The scientific study of the structure and function of genes at the molecular level, particularly chromosomes and DNA.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

0
votes
0answers
50 views

Can DNA & RNA be considered as nature's programming language?

The final frontier of Biological Sciences could be considered understanding the effects of variation in the DNA (and RNA). If after fertilization the DNA of the zygote could be genetically ...
1
vote
2answers
41 views

How does the size of insert affects the rate of Homologous Recombination in yeast?

When performing genetic knockouts in yeast using homologous recombination to replace a target gene sequence via a vector DNA, does the region between the flanking regions in the vector have to be the ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

What is the best way to splice genes into a mouse embryo? [on hold]

I need two specific genes spliced into the genome of a mouse embryo. How is the best way to do this? Some sort of plasmid perhaps? Where is the best place to get the genes/plasmids I need and what ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

If you are God, how would you create an efficient priming reaction? [closed]

Imagine that you are “natural selection” (or God if you prefer) and you can reconstitute replication changing the concentrations or the properties (higher/lower activity; reactivity; etc.) of the ...
2
votes
1answer
35 views

G>T transversion VS. T>G transversion?

So I'm reading about how mutations in DNA can be caused by oxidative damage. An example of a product of oxidative damage is given: 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine My textbook says that this product ...
1
vote
2answers
88 views

Growing E. coli at room temperature?

If I were to do a blue/white selection of transformed E. coli on LB agar ampicillin plates at room temperature (23⁰C) for about 2 days and 18 hours, will I run into the issue of satellite colonies or ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

How to engineer chromosomal duplications?

Specific genetic engineering of chromosomal aberrations like deletions, inversions and translocations are doable by using the CRISPR/Cas system or the other programmable nuclease systems. Insertions ...
2
votes
0answers
19 views

What is the most complex biological organism (or precursors) that we have been able to synthesize from raw materials?

In the Miller–Urey experiment they produced several amino acids. I'm not sure if there were other similar experiments that got further. ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Mode of Enzymatic Inhibition via R-Allele

The photo above shows the effects of the R allele of the pea shape gene on the synthesis of an enzyme that converts unbranched starch into branched starch. The r allele of this gene determines an ...
9
votes
3answers
2k views

Does a man contain all the genes needed to make a woman?

This question is brought on by a Sci Fi novel I am thinking about writing. The plot device involves a colonist in charge of building a population on a new planet who loses his supply of embryos and so ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

What log transformation and normalization functions are most commonly used for microarray and how to select them?

Need help on rational approach to choosing log transformation, standartization and normalization functions in microarray experiments. I am using Expander software and it provides Log2 transform and ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Can cfDNA testing distinguish results in the case of twins?

A fetus can now be screened for some of the more common genetic diseases and its sex determined from just a whole blood sample from the pregnant mother. Fetal DNA is abundant enough in the systemic ...
4
votes
3answers
207 views

Why is mRNA needed in the Protein translation?

The original question was to predict the basic requirements for information storage. Then the discussion moved to why is it necessary to include mRNA in the protein translation process. Why can't ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

What genetic distance model should be used when calculating genetic differences in Arelquin?

I'm using Arelquin to look at the genetic structure between a number of different populations. I want to compare the populations by producing pairwise FST values, however I don't know what model for ...
3
votes
1answer
88 views

Inbreeding depression and dominance

From this article, second paragraph of the second page A classic theoretical result is that the mean of a character controlled by a single locus i with two alleles Ai1 and Ai2 is only affected by ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

Why does the stability of YAC increase with size?

From Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry : The stability of YAC increases with size (up to a limit). Those with inserts of less than 100000 are gradually lost during mitosis. Why does this ...
5
votes
1answer
53 views

Examples of genes involved in plastic responses

Adaptive plasticity involves sensing the environment and responding adaptively to it. Intuitively, I would think that this process may ask for a more or less complex genetic machinery of regulation of ...
2
votes
1answer
39 views

Cloning a gene of an organism with an nonsequenced genome

What would be the best protocol to clone a gene about 5kb in size? The genome is not sequenced, but the gene itself very similar to orthologous genes of organisms with known sequences.
2
votes
1answer
66 views

Problem on number of amino acids that an alien can use

A new life form discovered on a distant planet has a genetic code consisting of five unique nucleotides and only one stop codon. If each codon has four bases,what is the maximum number of unique amino ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

What initiates primase to add an RNA primer to a DNA strand and what makes it stop?

What initiates primase to add an RNA primer to a DNA strand and what makes it stop adding RNA nucleotides? Is there tags added to the DNA back-bone?
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Ways to measure effectiveness of a gene therapy trial?

I understand that Fluorescence in situ hybridisation can be used to measure the effectiveness of a gene therapy experiment/trial. But what are some other genetics techniques to measure the ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Viral Mutation Mechanism

I think I have a wrong concept about viral mutation process. First of all what is mutation actually? I mean, I know it's a sudden change in DNA, happening when subjected to mutagenic agents. But can ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

PCR processes number of amplicons produced [closed]

Beginning with 600 template DNA molecules after 25 cycles of PCR how many amplicons will be produced?
1
vote
1answer
50 views

RNAs arising from intergenic regions

Which type of RNA molecule is coded for in intergenic regions? I think it must be a non-coding RNA but I'm unsure which type.
5
votes
2answers
444 views

Why is the DNA codon table “equal” to the RNA codon table

Before anything else please pay attention of the double quotes on the "equal" in the title - I know they are not equal, but you will understand in a bit. If I look at the DNA codon table here or in ...
0
votes
1answer
112 views

Calculating number of amino acids in mRNA

Assuming there were 20 different amino acids and less than 40 types of different tRNAs found in this alien organism. How many amino acids would be found in the translational product of a ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

Loss in DNA band size extracted from polyacrylamide gel

I'm using cDNA AFLP teq.. I extracted 670 bp band from polyacrylamide (urea) gel and I have amplified with PCR but on agarose gel it stops at nearly 350 bp.it happened for most of other bands before. ...
14
votes
1answer
197 views

Paralogous genes in genome-wide association studies?

Has anybody tested if paralogous genes are over-represented among the genes identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS)? For example, if a GWAS study finds 200 genes associated to the ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Centriole genes Knock-out Experiment in Common experimental animals?

Anyone know of any experiments that have knocked out the genes for producing centrioles in a worm, mouse, fish, fly or whatever animal? Are the genes for centrioles even identified? It has been shown ...
3
votes
1answer
42 views

What does it mean for the signals for transcription and translation to be “conserved”?

I was reading this article: "Overview of vector design for mammalian gene expression." for an explanation of why mammalian cell lines are used for expressing cloned genes, and one of the reasons ...
5
votes
2answers
53 views

Is there are practical lower limit to gene length in E. coli?

Question is rather self-explanatory. Putting aside other post-transcriptional factors like rate of degradation of transcript, what is the smallest gene ever reported to have successfully been ...
3
votes
2answers
38 views

Heterochromatin production limitations

Currently playing with some ideas for a project and needed some guidance. I am wondering, both in Drosophila melanogaster and in general, is the amount of heterochromatin a cell/nucleus can produce ...
0
votes
1answer
64 views
6
votes
3answers
968 views

Why does replication require primers while transcription does not?

In transcription, there is no need for any primer. I guess the basic mechanism of DNA polymerase & RNA polymerase is the same. So why does replication have the need for a primer?
4
votes
1answer
74 views

Redundancy of the genetic code

One particular codon codes only for one amino acid, but an amino acid can be coded for by several different codons. Now according to the genetic code, the codon UUU ...
3
votes
1answer
29 views

Exon skipping in mammals

I've heard from several sources that the predominant form of alternative splicing (at least in mammals) is exon skipping. However, my personal evidence is only anecdotal: I've heard it and read it, ...
3
votes
0answers
24 views

Gibson assembly - primer design with A and T rich regions

I have question about Gibson assembly. I have done it several times and it always worked okay for us, but now I want to assemble together a fragment which has sequence like this: ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Cell targets of Glybera

So we know that there is a first gene therapy drug in the market out there called Alipogene tiparvovec to address lipoprotein lipase deficiency (LPLD) at a genetic level. Does this genetic drug ...
3
votes
0answers
75 views

At what rate do chromosomal rearrangements occur?

How often does chromosomal rearrangements occur? i.e. what is the rate of chromosomal rearrangements? I am interested about these kind of chromosomal rearrangements that are passed on to the ...
2
votes
2answers
59 views

Are the DNA codon mappings arbitrary?

I am a Biology novice so I apologize in advance if I state anything incorrectly.... My question is, are the DNA codon mappings arbitrary? I understand that the DNA code is made up of codons which ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

How does Temperature influences the rate of protein turnover? [duplicate]

Question How (quantitatively speaking) does temperature influences rate of turnover of transcription factors? Which protein? As I am not looking for any accurate number I am talking about an ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Question about mutation of multiple nuclei?

If an organism with multiple nuclei, such as the slime mold Physarum polycephalum, was to be exposed to a mutagen, such as 5-bromouracil, what would be the effect (besides death)? Especially if ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

How can I download a gene sequence from GenBank (NCBI)? [closed]

Could you tell me the steps to find and download a gene sequence from GeneBank? I would appreciate your help.
3
votes
2answers
64 views

Why aren't introns found on the ends of pre-RNA?

We recently learned in genetics class that exons always cap the ends of nascent RNA. I have been trying to figure out the reason why introns can't instead be found on the ends instead of exons. The ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Linkage disequilibrium D sign

Linkage disequilibrium D equals D=x11−p1⋅q1 where: Haplotype > Frequency A1B1 > x11 A1B2 > x12 A2B1 > x21 A2B2 > x22 and Allele Frequency A1 > ...
4
votes
2answers
53 views

Are there known downsides to removing UV mutation hotspots to prevent some skin cancers (Genetic sunblock)?

Khavari et al. recently demonstrated that a significant fraction of one of the major forms of skin cancer (cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas) are associated with a mutated KNSTRN gene (a protein ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Influence of temperature on protein binding and decay rates

For computer modeling purposes, I am looking for some referenced quantitative measurements of the effect(s) of temperature on the dynamic of biochemical reactions. Question In particular, my ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

What is the point of DNA sequencing?

This is a very very basic question. I've looked at methods such as chromosome sequencing and shotgun sequencing. Wikipedia says that: ...
3
votes
1answer
63 views

Why do we use DNA sequencing methods such as shotgun?

I am learning about DNA cloning for the first time. What I understand is that, in order to clone DNA, we break-up the original gene into shreds. Then try to piece it back together. Why exactly do we ...
4
votes
1answer
72 views

Influence of temperature on transcription, protein binding and decay rates

I am the kind of biologist who doesn't know much about molecular genetics and about the dynamic of biochemical reactions. Question My question concerns the influence of temperature on the dynamic of ...