
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1answer
26 views

Sodium hydroxide grade in library denaturation for NGS

If the NaOH, 1N which I bought does not have the label of molecular biology grade can it be used safely for library denaturation in NGS? Thank you!
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0answers
11 views

Function of NEZHA gene [closed]

What is the function of NEZHA? What effect does it have on microtubules and PLEKHA7? What happens after it has been knocked down?
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0answers
25 views

mRNA extraction from mice ears.

I am trying to extract RNA from mice ears and for some reason I don't have RNA when I perform the electrophoresis. I directly cut the ears and I put it in a tube with a bead and trizol. then I place ...
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0answers
27 views

Lifeforms concentrations of the categories of macromolecules, and Lipids

Lifeforms are formed of large, modular, organic molecules called macromolecules, large organic molecules called Lipids, and simpler molecules such as H2O. Macromolecules are commonly grouped into the ...
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2answers
37 views

What separates gene loci?

Introns are sections of noncoding DNA that separate exons within a gene locus. However, between different gene loci, I also would assume there to be noncoding regions of DNA. What are these regions ...
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2answers
80 views

Crossing over and exon shuffling?

Campbell Biology 10e, in discussing the functions of introns, writes: The presence of introns in a gene may facilitate the evolution of new and potentially beneficial proteins as a result of a ...
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2answers
37 views

Was there originally a non-ribosomal way of synthesizing proteins?

Proteins are synthesized on ribosomes from mRNA copies of regions of the DNA. But ribosomes themselves are made up of proteins (and RNA). So how could the first ribosomes have arisen? Was there ...
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0answers
21 views

XNAs as a Genetic material [closed]

I heard there is a new genetic material called XNAs.I wanted to know more about this.Does anyone about XNAs as genetic material?
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0answers
25 views

Dogs recognize eachother on sight. How come?

Is it possible that the fact that dogs regonize eachother on sight is caused in the developing embryo, wich is to say that the developing map from wich the motorcells conect to the motorsystem somehow ...
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39 views

Molecular Biology and Genetics [closed]

What's the best textbook and online courses to study Molecular biology and genetics for undergrad student?
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0answers
32 views

In the life-cycle of the HIV virus, how does the created DNA enter the nuclear membrane?

I am in a high school biology class, so I cannot truly attest to how accurate the information I am given is, but as far as I know only RNA and very small molecules can enter the nuclear membrane ...
3
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1answer
78 views

What came first? The DNA or the DNA polymerases?

I know this sounds a lot like chicken and egg question and while the latter has an answer, I am intrigued about the former. A modified form of the question would be, in the course of abiogenesis, ...
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0answers
15 views

How is “fine mapping of pelvic regulatory region” done in the stickleback PitX1 paper?

I'm working through this paper for a class. I'm a bit confused by the methods they used in one experiment. So the researchers are studying spine development in stickleback fish. They noticed some ...
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1answer
49 views

Do the antibodies in a patient suffering from Hashimoto's, attack the thyroid hormones or the thyroid gland (or both?)?

If oral thyroid hormone supplement is administered, is the attack stopped or does it just create an excess of thyroid hormones so that even after a lot of it is destroyed by the antibodies, there is ...
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1answer
27 views

How does Organ Transplant work well despite having Foreign DNA

My question is little bit related to this one Why does organ transplant work although it seems organ's motor neuron isn't connected to recipient's CNS but only little bit. Problem ...
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2answers
52 views

Difference between DNA and Genome

Can we safely use the terms DNA and Genome interchangeably or is there any (even slight) difference between the two?
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1answer
39 views

How does cytochrome c oxidase inhibition cause cell death?

I realise the inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase prevents the release of H+ ions into the intermembrane space, and that the ion gradient is required for ATP synthase action. However, I'm not sure how ...
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1answer
33 views

BWA-MEM single strand or doublestrand alignment

In whole genome secondary analysis does BWA-MEM use a double stranded fasta reference or are reads aligned to only one, single stranded fasta reference?
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1answer
43 views

What is 'noise'?

In both my psychology, biology and neuroscience classes, professors are constantly talking about 'noise'. For instance, our perception is limited due to 'sensory noise' in our neurons. I am utterly ...
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1answer
56 views

How difficult is it to make a shRNA/miRNA/siRNA to silence/knockdown NaV1.7 voltage gated sodium channels in humans?

There have been various research projects that experimented with shRNA/miRNA/siRNA to specifically silence/knockdown NaV1.7 voltage gated sodium channels in small animals like rats & guinea pigs. ...
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0answers
52 views

Which of the three is true for insulin receptors?

I have seen the following question in a Cell Biology exam: Which of the following is true" Insulin has an hydrophobic Signal Peptide and the insulin receptor does not have an hydrophobic ...
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1answer
50 views

Is HSV-vector-mediated miRNA expression in dorsal root ganglia stable?

My question is on the following article: "Reduction of voltage gated sodium channel protein in DRG by vector mediated miRNA reduces pain in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy" My question is, do ...
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1answer
104 views

how to change format of ent file into PDB format?

whenever i download files from Protein Data Bank(PDB),they are downloaded in .ent format. How can i convert them into PDB format??
3
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1answer
47 views

Do only one or both pairs of homologous chromatids exchange genetic material during the process of crossing over?

To be specific: Assume chromosomes A and B are homologous. They've both replicated into A1, A2 and B1, B2 and have formed a tetrad at the equator (synapsis). Most textbooks show either A1 and B1 OR A2 ...
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0answers
17 views

Ions in different cell compartments

I would like to understand the distribution of metal ion concentrations (such as Mg2+) in the different cell compartments. I tried very hard but still couldn't find such information. Could anyone ...
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1answer
76 views

How the chaotropic agents help in purification of DNA molecule?

Those plants which are rich in secondary metabolites and polysaccharides DNA isolation can be done using certain chaotropic agents? can any one explain how it works?
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1answer
59 views

Chromosomomal walking

I'm having a great deal of trouble understanding chromosomal walking, especially in regards to this article: Control of male sexual behavior and sexual orientation in Drosophila by the fruitless ...