A change in an organism's genomic sequence.

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Proving time travel

Consider this answer to an interesting question. It's not possible to prove completely that someone is the descendant of someone else, there's always a nonzero probability that the results are a ...
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What sort of assay could be used to identify mutants with mutator phenotype? [closed]

By mutator phenotype, I mean being more prone to mutations, for example due to mutations in genes involved in DNA repair. I was thinking about exposing the cells to agents that damage DNA (uv light, ...
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Why mutations in genes involved in general processes like DNA repair increase the risk of developing specific types of cancer?

For example, mutation in MHS2, which encodes a protein involved in the repair of mismatches that occur during DNA replication, dramatically increases the risk of developing colon cancer. (There are ...
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44 views

Why do haemophillic females $X^hX^h$ die before birth?

I just came across a statement in my book , while reading genetics, that haemophiliac females do not survive till birth (the reason not mentioned here why) . Before posting this question here I ...
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What are the major causes of mutations in DNA?

I know that point mutations can change the base sequence of a gene by altering a specific codon that codes for a particular amino acid. Are these mutations purely random events that occur when DNA is ...
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43 views

How does HIV mutate into other strains while keeping their virulent phenotype?

How does a virus like HIV mutate into so many strains, and yet all of them are harmful to our immune system? What gives this virus the ability to mutate so efficiently?
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43 views

Core architecture of the body encoding [closed]

First of all, I am not a biology guy; I am in Computer Science. But, I have a strong interest in all the mysteries of nature, from universe to human body. So, I want to ask a question related to ...
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42 views

What is the expected number of children that need to be born for every possible point mutation to occur once? [closed]

I'm reading The Perfect Health Diet, and in it the author says that the probability of a point mutation is (175/3*10^9) per new child. He then goes on to write: In the Paleolithic, with 100000 ...
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28 views

Where can I find mutation datasets for cancer (other than TCGA)?

My lab has been using TCGA data (somatic mutations and clinical data) to develop panels of genes and of mutations we expect to see in certain cancer populations. We'd like to validate our panels by ...
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34 views

The damage of cancer cells

I read about the molecular biology of cancer, and I have a mess on my head and a lot of questions.. . My primary question is- The damage of the cancer cells is in the dna sequence or in the gene ...
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1answer
76 views

Does increased cell turnover cause cancerous mutations?

If a certain set of cells or tissue are undergoing a lot of reproduction and repair cycles for some reason, does this inevitably lead to cancerous growths? If the mutation rate exceeds the normal ...
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179 views

How to do whole genome sequence alignment in R or Ruby/C++, any good language? [closed]

I need to perform tuberculosis mutation analysis. First step I need to do is to align sequences in fasta format against one reference file. i tried CLC genomics workstation --- it hangs on 60 000 ...
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inter codon mutation statistical analysis

I am looking for an statistical approach to inter codon mutations. for example a 64*64 (64*63 actually) table, that contain the possibility of mutation from one codon to another codon (CCA to CAA or ...
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26 views

What free software is the best for the alignment and phylogenetic tree construction from the two or more .fasta whole genome sequence files?

What free software is the best for the alignment and phylogenetic tree construction from two or more .fasta whole genome sequence files? I have tried to run alignment using CLC Genomics workbench ...
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1answer
58 views

Mutation Rate in Multicellular Eukaryotes

I always hear people saying that the mutation rate is around $10^{-6}$ or $10^{-7}$. I don't even know if this number is the mutation rate of genes or of a single nucleotides and I actually (almost) ...
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200 views

Why isn't the insertion of a single nucleotide destructive for DNA?

As far as I know proteins are built by sequentially reading triplets of nucleotides. But if at a certain point a nucleotide is inserted in the sequence, the following sequence of triplets is ...
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1answer
44 views

About the apoptosis mechanisms in a cell

The apoptosis mechanisms in a cell are like a type of 'self-destruction mechanism': is this correct? As with any type of complex system with various necessary functions, if it has a set of ...
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66 views

Drake's Law. What is the genome-wide mutation rate and what are the estimates?

Drake's rule Drake's rule states that the genome-wide mutation rate is more or less constant across all species — from E.coli to the house sparrow. Data From what I think being Drake's original ...
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27 views

Open Source Variant Caller comparable to GATK Haplotype Caller?

Is there a Variant Caller comparable algorithmically and in performance to GATK Haplotype Caller but Open Source Compliant (non-restrictive use)?
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1answer
35 views

Somatic Mutations in meristem tissue in plants

In angiosperm, in which layer of the meristem does a new mitotic mutation occurring has chance to be found in a pollen grain or in an ovule? I also welcome some insights about non-angiosperm plants.
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76 views

At what rate do chromosomal rearrangements occur?

How often does chromosomal rearrangements occur? i.e. what is the rate of chromosomal rearrangements? I am interested about these kind of chromosomal rearrangements that are passed on to the ...
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1answer
48 views

What is the difference between a DPY-10, DPY-11, and DPY-13?

My TA mentioned these three mutations of C. elegans since we started working with the worms but seems to skip over what the differences are...
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54 views

Are there known downsides to removing UV mutation hotspots to prevent some skin cancers (Genetic sunblock)?

Khavari et al. recently demonstrated that a significant fraction of one of the major forms of skin cancer (cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas) are associated with a mutated KNSTRN gene (a protein ...
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89 views

Is the mutation rate in organisms in general consistent over the genome?

Coming from computer science with an interest in genetic programming (a process emulating evolution) I'm curious about whether the rate of mutation is homogeneous across the whole genome, or if some ...
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41 views

Does chromosomal crossover result in a mutation?

Is chromosomal crossover considered a mutation? Would this be a large-scale mutation?
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101 views

(How) can a pink grasshopper exist?

I saw this foto on Reddit recently: Is this possible? How can a grasshopper become like this? Is this just natural genetic mutation?
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46 views

Percentage of mutations caused by radiation?

Consider a gamete in a typical human being. In the interest of being specific, let us say that we're talking about a typical ovum in a typical middle class woman living in a developed nation. What ...
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15 views

Are efflux pumps mutations or are they originally present in N. gonorrhoea?

I'll start by saying that I am no biologist. I am a math major trying to create a mathematical model for gonorrhea strain competition. My assignment is to create a model similar to a model that was ...
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189 views

What if a Point Mutation is seen in only half the coverage for its location?

I've been looking at some sequenced exomes and found an interesting point mutation that causes a Proline-to-Leucine amino acid change in the protein. This seems like it could have a big impact on the ...
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98 views

Which point mutations in proteins are OK, and which cause significant change?

I heard that some point mutations in proteins are OK, like from alanine to glycine (I'm not sure, it's just an example), some will change the protein significantly. I want to understand deeper but ...
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Are all mutagens carcinogens?

Not all carcinogens are mutagens. Alcohol and estrogen, for example, does not damage DNA. It's one of the assumptions of the Ames test that mutagenicity implies carcinogenicity, but is this always ...
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2answers
88 views

What are the naming conventions for mutations of proteins?

I have been reading about Maltose Binding Proteins. Mutant forms of the molecule seem to be named MalE_ where the _ represents a number, for example MalE36 or MalE50. Please can someone explain the ...
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279 views

Why cancer mutations do accumulate sequentially?

According to Knudson hypothesis, cancer mutations accumulate in order. Statistics says, that cancer probability increases as sixth order of age, which may mean six consequential steps to cancer. But, ...
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38 views

Is it firmly established, that mutations are sufficient for cancer?

It is evident for scientists, that all cancer cells have some mutated genes. Say mutations in general. But this evidence means necessary condition. But what about sufficient conditions? Is it ...
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54 views

Most human-like teratoma ever recorded?

I'm curious to learn about the most human teratoma ever recorded. By most human I mean the teratoma which most resembles the form of a human being. I suppose there are several criteria which would ...
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76 views

Population Genetics Question

Can someone please help with this question? Here is my working (just in case it is not clear: 1/300*1/30*1/2) but is this actually correct or do I need to multiply by 0.5 once again? I appreciate ...
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34 views

What is TILLING?

How does TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) work? What is needed to perform a TILLING experiment, and what kind of information can we get out of it?
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4answers
97 views

How does mutation cause natural selection? and is it common in protists or prokaryotes?

Why is it inevitable that evolution by mutations alone should be a common cause of evolutionary change in most natural populations? And do you expect mutation-driven evolution to be more common in ...
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97 views

Effect on fitness of mutations

What is the distribution/probability density function (PDF) of impacts on fitness of new mutations? I very welcome any partial answer that does not give the whole PDF but just some information ...
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1answer
38 views

Dominance/recessivity of new mutations

What is the distribution/probability density function (PDF) of recessivity/dominance of new mutations? I very welcome any partial answer that does not give the whole PDF but just some information ...
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1answer
1k views

What is the standing genetic variation?

I am reading this review. In the first part, the author introduces Standing Genetic Variation, described as: STANDING GENETIC VARIATION Allelic variation that is currently segregating within a ...
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52 views

Is it possible to elicit transient gene silencing by using virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) in plants?

I am looking for a molecular tech' which could result in transient gene silencing in plants. The objective is to not make transgenic plant, but to use these tech' to silence a gene of interest for a ...
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1answer
53 views

Quorum Sensing in Vibrio cholerae

This is a figure summarising the quorum sensing mechanism in Vibrio cholerae. In this video by Bonnie Bassler, she explains how quorum sensing can be targeted to control infections. At 15:09 she ...
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165 views

Evolution (Reductionism)

My recent post was tagged as unclear so I wanted to re frame my question. Though I am a layman, I would love to read books and find the stuff, if I get an overall picture of intelligence factor. My ...
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4answers
67 views

What evidence do we have to derive a rate of evolution?

When analyzing how the human species evolved and will continue to evolve over time, what evidence and tools (theory/models) do we have available to derive the rate at which this happens? Is it even ...
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186 views

How do scientists create specific mutations?

Suppose I want to create a mutant like Antennapaedia how will I go about accomplishing it ? I know that radiation and certain chemicals are mutagenic. So do scientists subject animals to such ...
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89 views

Mutation rate in viruses

Mutation rate is a phenotypic trait that evolves. The process of evolution of such kind of traits are often referred to as evolvability. I am wondering about the evolution of the mutation rates in ...
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55 views

Constitutive mutation in operator gene

If a constitutive mutation happens in the operator of an inducible operon, does that mean that repressors won't be able to bind them ? Or does it mean that even if repressors are bound, they will not ...
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1answer
115 views

Carcinogens, how do they work?

The easiest carcinogenic thing for me to grasp is radiation, as it directly messes with DNA. Then it seems there are other compounds that simply mimic hormones, but these shouldn't necessarily cause ...
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174 views

How can synonymous mutations lead to cancerous or tumorous phenotypes?

After analyzing DNA sequences of an oncogene from many human cancer patients, you found that synonymous substitutions occur in a specific codon of this oncogene. Assuming that these synonymous ...