The scientific study of the structure and function of genes at the molecular level, particularly chromosomes and DNA.

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Why does a gene have two alleles? [closed]

Why does a gene have two alleles? When there is a gene for producing the color pigment for a flower, why are there there two alleles, producing either same color or different color (homozygous and ...
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3answers
48 views

Sense and anti sense strand

Why the sense strand is only involved in transcription though the antisense strand just has the compliment strand of the sense strand?
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1answer
30 views

DNA dependent RNA polymerase

How does a RNAP locate a specific gene? For instance, growth hormone has to be produced and the RNAP has to locate the gene. But the promoter (TATA box) will also be present infront of all cistrons. ...
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1answer
26 views

C Form DNA Base Pairs Per Turn

How does C-DNA have 9.33 base pairs per turn? The number of base pairs should be quantised. How can it be a decimal?
3
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2answers
264 views

What does this equation about DNA replication mean?

Could someone help me understand this equation please? I found it in a paper which said that it was DNA replication, but why? $\ce{dNTP + dNMP_{n} -> dNMP_{n +1} + PPi}$ I found that dNTP means ...
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1answer
42 views

What is a selectively neutral genotypic change?

I am reading the paper "Neutral evolution of mutational robustness". Because I am new to neutral evolution, I have a few questions. Firstly, from my understanding, genotypic neutrality means the ...
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1answer
101 views

What determines the number of chromosomes an organism carries?

This is an extension of this question about What limits chromosomal length?. I am wondering what could be the specific reasons behind the number of chromosomes an organism carries. In other words, ...
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37 views

Following DNA replication during S-phase of the cell-cycle, are all genomic regions subjected to the same stringent level of DNA-Repair?

To my (limited) understanding, there are 2 main ways that mutations can occur in DNA: Environmental (UV, etc) and mistakes during cell division. I was wondering if there is a mechanism that can give ...
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4answers
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Are there constraints on where intron/exon boundaries occur with respect to the triplet codons of the reading frame?

I did a quick search (here and elsewhere) and couldn't find anything on this subject. If all introns in a given primary transcript were spliced out in the same way, then this wouldn't matter. But ...
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1answer
52 views

Why increasing the vector concentration does not increase the effeciency of bacterial transformation?

I was reading some old description of the protocols used for the transformation of bacterial cells. In the description I read that the transformation works best with low amount of DNA, and if we ...
3
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3answers
61 views

Looking for good reference book in molecular biology [closed]

I am starting to work in molecular biology/ molecular genetic and I am looking for a really good book containing the main concepts and mostly the more recent techniques. I would be interested in a ...
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0answers
58 views

Recommend any Molecular lab LIMS (Laboratory Information Management System)

We are looking to develop or customize a LIMS for our molecular lab. Do you know of a LIMS that you've used in a molecular lab before, or one that could be used. Thanks for the help (Edit) Some of ...
0
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1answer
26 views

Do restriction enzymes on read 3' to 5'?

Every chart of palindromic restriction enzymes I've seen lists their restriction sites from 5' to 3', something like this: EcoR1 cuts GAATTC between the G and A: 5' NNNGAATTCNNN 3' --> ...
0
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1answer
60 views

Mutations/deletions with CRISPR

I need to stop some protein from being active and searching for some universal way to do so. In mammalians. With CRISPR it is possible to knock-out the entire gene. But it's a little complicate ...
5
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1answer
65 views

Is it possible to express a mutant gene only in a specific tissue?

Imagine that someone tries to develop a knockout mouse for a gene, but this result in lethality for the homozygous. Is it possible to express that mutant gene only in a specific tissue of interest to ...
5
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1answer
102 views

During the process of correcting mutations via gene therapy, is the defective gene removed?

Just recently started learning about gene therapy, many websites explain that the corrected DNA can be added to the genome using a vector and all that. I just don't understand what happens to the ...
3
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1answer
46 views

Why do genes with closely related functions often reside on different chromosomes?

Why do genes with closely related products are so often positioned on different chromosomes? To illustrate what I mean, here is an example from immunology: the invariant region of MHC is on ...
2
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1answer
27 views

What is the most reliable tumour suppressing gene for NSCLC?

I was looking at some tumour suppressing genes that can be helpful in diagnosing lung cancer (particularly NSCLC - Non-small-cell lung carcinoma) at an early stage. I came across a few such as p53, ...
5
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3answers
102 views

Can we knock out Caspase-9 *and* avoid breast cancer phenotype in our mouse model?

I am trying to design a wet lab experiment with no wet lab experience to name. Right now, in my dream land, it would be excellent if it were possible to create a Caspase-9 knockout mouse (damage to ...
2
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0answers
30 views

Do The Traces Genetic Diseases Remain in families?

I know that there are certain diseases that are predominant on genes. But, is there any sort of surety that if parents are suffering from a disorder then their offspring has to suffer from the same. ...
5
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2answers
48 views

Why is 5S-rRNA is different from other rRNAs in place of transcription and usage of RNA polymerase?

While transcription of rRNAs happens in nucleolus mediated by RNA Polymerase-I, we see that 5S-rRNA is transcribed elsewhere by RNA Polymerase-III. What is the cause and why?
2
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1answer
57 views

Markers for human genetic mapping

For human genetic mapping several different types of markers are used: RFLPs (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms) VNTRs (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) such as mini- and microsatellites ...
3
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1answer
35 views

What is the statistical relationship between radioactivity and mutation rate?

This question tries to narrow down the scope of that question. What is the statistical relationship between radioactivity and mutation rate? By how much would the mutation rate be lowered in a ...
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1answer
50 views

Do nucleosomes ever completely unwrap during transcription?

In eukaryotic transcription will the nucleosomes ever completely unwind the DNA and the histone complex disassemble? If an operon is more 160 base pairs it seems it must.
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1answer
26 views

Which is the guideline to choose a molecular target to identify vertebrate hosts from arthropod bloodmeals?

There are some molecular targets to identify vertebrate hosts from arthropod bloodmeals including the Cyt b gene and the COI gene. Which are the standards or characteristics that I have to bear in ...
8
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3answers
199 views

Splice in with CRISPR/Cas

I need to splice a gene into a human cell genome, with highest rate possible. I mean, doesn't really matter where the gene enters, nor does it matter if some cells die as a result of this. CRISPR ...
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0answers
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Primer Designing [closed]

I have a basic idea about the requirements in primer designing. Basically my knowledge is limited to theoretical knowledge and have no experience in actual primer designing. And also I have a basic ...
3
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1answer
37 views

Should gene therapy safety protocol include isolation?

In the case of a gene therapy trial where viral vectors are used to deliver genes into mammalian cells, including humans, should biosafety and ethical protocols include isolation of the patient as a ...
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2answers
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Can molecular genetics make a boolean variable from a continuous variable?

In the same kind of idea than this question. Gene expression are regulated through complex interactions. The concentration of enhancers and repressors is an important aspect that dictate the level of ...
2
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0answers
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CRISPR Knock in

Using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, it is possible that after inducing a DSB with the Cas9 endonuclease guided with an RNA designed by the user and using a template DNA, get a desired Knock-In (KI) by ...
7
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1answer
67 views

Do DNA repressors exist?

I know about enhancers and the mechanism that lead them to increase the gene expression of their targets but I was wondering if similarly DNA repressors exist. I know about protein repressors but I am ...
6
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1answer
68 views

“Enhancers” of enhancers?

I am looking for examples (if any) of genomic regions which regulates the activity of enhancers, either augmenting or reducing it. Essentially some kind of enhancers (or repressors) of enhancers to ...
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1answer
24 views

How to correlate the pattern by which CAP activator from E.coli binds to DNA and its mechanism of action?

The catabolite activator protein (CAP) activates the expression of more than 100 genes involved in secondary sugar metabolism in E.coli. Apparently, it always binds in sites that are away from -10 and ...
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1answer
169 views

RNA migrating slower than DNA on Formaldehyde Gel?

So I ran into an interesting problem. I'm getting a linear DNA band that is twice as long (4x bases, but as denatured probably only 2x) as an RNA band running at the same size in a formaldehyde gel. ...
5
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1answer
115 views

Can human mRNA be translated in vitro by prokaryotes?

As the genetic code is universal, can mRNA from a human cell be correctly translated by a prokaryote in a in vitro translation system?
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1answer
71 views

How does alternative splicing work?

I am trying to find out what controls what exons are spliced out, and I keep coming across the term cis regulator, but I cannot seem to find a clear explanation of what happens... Thank you in ...
0
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1answer
117 views

What are microRNA, siRNA and antisense RNA?

From what I understand, microRNA binds to proteins which can cut certain mRNA strands do that this protein is not synthesised. This seems like gene silencing to me, however I have also come across the ...
6
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1answer
89 views

Why do some bacteria have most genes on the leading strand of the genome?

Genes in the (+) strand are black and genes in the (-)strand are red. The gene distribution in E. coli genome is somewhat expected: transcribed regions would tend to alternate with non transcribed ...
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2answers
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How does optogenetics work?

I am aware of the post here 'Optogenetics - How do microbial opsins work?' however it is a bit too technical for me. I am struggling to understand how the neurons can be genetically engineered to ...
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0answers
21 views

Stable transfection

I need to achieve stable transfection of a pCI-Neo plasmid into the genome of a mouse embryo. The most common way to achieve stable transfection is through positive selection, however positive ...
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2answers
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Why mutations in genes involved in general processes like DNA repair increase the risk of developing specific types of cancer?

For example, mutation in MHS2, which encodes a protein involved in the repair of mismatches that occur during DNA replication, dramatically increases the risk of developing colon cancer. (There are ...
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0answers
46 views

Layman definition of genetic polymorphism?

I am reading an article about Genetic Polymorphism and there are lines in the article about genetic polymophism that I don't quite understand like. In this area,there are six different chemotypes ...
3
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1answer
85 views

meaning of the “reads” keyword in terms of RNA-seq or next generation sequencing

I'm an undergraduate student at computer science and currently, I'm interested in bioinformatics. Today, I've started to read a paper about clustering and classification of non-coding RNAs can be ...
3
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1answer
28 views

Telomere and its effect on aging

The cloned sheep, Dolly, was said to have died very soon because the cells used to create it were taken from an adult sheep with an aged telomere. Why doesn't this happen with humans? Why aren't we ...
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2answers
94 views

How does the size of insert affects the rate of Homologous Recombination in yeast?

When performing genetic knockouts in yeast using homologous recombination to replace a target gene sequence via a vector DNA, does the region between the flanking regions in the vector have to be the ...
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0answers
40 views

If you are God, how would you create an efficient priming reaction? [closed]

Imagine that you are “natural selection” (or God if you prefer) and you can reconstitute replication changing the concentrations or the properties (higher/lower activity; reactivity; etc.) of the ...
2
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1answer
461 views

Can DNA & RNA be considered as nature's programming language?

The final frontier of Biological Sciences could be considered understanding the effects of variation in the DNA (and RNA). If after fertilization the DNA of the zygote could be genetically ...
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19 views

How to engineer chromosomal duplications?

Specific genetic engineering of chromosomal aberrations like deletions, inversions and translocations are doable by using the CRISPR/Cas system or the other programmable nuclease systems. Insertions ...
2
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0answers
29 views

What is the most complex biological organism (or precursors) that we have been able to synthesize from raw materials?

In the Miller–Urey experiment they produced several amino acids. I'm not sure if there were other similar experiments that got further. ...
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1answer
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Mode of Enzymatic Inhibition via R-Allele

The photo above shows the effects of the R allele of the pea shape gene on the synthesis of an enzyme that converts unbranched starch into branched starch. The r allele of this gene determines an ...