The scientific study of the structure and function of genes at the molecular level, particularly chromosomes and DNA.

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Can DNA & RNA be considered as nature's programming language?

The final frontier of Biological Sciences could be considered understanding the effects of variation in the DNA (and RNA). If after fertilization the DNA of the zygote could be genetically ...
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Prenatal Marketing

This is for a short story idea. Is it possible to modify the DNA of a child to make their metabolism more susceptible (physical response, addiction, etc) to a certain type of chemical i.e. a chemical ...
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86 views

What is the point of DNA sequencing?

This is a very very basic question. I've looked at methods such as chromosome sequencing and shotgun sequencing. Wikipedia says that: ...
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56 views

Why do oncogenes show genetic dominance?

As we know that tumor suppressor gene causes cancer only when both the alleles are recessive in nature.But in case of oncogenes if only one allele is dominant it can cause cancer.Why in case of ...
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88 views

How does promoter sequence affect initiation?

I don't know if this might have been highlighted in recent research, but a textbook I have states that "the exact way in which promoter sequence affects [transcription] initiation is unclear" I'm ...
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57 views

methods for targetted deletion of genomic regions?

I would like to know what are currently used methods for targeted deletion of genomic regions in mammalian organisms or cell lines. I have heard of Zinc-Finger nucleases as a recent genetic ...
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57 views

Markers for human genetic mapping

For human genetic mapping several different types of markers are used: RFLPs (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms) VNTRs (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) such as mini- and microsatellites ...
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71 views

How does alternative splicing work?

I am trying to find out what controls what exons are spliced out, and I keep coming across the term cis regulator, but I cannot seem to find a clear explanation of what happens... Thank you in ...
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396 views

Viral Mutation Mechanism

I think I have a wrong concept about viral mutation process. First of all what is mutation actually? I mean, I know it's a sudden change in DNA, happening when subjected to mutagenic agents. But can ...
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71 views

Are the DNA codon mappings arbitrary?

I am a Biology novice so I apologize in advance if I state anything incorrectly.... My question is, are the DNA codon mappings arbitrary? I understand that the DNA code is made up of codons which ...
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30 views

DNA dependent RNA polymerase

How does a RNAP locate a specific gene? For instance, growth hormone has to be produced and the RNAP has to locate the gene. But the promoter (TATA box) will also be present infront of all cistrons. ...
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38 views

Why can't NMR be used on large RNA molecules?

While reading my Molecular Bio textbook, I came across a sentence that stated that NMR cannot be used on large RNA molecules to determine their structure. Why is this? Is it because RNA is single ...
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61 views

Coefficient of relationship and path of coefficient

A path of coefficient of relationship is defined as $$\rho_{AO} = \left( \frac{1}{2}\right)^n \sqrt { \frac{1+f_A}{1+f_O}}$$ This SE post discusses this definition From this, the coefficient of ...
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61 views

Why does the stability of YAC increase with size?

From Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry : The stability of YAC increases with size (up to a limit). Those with inserts of less than 100000 are gradually lost during mitosis. Why does this ...
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54 views

Cloning a gene of an organism with an nonsequenced genome

What would be the best protocol to clone a gene about 5kb in size? The genome is not sequenced, but the gene itself very similar to orthologous genes of organisms with known sequences.
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1k views

Lyonization and X-linked disorders?

Lyonization or X-chromosome inactivation is the conversion of all but one, X-chromosomes in Females into non-coding heterochromatin (i.e. deactivated) leading to the formation of one or more Barr ...
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120 views

When DNA is at its uncondensed form, what can it do?

I think it can do two things: The cell may be duplicating the genome during S phase. The cell may be transcribing the DNA into mRNA. Question: Can the two activities occur at the same time or one ...
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27 views

What is the most reliable tumour suppressing gene for NSCLC?

I was looking at some tumour suppressing genes that can be helpful in diagnosing lung cancer (particularly NSCLC - Non-small-cell lung carcinoma) at an early stage. I came across a few such as p53, ...
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26 views

Which is the guideline to choose a molecular target to identify vertebrate hosts from arthropod bloodmeals?

There are some molecular targets to identify vertebrate hosts from arthropod bloodmeals including the Cyt b gene and the COI gene. Which are the standards or characteristics that I have to bear in ...
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58 views

G>T transversion VS. T>G transversion?

So I'm reading about how mutations in DNA can be caused by oxidative damage. An example of a product of oxidative damage is given: 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine My textbook says that this product ...
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32 views

What initiates primase to add an RNA primer to a DNA strand and what makes it stop?

What initiates primase to add an RNA primer to a DNA strand and what makes it stop adding RNA nucleotides? Is there tags added to the DNA back-bone?
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147 views

PCR processes number of amplicons produced [closed]

Beginning with 600 template DNA molecules after 25 cycles of PCR how many amplicons will be produced?
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34 views

Transport of mammalian insulin in vivo

What is the mechanism for transport of insulin in mammalian cells?
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112 views

How is a stem-cell induced to assimilate a knock-in DNA construct?

While looking at (daylight) color perception I came across a paper by Jeremy Nathans (et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 100 no. 20, 2003, full text here) in which he describes the creation of a ...
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143 views

Should the length of the electrodes in the electrophoresis chamber be proportional to chamber's size?

I am trying to build a small horizontal electrophoresis chamber from scratch. I want to use it for comet assay and I will be using only 1 slide, so it's going to be about 3cm wide, 10cm long and 4cm ...
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136 views

Histone marks mechanism

I am slightly confused about the mechanisms that makes histone modifications associate with gene expression. That is, H3K36me3 is believed to be present in actively transcribed genes, H3K27me3 in ...
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30 views

Do The Traces Genetic Diseases Remain in families?

I know that there are certain diseases that are predominant on genes. But, is there any sort of surety that if parents are suffering from a disorder then their offspring has to suffer from the same. ...
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CRISPR Knock in

Using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, it is possible that after inducing a DSB with the Cas9 endonuclease guided with an RNA designed by the user and using a template DNA, get a desired Knock-In (KI) by ...
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What is the most complex biological organism (or precursors) that we have been able to synthesize from raw materials?

In the Miller–Urey experiment they produced several amino acids. I'm not sure if there were other similar experiments that got further. ...
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45 views

What is wrong with this analogy: Individuals are to alleles what governments are to individuals

I'm an amateur when it comes to genetics, I'm hoping to learn something from the corrections. I am taking epigenetics into account (kind of); all 3 entities are susceptible to external physical ...
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28 views

Is it reasonable to assume that RNA polymerase would bind preferentially to the promoter of the long allele of the SERT gene?

I'm trying to come up with an idea for a school project (a hypothetical research study). I'm looking at depression and the serotonin transporter gene, which is highly expressed in the human ...
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175 views

What tests can be performed to test the purity and quality of the raw peptide HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)

What tests could be run to test the purity and type of HCG? We are looking to purchase HCG from China but the purity and quality varies between labs, we are able to receive samples of the raw peptide ...
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227 views

Can Pfx polymerase add only one 3' A overhang?

I am trying to clone a PCR product that was amplified using Pfx polymerase into pGemT vector. I had to A-tail the PCR product using Taq polymerase since Pfx only generates blunt end products. My ...
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53 views

PGC-1β Sod2 limiters/blockers

I'd like to block a percentage of PGC-1β or Sod2 expression. According to the following paper's figure beta-blockers inhibit some expression of PGC-1α. Are there any medicines/chemicals which safely ...
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78 views

Collective term for both exons and introns

Is there a term I can use to refer collectively to both exons and introns? By collectively, I don't mean ligated as with an unprocessed transcription product. I'm just writing about exons and introns ...
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Which part of the genome are the developmental sequences of embryogenesis located?

Which part or parts of the the genome are the sequences located. Are they spread across the chromosomes? If so how are they accessed sequentially with precision during embrygenesis?
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How does the size of insert affects the rate of Homologous Recombination in yeast?

When performing genetic knockouts in yeast using homologous recombination to replace a target gene sequence via a vector DNA, does the region between the flanking regions in the vector have to be the ...
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61 views

How can I download a gene sequence from GenBank (NCBI)? [closed]

Could you tell me the steps to find and download a gene sequence from GeneBank? I would appreciate your help.
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108 views

What is the current molecular explanation of Mendel's pea cross?

With reference to the simplest Punnet square for Mendel's pea plant experiments it occurred to me that I could not connect the little I know about genetics to the little I know about molecules. The ...
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Why mutations in genes involved in general processes like DNA repair increase the risk of developing specific types of cancer?

For example, mutation in MHS2, which encodes a protein involved in the repair of mismatches that occur during DNA replication, dramatically increases the risk of developing colon cancer. (There are ...
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111 views

Understanding DNA supercoiling

While trying to understand DNA supercoiling, I came across these lines in the book Genetics by Ursula Goodenough : All natural DNA is superhelical. The axis of the duplex itself follows a ...
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250 views

Growing E. coli at room temperature?

If I were to do a blue/white selection of transformed E. coli on LB agar ampicillin plates at room temperature (23⁰C) for about 2 days and 18 hours, will I run into the issue of satellite colonies or ...
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53 views

RNAs arising from intergenic regions

Which type of RNA molecule is coded for in intergenic regions? I think it must be a non-coding RNA but I'm unsure which type.
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77 views

Influence of temperature on protein binding and decay rates

For computer modeling purposes, I am looking for some referenced quantitative measurements of the effect(s) of temperature on the dynamic of biochemical reactions. Question In particular, my ...
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123 views

Heterochromatin binding sites position information

I am working on a project and I'm trying to find data on the position of genes and heterochromatin binding sites such as HP1 in Drosophila melanogaster. Is this information available for the DGRP ...
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96 views

Various Genetic Loads and their Definitions

In population genetics, we talk about several types of genetic loads (also called just loads). I am asking for a exhaustive list and a short definition. Here are for example some genetic loads that ...
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74 views

Do cell walls prevent cancer?

To my knowledge plants do not have an uncontrolled growth disease similar to cancer. Is the function by which they avoid uncontrolled growth related to their cell wall and preventing damage to ...
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Property of E.coli harboring F element

From Genetics by Ursula Goodenough E.coli harboring an F element are endowed with a number of phenotypic traits : 1.They are sensitive to infection by ssRNA phages and certain ssDNA phages. ...
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75 views

DNA and gene activation

As far as the genetic content of each cell is concerned I have read to my satisfaction that all cells of a person's body except the red blood cells (with no nucleus and so no genetic message) and the ...
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23 views

Centriole genes Knock-out Experiment in Common experimental animals?

Anyone know of any experiments that have knocked out the genes for producing centrioles in a worm, mouse, fish, fly or whatever animal? Are the genes for centrioles even identified? It has been shown ...