The scientific study of the structure and function of genes at the molecular level, particularly chromosomes and DNA.

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Correlation of non-coding DNA with coding DNA

I sequenced the first exon of the MC1R gene of 15 labradors (genomic DNA) to look for the loss-of-function mutation (C.916C>T) and as expected, it was where it should have been (916th base pair). As i ...
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18 views

Are the subordinate genes of a repressed operon really “turned off”?

Operons are often described using all or nothing language. A repressor binding to the operator is usually presented as "turning off" the regulated genes. Case in point, Scitable at Nature.com says: ...
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14 views

What is the difference between desert and migratory locust?

I know both are species of short horned grasshoppers and belongs to the orthoptera order, Acrididae family and so on. But what is the difference between desert and migratory locust? How do we ...
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44 views

DNA replication in E.coli

What is the difference between replication and to divide? My A level bio book says that it takes 20 min for E.coli to divide and in next page it's written that E.coli completes replication within ...
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13 views

Hybrid vs introgression zone in natural populations

In the book An Introduction to Molecular Ecology, the authors are saying that introgression is the diffusion of alleles from one population or species into another as a result of interbreeding ...
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711 views

To what extent is the genetic code more than just a code?

It is worth specifying the exact meaning of "code" in this question. A code is a map from one space to another space with which it has no algorithmic connection. Thus representing 321 as 0x141 is not ...
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33 views

Distribution of Exon and Intron Sizes

Goal I am trying to get a distribution of Exons and intron sizes in Three-Spined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Data downloaded I downloaded some data from Ensembl. More precisely, I went ...
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12 views

Similarity between lncRNA and Enhancers

Please read it carefully. Question below is purely based on computational experiments: I have been running an analysis algorithm (pretty new one) on lncRNAs and its showing pretty much the same ...
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65 views

Can a single strand of mRNA form different polypeptide chains?

My book has a statement: A single strand of mRNA is capable of forming a number of different polypeptide chains. In my opinion this statement is wrong because a single strand of mRNA will have same ...
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28 views

How do expression levels change along lineages?

Is there any general trend between gene expression levels (or transcription levels) and cell lineages? For example, I would naively expect that stem cells express less genes as they have the ability ...
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38 views

What are the significances of chromosome mapping? [closed]

The few point that I have come across are: The following are the significances of chromosome mapping: Chromosome maps help identify the location of gene of interest on a chromosome for genetic ...
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63 views

What are Codominant vs Dominant Genetic Markers?

When talking about types of genetic markers, the adjective "dominant" and "codominant" are often used. I don't fully understand their definitions and found contradicting definitions. Foll and ...
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38 views

When was the first exception to Mendelian genetics discovered?

In addition to the the question in the title I'd like to know , how scientists reacted to the exceptions?
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54 views

Cell cycle-regulated genes and mRNA

I am a mathematician and my knowledge about biology is close to zero. I am reading a bioinformatics paper and I would like to understand a bit more about the biology task they are talking about. I ...
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56 views

Is there selection against long proteins and long genes?

Background thought Titin and TTN Titin is the largest protein in the human genome with 33423 amino acids. Titin is coded by the gene TTN that must be at least $3 \cdot 33423 \approx 100kb$ long. ...
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23 views

How does epigenetics affect the birth conditions via alcohol?

Recent study has shown that epigenetics can play role in male-caused infertility and it cites for example studies which showed an enhancing of silent genes when drinking alcohol. Since the study ...
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33 views

How do I know whether or not a nuclear gene is single copy?

As a part of a phylogenetic study, I need to find a nuclear gene that meets the following requirements: Single copy gene; Highly variable gene; Gene longer than 400 bps; Gene that gives information ...
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13 views

Developing cDNA for RDT

Eukaryotic genes cannot be inserted in prokaryotic hosts for making recombinant proteins, since eukaryotic genes are split genes and their hnRNA must first be processed to functional mRNA before ...
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16 views

Does any specific property decide which DNA strand acts as leading strand template?

Of the two strands of DNA, the one that unwinds in the 3' to 5' direction constitutes the leading strand template, with the other strand of course acting as the lagging strand template. Is there any ...
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43 views

Difference between null and recessive allele?

I get that in a single gene locus, an individual can have RR, Rr, or rr as the two alleles ...
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30 views

What do arranging and assigning mean in sequence annotation?

Please could someone explain these lines to me in a simple way These sequences were then arranged based on some overlapping regions present in them. This required generation of overlapping ...
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77 views

Is there a term for when a detrimental gene can be positively selected for because of linkage to a very fit gene?

Let's say that some piece of DNA would be subject to extreme negative selection if it were independently inherited, but it is very closely linked to an extraordinarily fit gene, and so the complex it ...
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1answer
38 views

What is a “noninvasive” biomarker for a disease? [closed]

What is a "noninvasive" biomarker for a disease? I know what a biomarker is, but what makes it noninvasive?
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64 views

What is meant by “Expression” of Non-Coding RNA?

I was having a look at lncRNAdb and its help says: The ENCODE project gene annotation list, GENCODE, has predicted that the human genome contains 14,470 lncRNAs whereas only a small proportion of ...
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64 views

What makes DNA sequences most different/recognizable from a biological perspective? [duplicate]

We can pretty easily quantify the amount difference between two different strings/sequences of characters. For example, if we take the words trebuchet and trebucket, we can say they have a Levenshtein ...
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66 views

T7 vs pBAD promoter strength

How do pBAD and T7 promoter strengths compare when pBAD is induced under conditions which would lead to its highest strength? Are there any papers that compare the two inducible promoter systems?
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101 views

Do transcripts always start and end with exons?

I realized that in all cases of "RefSeq Genes" annotations of hg19 I looked at spliced transcripts start (and end) with an exon. From the annotation there is no evidence of any sequence upstream or ...
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20 views

What is the highest number of genes expressed under one T7 promoter?

What is the highest number of genes expressed under one T7 promoter? Also, what is the longest polycistronic mRNA? I am interested in the context of heterologously expressing biosynthetic gene ...
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56 views

Why does pETDuet-1 only have one T7 terminator but two T7 promoters?

Why does pETDuet-1 only have one T7 terminator but two T7 promoters (vector map below)? Is there any advantage of having only one terminator? There are going to be two mRNAs transcribed from this ...
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29 views

Does mechanotransduction of cells play a role in the biocompatibility of titanium?

What exactly is mechanotransduction as the information varies between sources. Some sources indicate that mechanotransduction is the underlying principle where cells pull on the surface they grow on ...
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22 views

What the gene variation detection result can tell us about a cancer [duplicate]

We do a research on a particular cancer, now we have a result of the gene variation detection . What next steps do we need to do? we don't have a clear picture about this. Can you give us some ...
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64 views

Which strand of a gene specifies a protein? [closed]

A gene is a segment of DNA (I hope double stranded) and each strand when transcribed form a mRNA and after being translated a protein. As from each gene there are two proteins that are being formed. ...
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89 views

Is it possible to have multiple stop codons in one exon?

I would be very happy if someone can help me to find the answers for the following related questions. Can one exon have many stop codons? Can protein synthesis happen, if the stop codon is at the ...
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2k views

Does a woman contain all the genes needed to make a man?

I know the answer of inverse is at here, but how about this question? I also read this question, can I imply to human that a woman can also contain all the genes needed to make a man? Edit: I ...
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79 views

Can both the overlapping genes (in opposite strands) produce proteins?

I have recognized that both the forward and reverse transcripts from a genomic location code for protein products. Both do occur/express in the tissue of interest. In order to eliminate by chance ...
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52 views

mutant and variant differentiation

Can anyone clearly differentiate between a variant and a mutant in genetics. I am confusing these terms a bit, as the evolutionary aspect also comes to my mind.
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38 views

How much time do the different mechanisms of gene regulation need to take effect?

I am thinking of the major regulatory mechanisms, like general transcription factors, activators, repressors, and RNA interference. If non-active regulator genes using each of the different ...
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19 views

When should you use a stringent plasmid

I was wondering if anyone had good examples of when you would want to use a stringent plasmid vs a relaxed plasmid in a research setting. Thanks
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29 views

Do any gaps in DNA during cell division (meiosis in particular) lead to crossover?

I have some gaps in the knowledge abour crossover. I know, that crossover is connected with reparation process. I'd like to know if all gaps in chromosomes lead to crossover (reparation based on 2d ...
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100 views

How to read this DNA inversion diagram?

In the following diagram about chromosome inversion, I don't understand: Why do we need to take the reverse complement from step 1 to 2? Isn't inversion just reversing the bases in the region? How ...
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81 views

Can difference in the expression potential of alleles lead to dominance?

Several hour ago I was in thoughts what allele dominance really means on molecular level. As we know from basic genetics, if the organism had Aa type of some gene ...
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29 views

UV light-induced mutagenesis during gel extraction

this is a very short question I did not find the answer for online, neither on this nor other fora. At the beginning of my cloning protocol, I extracted the band with the sequence of interest directly ...
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47 views

Trouble understanding overlapping genes.

I read the wikipedia passage on overlapping genes. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overlapping_gene The Tandem overlaps they speak of make sense to me, as I understand that their are different reading ...
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27 views

Synthesis of an additional DNA in Pachytene and Zygotene [closed]

I've read, that in Pachytene and Zygotene additional DNA material is synthesized, about 0,3, 0,1% respectively. Why is it so?
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103 views

What is the difference between the mitotic spindle and microtubules?

In mitosis, I understand that the centromeres line up on the spindle. I also know that the centrioles form microtubles between the centromeres during mitosis in the metaphase. But, are microtubles ...
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39 views

Why are some genomic regions sequenced more than the others?

We have to normalise read count data from RNA-Seq experiments in order to account for the fact that some genomic regions are mapped more than others. i.e. we get the tags per million reads (TPM). In ...
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36 views

Are all genes transcribed in differentiated cells?

My textbook tells me that it’s specific transcription factors that allow for a different set of genes to be expressed in different cells (differential gene expression). My book gives the example of ...
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27 views

How accurate are proteomic-based biomarkers of cancer? [closed]

Currently protein expression is one of the widely used biomarker types. For example, any $i^{th}$ protein could be a selected biomarker. How can a minute change in single protein concentration ($m/...
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1answer
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Molecules, Targets and Isoforms

I have a question. Given a molecule A and two isoforms of a gene X, Y, and the knowledge that A targets X. Can I infere from this anything about whether A targets Y? As a motivation think about ...
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56 views

How can a mutator gene can cause a mutation when it is shut off? [closed]

defination of "Mutator" - a gene that increases the rate of mutation of one or more other genes. However, in the book "Molecular Biology of the Cell" (bruce alberts) it states that when a mutator is ...