The study of the molecular processes of the nucleus and cell function.

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1answer
51 views

What's the mixture of carbon and haemoglobin called [closed]

I know of oxyhaemogloblin , the mixture of oxygen and haemoglobin , but carbon and haemoglobin combination is what's confusing
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2answers
79 views

Getting PCR amplification at annealing higher than Tm!

I am amplifying a gene where in a gradient pcr i am getting amplification at an annealing temperature about 5 degrees (67) higher than Tm (62.5)? What is wrong here? Also, I am getting a very strong ...
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1answer
71 views

Primer Design with Primer-BLAST over specific site

I am trying to design primers using Primer-BLAST such that the forward primer spans a specific base pair site. I am looking at KRAS for which I believe the RefSeq ID is NG_007524.1 and the forward ...
4
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1answer
58 views

Negative feedback loop and oscillations

According to the textbook Alberts Molecular Biology of the Cell (5th ed., p. 902), negative feedback loops cause oscillations when they are long delayed. I just can't figure out why. Except for ...
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0answers
17 views

Problem with phosphorylated and total forms of antibodies

Antibodies are available that can detect both phosphorylated and total endogeneous levels of the given protein. I have a question here, why is it necessary to have equal amounts of total protein? This ...
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0answers
30 views

How to cut out a specific named gene from plant DNA

Suppose one has extracted RNA from a plant, converted it to the corresponding cDNA & amplified it but now wants to cut out a particular, already-sequenced gene out from it, how does one proceed? ...
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1answer
26 views

Sodium hydroxide grade in library denaturation for NGS

If the NaOH, 1N which I bought does not have the label of molecular biology grade can it be used safely for library denaturation in NGS? Thank you!
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0answers
11 views

Function of NEZHA gene [closed]

What is the function of NEZHA? What effect does it have on microtubules and PLEKHA7? What happens after it has been knocked down?
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0answers
25 views

mRNA extraction from mice ears.

I am trying to extract RNA from mice ears and for some reason I don't have RNA when I perform the electrophoresis. I directly cut the ears and I put it in a tube with a bead and trizol. then I place ...
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1answer
2k views

What is our skin made up of?

Again, it is a basic question. What is our skin made up of? is it made up of many cells arranged in a systematic way or is it just like any layer say of a book?? what is the difference? where is the ...
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2answers
80 views

Crossing over and exon shuffling?

Campbell Biology 10e, in discussing the functions of introns, writes: The presence of introns in a gene may facilitate the evolution of new and potentially beneficial proteins as a result of a ...
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0answers
27 views

Lifeforms concentrations of the categories of macromolecules, and Lipids

Lifeforms are formed of large, modular, organic molecules called macromolecules, large organic molecules called Lipids, and simpler molecules such as H2O. Macromolecules are commonly grouped into the ...
2
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1answer
49 views

Do the antibodies in a patient suffering from Hashimoto's, attack the thyroid hormones or the thyroid gland (or both?)?

If oral thyroid hormone supplement is administered, is the attack stopped or does it just create an excess of thyroid hormones so that even after a lot of it is destroyed by the antibodies, there is ...
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1answer
94 views

Enzymes and plasmids

A high school class has analyzed plasmids by the help of restriction enzymes and electrophoresis. The class got delivered two different plasmids, pBR 322 and pC 508. These two plasmids were going to ...
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0answers
21 views

XNAs as a Genetic material [closed]

I heard there is a new genetic material called XNAs.I wanted to know more about this.Does anyone about XNAs as genetic material?
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0answers
25 views

Dogs recognize eachother on sight. How come?

Is it possible that the fact that dogs regonize eachother on sight is caused in the developing embryo, wich is to say that the developing map from wich the motorcells conect to the motorsystem somehow ...
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0answers
39 views

Molecular Biology and Genetics [closed]

What's the best textbook and online courses to study Molecular biology and genetics for undergrad student?
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1answer
78 views

What came first? The DNA or the DNA polymerases?

I know this sounds a lot like chicken and egg question and while the latter has an answer, I am intrigued about the former. A modified form of the question would be, in the course of abiogenesis, ...
3
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0answers
32 views

In the life-cycle of the HIV virus, how does the created DNA enter the nuclear membrane?

I am in a high school biology class, so I cannot truly attest to how accurate the information I am given is, but as far as I know only RNA and very small molecules can enter the nuclear membrane ...
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0answers
15 views

How is “fine mapping of pelvic regulatory region” done in the stickleback PitX1 paper?

I'm working through this paper for a class. I'm a bit confused by the methods they used in one experiment. So the researchers are studying spine development in stickleback fish. They noticed some ...
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3answers
402 views

Amplification technique for proteins similar to PCR for DNA?

I know PCR can be used to amplify a tiny sample of DNA in order to perform experiments. Is there a similar technique to use on a protein sample? More specifically, I'm not interested in "cutting" up ...
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2answers
52 views

Difference between DNA and Genome

Can we safely use the terms DNA and Genome interchangeably or is there any (even slight) difference between the two?
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1answer
27 views

How does Organ Transplant work well despite having Foreign DNA

My question is little bit related to this one Why does organ transplant work although it seems organ's motor neuron isn't connected to recipient's CNS but only little bit. Problem ...
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1answer
56 views

How difficult is it to make a shRNA/miRNA/siRNA to silence/knockdown NaV1.7 voltage gated sodium channels in humans?

There have been various research projects that experimented with shRNA/miRNA/siRNA to specifically silence/knockdown NaV1.7 voltage gated sodium channels in small animals like rats & guinea pigs. ...
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1answer
43 views

What is 'noise'?

In both my psychology, biology and neuroscience classes, professors are constantly talking about 'noise'. For instance, our perception is limited due to 'sensory noise' in our neurons. I am utterly ...
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1answer
53 views

Do snRNAs exit the nucleus or not?

In Molecular Biology of The Cell (Alberts, et al., 2015), it lists the various RNAs that are trafficked through the Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) into the cytoplasm. The list includes snRNAs, but I ...
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0answers
52 views

Which of the three is true for insulin receptors?

I have seen the following question in a Cell Biology exam: Which of the following is true" Insulin has an hydrophobic Signal Peptide and the insulin receptor does not have an hydrophobic ...
4
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1answer
50 views

Is HSV-vector-mediated miRNA expression in dorsal root ganglia stable?

My question is on the following article: "Reduction of voltage gated sodium channel protein in DRG by vector mediated miRNA reduces pain in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy" My question is, do ...
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1answer
104 views

how to change format of ent file into PDB format?

whenever i download files from Protein Data Bank(PDB),they are downloaded in .ent format. How can i convert them into PDB format??
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2answers
2k views

Book Recommendations: GRE Subject Test In Biochemistry, Cell And Molecular Biology

There are probably a lot of really good answers that may vary significantly in terms of content. I'm looking for a set of books that I can read in preparation for the GRE Subject Test In ...
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0answers
17 views

Ions in different cell compartments

I would like to understand the distribution of metal ion concentrations (such as Mg2+) in the different cell compartments. I tried very hard but still couldn't find such information. Could anyone ...
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3answers
5k views

Why does replication require primers while transcription does not?

In transcription, there is no need for any primer. I guess the basic mechanism of DNA polymerase & RNA polymerase is the same. So why does replication have the need for a primer?
3
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1answer
82 views

What is the shortest mRNA the ribosome can read to produce a peptide?

This question came as a comment on a previous question regarding non-ribosomal peptide synthesis, and why Glutathione cannot be synthesized by the ribosome. In general, Glutathione has a "gamma" ...
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1answer
59 views

Chromosomomal walking

I'm having a great deal of trouble understanding chromosomal walking, especially in regards to this article: Control of male sexual behavior and sexual orientation in Drosophila by the fruitless ...
2
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1answer
51 views

How do proteins perform their function [closed]

I have asked a question on physics stackexchange, but was redirected here. I copy the entire question word for word. The original is here. Let's, for example, take a ribosome. It is an enzyme that ...
2
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2answers
517 views

Using RNA-seq to compare gene expression across patients instead of between Control and Experimental conditions

I am working with RNA-seq data from the Cancer Genome Atlas TCGA and I have been reading about how people have compared gene expression levels measured by RNA-seq. Many of the papers I have read talk ...
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0answers
19 views

Membrane-partitioning free energy [closed]

What is membrane-partitioning free energy? Can we look for difference in free energy upon partitioning in GROMACS? What are the methods I would need to use to determine the free energy of ...
1
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0answers
11 views

final control prior to transfecting an expression vector into a mammalian cell?

I have been asked a general question: Once I have cloned a full-length cDNA into an expression vector, what final important control must I do before I transfect this into an embryonic stem cell line? ...
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0answers
58 views

Which DNA fragments do not have expected sizes on this gel electrophoresis?

The problem is such: After performing a PCR, the vector carrying the PCR fragment with two restriction enzymes (Nhe1 and Asc1). The DNA samples were then separated using agrose gel electrophoresis ...
3
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1answer
100 views

Why is photosynthesis so complex?

Actually, what is the need of such long procedure? As much as I have understood, the sole purpose of photosynthesis is to synthesize carbohydrates, which is only used for energy storage. So, why don't ...
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0answers
48 views

How does lactic acidosis lead to pain?

I come from Physics, not biology. My understanding is that without sufficient oxygen present, the Kreb's cycle terminates in lactic acid formation for the body to later continue the reaction when ...
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1answer
42 views
4
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1answer
39 views

Can you knockout specific receptors in an adult?

Sorry I don't have a good understanding of this topic, but I'm guessing that "receptor knockout" is related to/a part of "gene knockout"? And If I understand correctly, gene knockout is currently ...
7
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1answer
3k views

How tolerant are ants to cold?

There was a trail of what are commonly known as sugar ants (small, brown, hyperactive) in my kitchen. Three of them walked onto an ice tray placed in their path. They only walked a short distance on ...
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1answer
286 views

Operators and Enhancers/Silencers

Wikipedia has two images, of a eukaryotic gene and of a prokaryotic gene. They show the difference that the prokaryotic gene also has an operator while the eukaryotic gene does not. Both also have ...
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0answers
42 views

What are the effects of non-ultraviolet light radiation on DNA?

I am trying better understand the effects of varying the frequency of light on DNA, however, most of what comes up is "UV light" and how it is damaging to DNA (presumably by ionization). Have there ...
11
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2answers
234 views

Is there a program that simulates biology on a molecular level?

Is there a computer program that simulates biology on a molecular level? Software that has rules that simulates the rules of molecular-biology?
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0answers
23 views

Degenerate primer designing software

Can any one provide online free degenerate primer designing software. I have tried couple of them like CODEHOP is one where BLOCK formatting step finding difficulty, can anyone help me out....
2
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2answers
69 views

How important is non-binding site of protein?

Just a curious question: What will happen if i remove most protein sequence that encoded for non-binding site of Restriction Enzyme to make a new enzyme, can the new restriction enzyme still work?
3
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0answers
56 views

What is the advantage of using plant-derived antibacterials rather than bacteria-derived antibacterials?

So obviously we have a big problem with antibiotic resistance. Most of our antibiotics originate from bacteria themselves (or are synthetic variations on scaffolds which originate from bacteria). I ...