The study of the molecular processes of the nucleus and cell function.

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mRNA extraction from mice ears.

I am trying to extract RNA from mice ears and for some reason I don't have RNA when I perform the electrophoresis. I directly cut the ears and I put it in a tube with a bead and trizol. then I place ...
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1answer
1k views

What is our skin made up of?

Again, it is a basic question. What is our skin made up of? is it made up of many cells arranged in a systematic way or is it just like any layer say of a book?? what is the difference? where is the ...
3
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2answers
46 views

Crossing over and exon shuffling?

Campbell Biology 10e, in discussing the functions of introns, writes: The presence of introns in a gene may facilitate the evolution of new and potentially beneficial proteins as a result of a ...
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1answer
29 views

Do only one or both pairs of homologous chromatids exchange genetic material during the process of crossing over?

To be specific: Assume chromosomes A and B are homologous. They've both replicated into A1, A2 and B1, B2 and have formed a tetrad at the equator (synapsis). Most textbooks show either A1 and B1 OR A2 ...
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22 views

Lifeforms concentrations of the categories of macromolecules, and Lipids

Lifeforms are formed of large, modular, organic molecules called macromolecules, large organic molecules called Lipids, and simpler molecules such as H2O. Macromolecules are commonly grouped into the ...
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1answer
22 views

What separates gene loci?

Introns are sections of noncoding DNA that separate exons within a gene locus. However, between different gene loci, I also would assume there to be noncoding regions of DNA. What are these regions ...
2
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1answer
21 views

The question of the protein and the ribosome

It is well known that proteins are spit out by ribosomes by reading the DNA that goes in. Now ribosomes are made of proteins. Doesn´t this mean that the riobosome structure came before the production ...
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1answer
44 views

Do the antibodies in a patient suffering from Hashimoto's, attack the thyroid hormones or the thyroid gland (or both?)?

If oral thyroid hormone supplement is administered, is the attack stopped or does it just create an excess of thyroid hormones so that even after a lot of it is destroyed by the antibodies, there is ...
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1answer
73 views

Enzymes and plasmids

A high school class has analyzed plasmids by the help of restriction enzymes and electrophoresis. The class got delivered two different plasmids, pBR 322 and pC 508. These two plasmids were going to ...
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19 views

XNAs as a Genetic material [closed]

I heard there is a new genetic material called XNAs.I wanted to know more about this.Does anyone about XNAs as genetic material?
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22 views

Dogs recognize eachother on sight. How come?

Is it possible that the fact that dogs regonize eachother on sight is caused in the developing embryo, wich is to say that the developing map from wich the motorcells conect to the motorsystem somehow ...
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32 views

Molecular Biology and Genetics [closed]

What's the best textbook and online courses to study Molecular biology and genetics for undergrad student?
3
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1answer
48 views

What came first? The DNA or the DNA polymerases?

I know this sounds a lot like chicken and egg question and while the latter has an answer, I am intrigued about the former. A modified form of the question would be, in the course of abiogenesis, ...
3
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27 views

In the life-cycle of the HIV virus, how does the created DNA enter the nuclear membrane?

I am in a high school biology class, so I cannot truly attest to how accurate the information I am given is, but as far as I know only RNA and very small molecules can enter the nuclear membrane ...
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2answers
209 views

How does LCR compare to Assembly PCR

The question pretty much explains itself. How do the two methods compare? I've always used Assembly PCR but the method is prone to mistakes and I'm curious how it compares to Ligase Chain Reaction ...
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0answers
12 views

How is “fine mapping of pelvic regulatory region” done in the stickleback PitX1 paper?

I'm working through this paper for a class. I'm a bit confused by the methods they used in one experiment. So the researchers are studying spine development in stickleback fish. They noticed some ...
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2answers
90 views

Extending a small fragment of DNA

Is there a way to extend a small fragment of DNA, say 150 bp, by making copies of itself and attaching each copy of that small fragment to the end of that 150 bp sequence? For example, I want a ...
2
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3answers
229 views

Amplification technique for proteins similar to PCR for DNA?

I know PCR can be used to amplify a tiny sample of DNA in order to perform experiments. Is there a similar technique to use on a protein sample? More specifically, I'm not interested in "cutting" up ...
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1answer
85 views

Definition of Phenotype

I'm not a biologist but I'm trying to enter molecular biology from a perspective. I have noticed that concept of genotype is quite well defined while ...
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1answer
33 views

Difference between the P4 and P5 subtypes of P-type ATPases in plants

In plants there are various kinds of P-type ATPases. What is difference between P4-ATPase and P5-ATPase?
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2answers
36 views

Difference between DNA and Genome

Can we safely use the terms DNA and Genome interchangeably or is there any (even slight) difference between the two?
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1answer
20 views

How does Organ Transplant work well despite having Foreign DNA

My question is little bit related to this one Why does organ transplant work although it seems organ's motor neuron isn't connected to recipient's CNS but only little bit. Problem ...
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1answer
26 views

How does cytochrome c oxidase inhibition cause cell death?

I realise the inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase prevents the release of H+ ions into the intermembrane space, and that the ion gradient is required for ATP synthase action. However, I'm not sure how ...
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1answer
18 views

BWA-MEM single strand or doublestrand alignment

In whole genome secondary analysis does BWA-MEM use a double stranded fasta reference or are reads aligned to only one, single stranded fasta reference?
3
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1answer
43 views

Function of NaCl in yeast shuttle prep of plasmids

What is the role of NaCl in plasmid isolation from yeast cells using plasmid rescue solution? If the basic theory behind the method is alkaline lysis, then we is NaCl used and not NaOH?
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1answer
53 views

How difficult is it to make a shRNA/miRNA/siRNA to silence/knockdown NaV1.7 voltage gated sodium channels in humans?

There have been various research projects that experimented with shRNA/miRNA/siRNA to specifically silence/knockdown NaV1.7 voltage gated sodium channels in small animals like rats & guinea pigs. ...
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1answer
42 views

What is 'noise'?

In both my psychology, biology and neuroscience classes, professors are constantly talking about 'noise'. For instance, our perception is limited due to 'sensory noise' in our neurons. I am utterly ...
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1answer
48 views

Do snRNAs exit the nucleus or not?

In Molecular Biology of The Cell (Alberts, et al., 2015), it lists the various RNAs that are trafficked through the Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) into the cytoplasm. The list includes snRNAs, but I ...
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35 views

Which of the three is true for insulin receptors?

I have seen the following question in a Cell Biology exam: Which of the following is true" Insulin has an hydrophobic Signal Peptide and the insulin receptor does not have an hydrophobic ...
4
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1answer
47 views

Is HSV-vector-mediated miRNA expression in dorsal root ganglia stable?

My question is on the following article: "Reduction of voltage gated sodium channel protein in DRG by vector mediated miRNA reduces pain in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy" My question is, do ...
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2answers
51 views

Getting PCR amplification at annealing higher than Tm!

I am amplifying a gene where in a gradient pcr i am getting amplification at an annealing temperature about 5 degrees (67) higher than Tm (62.5)? What is wrong here? Also, I am getting a very strong ...
0
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1answer
60 views

Primer Design with Primer-BLAST over specific site

I am trying to design primers using Primer-BLAST such that the forward primer spans a specific base pair site. I am looking at KRAS for which I believe the RefSeq ID is NG_007524.1 and the forward ...
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1answer
40 views

How the chaotropic agents help in purification of DNA molecule?

Those plants which are rich in secondary metabolites and polysaccharides DNA isolation can be done using certain chaotropic agents? can any one explain how it works?
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1answer
49 views

how to change format of ent file into PDB format?

whenever i download files from Protein Data Bank(PDB),they are downloaded in .ent format. How can i convert them into PDB format??
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1answer
43 views

Genomic DNA isolation from Wheat

Can I use dry seed, wheat for example, in place of young leaves for isolation and purification of genomic DNA for PCR amplification. The goal of my experiment is to validate a novel gene which is ...
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2answers
2k views

Book Recommendations: GRE Subject Test In Biochemistry, Cell And Molecular Biology

There are probably a lot of really good answers that may vary significantly in terms of content. I'm looking for a set of books that I can read in preparation for the GRE Subject Test In ...
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14 views

Ions in different cell compartments

I would like to understand the distribution of metal ion concentrations (such as Mg2+) in the different cell compartments. I tried very hard but still couldn't find such information. Could anyone ...
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3answers
4k views

Why does replication require primers while transcription does not?

In transcription, there is no need for any primer. I guess the basic mechanism of DNA polymerase & RNA polymerase is the same. So why does replication have the need for a primer?
3
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1answer
71 views

What is the shortest mRNA the ribosome can read to produce a peptide?

This question came as a comment on a previous question regarding non-ribosomal peptide synthesis, and why Glutathione cannot be synthesized by the ribosome. In general, Glutathione has a "gamma" ...
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1answer
52 views

Chromosomomal walking

I'm having a great deal of trouble understanding chromosomal walking, especially in regards to this article: Control of male sexual behavior and sexual orientation in Drosophila by the fruitless ...
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3answers
124 views

Why don't housekeeping genes have TATA Box regions in their promoter sequences?

Housekeeping genes are genes that are continuously transcribed. Like all other genes they have promoter sequences, but they don't have TATA box sequences that are used to specify from where ...
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1answer
50 views

How do proteins perform their function [closed]

I have asked a question on physics stackexchange, but was redirected here. I copy the entire question word for word. The original is here. Let's, for example, take a ribosome. It is an enzyme that ...
2
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2answers
440 views

Using RNA-seq to compare gene expression across patients instead of between Control and Experimental conditions

I am working with RNA-seq data from the Cancer Genome Atlas TCGA and I have been reading about how people have compared gene expression levels measured by RNA-seq. Many of the papers I have read talk ...
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0answers
16 views

Membrane-partitioning free energy [closed]

What is membrane-partitioning free energy? Can we look for difference in free energy upon partitioning in GROMACS? What are the methods I would need to use to determine the free energy of ...
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0answers
10 views

final control prior to transfecting an expression vector into a mammalian cell?

I have been asked a general question: Once I have cloned a full-length cDNA into an expression vector, what final important control must I do before I transfect this into an embryonic stem cell line? ...
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43 views

Which DNA fragments do not have expected sizes on this gel electrophoresis?

The problem is such: After performing a PCR, the vector carrying the PCR fragment with two restriction enzymes (Nhe1 and Asc1). The DNA samples were then separated using agrose gel electrophoresis ...
2
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1answer
86 views

Why is photosynthesis so complex?

Actually, what is the need of such long procedure? As much as I have understood, the sole purpose of photosynthesis is to synthesize carbohydrates, which is only used for energy storage. So, why don't ...
3
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0answers
48 views

Is there a metabolic pathway that generates methanol?

I've been looking for help topics about methanol in metabolism. Specifically, I wish to know what is a common dietary component that generates methanol following metabolism and comment on its ...
1
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0answers
43 views

How does lactic acidosis lead to pain?

I come from Physics, not biology. My understanding is that without sufficient oxygen present, the Kreb's cycle terminates in lactic acid formation for the body to later continue the reaction when ...