The scientific study of the structure and function of genes at the molecular level, particularly chromosomes and DNA.

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What is the close and related genome used for in Gene models?

all I am a little bit confused about using the related genome or reference genome. When we have a reference genome, we can do alignment. Also we can do the assembly. Can you give some more reason ...
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Property of E.coli harboring F element

From Genetics by Ursula Goodenough E.coli harboring an F element are endowed with a number of phenotypic traits : 1.They are sensitive to infection by ssRNA phages and certain ssDNA phages. ...
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Restriction endonucleases are found in?

Quoting from : Scientific American July 1975 The Manipulation of genes by Stanley Cohen : Restriction endonucleases (and modification methylases) are widespread in microorganisms; genes for ...
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Various Genetic Loads and their Definitions

In population genetics, we talk about several types of genetic loads (also called just loads). I am asking for a exhaustive list and a short definition. Here are for example some genetic loads that ...
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Study case of the inheritance system of Oenothera

I've been told some interesting facts about oenothera. Apparently in this species some lineages have been through some translocations and in results to these translocations and in consequence, some ...
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Detecting food fraud

There's undoubtedly more than one way to do this, but if a DIY biologist were to attempt to detect food fraud (e.g. as done by students from Stanford University and Trinity School, Manhattan with ...
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How to calculate virus titre from qPCR

I harvested some lentivirus from 293T cells and want to titre the result. I infected 293T cells on a well plate with 400,000 cells per well which I infected with virus stock, and 1 in 10, 100 and 1000 ...
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Coefficient of relationship and path of coefficient

A path of coefficient of relationship is defined as $$\rho_{AO} = \left( \frac{1}{2}\right)^n \sqrt { \frac{1+f_A}{1+f_O}}$$ This SE post discusses this definition From this, the coefficient of ...
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Activation Of Embryonic Genome

Embryonic gene activation is a process by which the embryo begins to transcribe its newly formed genome.As the embryonic gene activation occurs during early stages the paternal genome may not have any ...
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How is a stem-cell induced to assimilate a knock-in DNA construct?

While looking at (daylight) color perception I came across a paper by Jeremy Nathans (et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 100 no. 20, 2003, full text here) in which he describes the creation of a ...
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Studying genetics [closed]

I am interested in studying disorders that are genetic in origin. However, I am having difficulty in understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms regarding processes such as meiosis, mitosis, and ...
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What is the current molecular explanation of Mendel's pea cross?

With reference to the simplest Punnet square for Mendel's pea plant experiments it occurred to me that I could not connect the little I know about genetics to the little I know about molecules. The ...
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Do cell walls prevent cancer?

To my knowledge plants do not have an uncontrolled growth disease similar to cancer. Is the function by which they avoid uncontrolled growth related to their cell wall and preventing damage to ...
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Is it reasonable to assume that RNA polymerase would bind preferentially to the promoter of the long allele of the SERT gene?

I'm trying to come up with an idea for a school project (a hypothetical research study). I'm looking at depression and the serotonin transporter gene, which is highly expressed in the human ...
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How does GC-content evolve?

Background GC-content refers to the frequency of base pairs that are either C or G in the genome, or in other words the number of GC base pairs divided by the addition of the number of GC base pairs ...
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How does the genetic code evolve?

After looking at this question, some other questions poped in my mind. The DNA code is redundant, there are 20 amino acids for 64 possible nucleotide combinations. Therefore some amino acid are coded ...
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Understanding DNA supercoiling

While trying to understand DNA supercoiling, I came across these lines in the book Genetics by Ursula Goodenough : All natural DNA is superhelical. The axis of the duplex itself follows a ...
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Transport of mammalian insulin in vivo

What is the mechanism for transport of insulin in mammalian cells?
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Sexual Differentiation in Monoecious plants with unisexual flowers

In monoecious plants having unisexual flowers (eg Zea Mays, Ricinus Communis etc), there must be some mechanism as to produce two sexually distinct flowers from the same genotype. Since both the type ...
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Southern/Western blot analysis and pedigree diagram? Help needed. [duplicate]

Hello everyone. I urgently need help with this question please. I have filled in the blanks using the results in the figure provided in the sheet. However, for number (b) is a little hard to ...
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Gene Complementation Question

Hi everyone! Here is a diagram of a genetics complementation problem. My main concern is regarding number 3d. I'm assuming that in this case, it would be complementary interaction and thus ...
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What are some examples of genes that code for multiple proteins?

The title pretty much says it all. It is widely taught that a gene in a eukaryotic system could produce more than one protein due to post-transcriptional modification, but I do not believe I have come ...
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Telomere shortening during replication

It is widely know that each cell cycle during DNA replication some fraction of the telomeres is lost, and this phenomenon is called the end replication problem. Well this is due to the fact that the ...
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Pedigree Diagram help

I am asked to fill the genotypes in the spaces provided but looks like I am aving a little bit of trouble. can anyone help? thanks in advance!
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PedigreeAnalysis Genetics [duplicate]

Hello! I need help with this exercise question. I am not really sure which pedigree diagram is autosomal and which is not. But, is question b 1/2. Can someone give an explanation? Thanks very much ...
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What is “transcribed strand”

This is an excerpt from a paper: T>C mutations at NpTpN trinucleotides, also found in hepatocellular carcinomas, shows strong transcriptional strand bias with more T>C mutations on the transcribed ...
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Process of Transcription

During the process of Conversion to Ribonucleoside Monophosphates the various ribonucleoside triphosphates break off their high energy bonds after linkage to the DNA.But the first ribonucleotide ...
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Regulation of chromatin structure

Recently, I reviewed the different levels of chromatin structure. The primary level is nucleosomes, where DNA is bound to histones, and has structural similarity to "beads on a string." The secondary ...
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What is the functional and structural distinction between core (H2A, H2B, H3,H4) and linker(H1/H5) histones?

Many explanations of histone biochemistry isn't quite elucidating for the undergraduate student. How does histone structure (dimers, octomers) relate to their specific functions as core or linker ...
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Histone marks mechanism

I am slightly confused about the mechanisms that makes histone modifications associate with gene expression. That is, H3K36me3 is believed to be present in actively transcribed genes, H3K27me3 in ...
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Embryo activity during seed dormancy?

What metabolic processes does a dormant embryo in a seed carry out? The newly produced seed will not germinate, either because of a lack of favourable conditions, seed hibernation, or because of a ...
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Transposons and the net amount of DNA

The retrotransposons and certain DNA-transposons, are "jumping" sequences which may be incorporated elsewhere in the genomic DNA of an organism, through varying mechanisms. This insertion is almost ...
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Regulation of the replication of mtDNA at embryonic level

While reading an article on mitochondrial inheritance I came across this link. The results state that mitochondrial DNA replication is regulated in different cells of an embryo at different levels. ...
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Ethidium bromide and mutagenesis on cloning

When performing a DNA cloning, sometimes PCR amplicon is run in agarose and it is detected by ethidium bromide marking under UV light. After that, gel is sliced, DNA extracted from gel....... until ...
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Which restriction enzyme would i use?

Plasmid pBr322 includes two genes that confer antibiotic resistance: a gene for ampicillin and a gene for tetracycline. The cutting site for the restriction enzyme BamH1 is in the middle pf the ...
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What is the reason behind choosing the reporter gene when experimenting on your gene of interest?

I noticed within example experiments in class that different reporter genes are chosen to be inserted near your gene of interest to prove whether or not the gene is being expressed. For example, you ...
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How does promoter sequence affect initiation?

I don't know if this might have been highlighted in recent research, but a textbook I have states that "the exact way in which promoter sequence affects [transcription] initiation is unclear" I'm ...
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Should the length of the electrodes in the electrophoresis chamber be proportional to chamber's size?

I am trying to build a small horizontal electrophoresis chamber from scratch. I want to use it for comet assay and I will be using only 1 slide, so it's going to be about 3cm wide, 10cm long and 4cm ...
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DNA and gene activation

As far as the genetic content of each cell is concerned I have read to my satisfaction that all cells of a person's body except the red blood cells (with no nucleus and so no genetic message) and the ...
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Transduction with P1 lysate prepared from strain that is proC::Tn10

If I do a transduction with a P1 lysate prepared from a strain that is pro*C*::Tn10 and the recipient is wild type, will all my recombinants be ProC- and Tet resistant since the Tn10 is in the proC ...
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Difference between CDS and cDNA

What is the difference between Coding Sequences (CDS) and cDNA? Are Coding sequences the sequences that is transcribed to mRNA and cDNA in contrast DNA obtained by reverse polymerization of matured ...
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Difference between mutation and DNA damage

What is the strict difference between mutation and DNA damage? As far as I understand it, a mutation is an alteration in the genetic sequence, having "tricked" the repairing machinery and thus ...
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Criteria for the numbering of human chromosomes

What were the criteria devised for the numbering convention employed in human chromosomes? When was it fixed? Correct me if I am wrong; it appears that chromosome pairs 1 to 22 were originally ...
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Can you detect if a mutation is spontaneous or induced?

Is it possible to determine if a certain specific mutation had a spontaneous origin (for example from a mistake of the DNA polymerase) as opposed to an induced origin (for example, from some genotoxic ...
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Methods of nuclear transfection - nuclear transport

I am reading through the ENCODE papers, which is taking me well out of my comfort zone in terms of modern laboratory techniques. At the risk of asking a question which may well be thoroughly answered ...
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what is knob heterochromatin?

I am reading a paper which discusses Maize Genome Structure. Descriptions of the structure is given in the papers introduction. I know about heterochromatin "heterochromatin stains intensely, ...
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What exactly happens if during translation, an amino acid is not present?

Lets say that the cell wants to make a particular protein. Transcription of the appropriate gene is done and the mRNA is made. mRNA attaches to the ribosome and the translation is initiated in a ...
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Which part of the genome are the developmental sequences of embryogenesis located?

Which part or parts of the the genome are the sequences located. Are they spread across the chromosomes? If so how are they accessed sequentially with precision during embrygenesis?
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What tests can be performed to test the purity and quality of the raw peptide HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)

What tests could be run to test the purity and type of HCG? We are looking to purchase HCG from China but the purity and quality varies between labs, we are able to receive samples of the raw peptide ...