The study of the molecular processes of the nucleus and cell function.

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2
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2answers
70 views

How important is non-binding site of protein?

Just a curious question: What will happen if i remove most protein sequence that encoded for non-binding site of Restriction Enzyme to make a new enzyme, can the new restriction enzyme still work?
3
votes
0answers
56 views

What is the advantage of using plant-derived antibacterials rather than bacteria-derived antibacterials?

So obviously we have a big problem with antibiotic resistance. Most of our antibiotics originate from bacteria themselves (or are synthetic variations on scaffolds which originate from bacteria). I ...
3
votes
1answer
123 views

In CRISPR bacteria, how does viral genomes get integrated into the spacers of CRISPR? Also, in its use, where does Cas9 cut the DNA?

I've been out of Biology for about a year polishing my programming skills. I know CRISPR/Cas9 allows targeted 'cutting' of DNA via RNA-guidance. Few questions regarding this. Regarding to its ...
3
votes
0answers
22 views

What are flagged primers? [closed]

I'm interested in amplifying a sequence for further use with Gibson Assembly. I want to create overhang regions in my DNA fragment so there would be complementarity to the plasmid I'm trying to insert ...
3
votes
3answers
67 views

miRNA targets mRNAs

If we observe that a miRNA, say hsa-mir-233, targets a mRNA, say XXX, in a given tissue in disease condition, can we say that always hsa-mir-233 targets mRNA XXX regardless of type of tissue and ...
1
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0answers
18 views

Yew seed dormancy reduction

Yew seeds have very long dormancy when artificially planted. They are also adapted to passage through digestive systems of animals that eat/transport them. But could the dormancy be shorter (or the ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

gene transformation from plant to plant - transgenic plant

I want to know if the expression of a transfered gene depends on source of the gene, if e.g.: 1] I isolate a gene from plant and transfered it to the same plant? 2] I isolate a gene that is highly ...
1
vote
0answers
67 views

Why do PCR manufacturers recommend assembling the reaction mix on ice?

Many PCR manufacturers recommend preparing the reaction mix for the reaction on ice. For example, here is NEB's recommendation for their Q5 polymerase. Other manufacturers also include similar steps: ...
12
votes
3answers
2k views

Does a man contain all the genes needed to make a woman?

This question is brought on by a Sci Fi novel I am thinking about writing. The plot device involves a colonist in charge of building a population on a new planet who loses his supply of embryos and so ...
-2
votes
1answer
67 views

Homework Question: Confused about figure related to cDNA and gDNA

what is the answer in blank? I think the loop structure for the top blank is an intron. I think RNA is the answer for the bottom blank, but it is cDNA, so it can't be RNA. I cannot figure out ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Degree of complementarity

Apologies in advance for asking bit naive question. I have looked up for this concept a lot but didn't find anything. The wikipedia (I know its not authentic all the time, but I think works well for ...
5
votes
4answers
964 views

Photosynthesis: What Powers the Splitting of Water?

The splitting of water is an endergonic (non-spontaneous) reaction, and thus would require energy (chemical work to be done) in order to happen. In Photosystem II, an enzyme catalyzes this splitting, ...
2
votes
1answer
86 views

What does it mean to clone a gene?

When I look up information related to the identification of disease genes, texts will often refer to the gene being "first cloned." What does "clone" mean in this context? Is it simply a synonym for ...
2
votes
0answers
41 views

PCR that worked previously is now only showing primer dimers and a smear on gel

PCR amplification of a promoter sequence for gel extraction worked beautifully using Phusion HF enzyme with GC (higher error but less picky) buffer. However, DNA concentration from the gel extraction ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Amputation of part of the cytoplasm of the amoeba? [closed]

We ampute a part of the cytoplasm of the amoeba many times and we observe that amoeba is not divided This experience allows to deduce the cause of the division of amoeba Do that have relation with ...
2
votes
1answer
30 views

genetic complementation problem

I've attached the picture of the problem. SO, based on the information I managed to assemble two large cistrons. (if the combination of two mutants yield (-) mutations are on the same chromosome) ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the role of glycine in the running buffer for SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

We used pH6.8 in stacking and pH8.8 in resolving gel. In the class, the professor explained that the glycine change is like: ...
0
votes
1answer
632 views

basic programming and bioinformatics [closed]

As a molecular biology graduate student I have decided to learn some basic programming and bioinformatics since everybody says that it is crucial. For example, what would you learn if you need to work ...
1
vote
3answers
40 views

importance of cDNA sequencing of a specific gene in different plants

i want to know what if i made a sequence of cDNA of a specific gene in different plants - what is the important from the sequence and can if found difference between plants , and can i use this ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

Can genes be expressed sequentially?

As I understand it, any gene on an exposed/unpacked region of a chromosome is continuously being expressed. Regulatory genes may increase or decrease the amount of protein synthesised due to its ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Biological modeling languages - some basic issues

I am trying to get used to with couple of modeling languages in biological context like SBML, BioPAX, Kappa and BEL. Some basic issues came up to my mind that are unclear to me even after a lot of ...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

Gel Electrophoresis

we add Etbr within the agarose gel but we do not add Etbr directly in native PAGE ?when we make agarose gel, we add Etbr before its solidification but we do not add Etbr when the native PAGE gel is in ...
2
votes
2answers
254 views

Why is beta actin commonly used as a control in Western blots?

It is about the western blot question. The paper:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1931312813001145. In the western blot experiment in this paper, they use beta actin as control. And ...
2
votes
2answers
92 views

Why does agrose gel runs horizontally, and SDS-PAGE gel runs vertically?

It seems in electrophoresis, agrose gel always runs horizontally, and SDS-PAGE gel always runs vertically, why?
1
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0answers
12 views

Function of pseudogenes and its process through translation

Can pseudogenes be translated and function properly or will it be seen as a mutation instead?
5
votes
1answer
119 views

How is adrenaline a ligand?

I keep reading that adrenaline is a ligand, however from what I understand a ligand is a molecule or ion which donates a pair of electrons to a central transition metal ion in a complex. How then is ...
0
votes
2answers
167 views

Electroporation vs gene guns [closed]

What are the pros and cons of using electroporators (left) and gene guns (right) for transformation in terms of: Price Target organism Efficacy Ease of use Maintenance
3
votes
2answers
148 views

Immunodominant Peptide

Can someone please explain me the concept of Immunodominant peptide in simple language?? I did read the wiki article but did not understand it clearly. Please help! (I have not studied biology since ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

Is there any way to make protein pass through cell membrane?

Protein cannot pass cell membrane because it's a large molecule. Until now, is there any technique that can make protein pass through the cell membrane in vivo? I want to create a protein-drug that ...
3
votes
2answers
107 views

Question about proto-oncogenes and oncogenes?

My textbook says: Growth-promoting genes are called proto-oncogenes. Some can be changed into oncogenes by a point mutation that alters the ability of the proto-oncogene to be switched off. They ...
0
votes
2answers
42 views

General transcription factors vs. DNA Binding transcription factors

I know that DNA binding transcription factors are trans-acting, but what about general transcription factors? Are they cis or trans acting?
0
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0answers
30 views

What is the difference between basal transcription and activated transcription?

My professor keeps mentioning these two forms of transcription and I'm completely confused as to what the difference is between them. I didn't even realise there were two different types of ...
2
votes
1answer
232 views

How long can a human neuron live outside the body in a controlled environment?

Have there been any experiments that have kept neurons alive (stationary), without preserving methods such as freezing? If yes, then how long were the cells kept alive for?
1
vote
0answers
22 views

What is the difference between cell, membrane and animal based assay?

I am reading a review about MRP1, discussing it's ability to extrude different compounds from cell interior. When describing the different experiments conducted to observe the MRP1's reaction to ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

Can we create custom gene/protein?

Does it possible to create any custom gene or protein we want with current technology? I have a protein sequence or a gene sequence about 4000 bp write down on my computer, is there anyway to "print" ...
2
votes
1answer
403 views

How to find the concentration of an enzyme?

I need to know the concentration of pectinase enzyme (sigma aldrich) which has stated 5KU, 5U/mg protein (lowry) and lot result 20U/mg protein in the label of the enzyme bottle. This is all it has ...
3
votes
2answers
216 views

How does Cro protein expressed by lambda phage kill its host?

I read that the DNA segment of lambda phage integrated in host DNA could switch between lysogenic state where cI represses the expression of Cro and lytic state where Cro expression takes over and ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Is pathlength correction vital to be included while quantifying protein

I am trying to quantify protein in serum/plasma samples. I have carried out biuret assay for my samples using microplate reader. While performing I encountered the doubt whether I should include ...
2
votes
0answers
40 views

Gene sequence and DNA [closed]

can anyone help me with this? It shows two gene sequences for a sheep and a goat. ...
5
votes
2answers
129 views

Non-ribosomal peptide synthesis: why Glutathione cannot be produced by the ribosome?

Case: I am writing a summary for a class in protein structure and function, and was asked to describe some different ways that peptides are synthesized (that does not involve the ribosome). I ...
2
votes
1answer
101 views

What is the molecular mechanism of odorant transduction signaling pathway?

I have read a few papers on the topic of odorant signaling pathway. The following papers are listed as examples. However, I found that there is not a clear pathway representation of the odorant ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Wash adsorbed protein without destroying Biotin-Avidin-Mechanism

I am looking for reliable protocols to wash protein (e.g. Fibronectin) adsorbed onto glass surfaces. According to Protein immobilization literature, people usually use 1% SDS and some incubation time. ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Conjugated deoxyribonucleotides

I'm currently learning about using PCR techniques to make fluorescently labelled DNA probes, and the textbook mentions "conjugated deoxyribonucleotides" Can someone explain what these are? Nothing ...
2
votes
1answer
3k views

Complementarity Determining Regions (CDRs)

Complementarity determining regions (CDRs) are part of the variable domains in immunoglobulins (antibodies) and T cell receptors, generated by B-cells and T-cells respectively, where these molecules ...
1
vote
1answer
170 views

What is the reason for having an extra recognition site for a restriction enzyme?

Can the size of a supercoiled plasmid DNA be determined by using standard DNA size fragment electrophoresed in parallel? 2. An unknown DNA molecule was cleaved using several restriction enzymes ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

If two different diseases have more than one common pathway, the relationship between their occurences?

I just wonder that are there any special relationship between the pathway and disease occurrence. For example, there are cancer A and cancer B (and they have more than one common pathway). Then if ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Refer to Ran-GEF as a coenzyme?

Ran-GEF facilitates an exchange of GDP for GTP in the formation of Ran-GTP in the nucleus as part of gated import of proteins. Would I be correct in calling Ran-GEF or Ran-GAP coenzymes?
0
votes
1answer
58 views

On which amino-acids residue is the SDS acting on?

I would like to know exactly what is the mechanisme of the SDS, and I would like to know on which amino-acids residue the SDS is acting on. Can you help me please ? Thank you in advance !
2
votes
1answer
93 views

How does one insert cas9 into animal cells?

How could cas9 be inserted into cells by researchers looking to edit a genome? I imagine for engineering bacterial systems you could just put in the cas9 coding region in an expression vector, but is ...
3
votes
1answer
57 views

How to predict a mRNA secondary structure with a large sequence?

When I use some web servers to predict a mRNA secondary structure, I find they always required in a small size sequence. If I use a long sequence and cut it into small parts, do these small parts ...