A change in an organism's genomic sequence.

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Can ' functional' stress 'forced upon' a cell actually cause cell mutations when they divide and reproduce?

If a group of cells are forced to go beyond their regular biological parameters that they should be under given ' healthy' functioning and while existing in these stressed states some of the cells ...
2
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21 views

Can mutation rate be increased for instance by mutagenesis targeting the DNA polymerase?

I am studying a non-cultivable bacterium living in an insect host, and I would like to generate some random mutants of this bacteria while preserving the insect. I am wondering if one way to do so ...
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There are 6 classifications of CFTR mutations. Is a causal relationship to the sweat test known?

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene for the protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The CFTR mutations are classified in 6 classes. The sweat test is ...
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1answer
38 views

Why are VAL, MET and ALA substitutions commonly used for protein behaviour and function studies?

I have seen that amino acids are commonly replaced with VAL, MET or ALA to study the effects of these specific substitutions. Why are these specific amino acids used in particular, what are the ...
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1answer
39 views

Is there a correlation between mutation rate and recombination rate?

I have in mind that homologous recombination (HR) can cause mutations (indels and substitutions). I am wondering if this is true and if it is, then I am wondering whether this effect is really ...
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102 views

If Tumors have lots of mutations in them how is it the immune system can't detect them?

If a cancerous tumor has a lot of mutations in them why can't the immune system detect them? If a person has cancer could this somehow alter the person's immune system so it doesn't function ...
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1k views

Is Mutation Theory still “valid” for complex organisms?

I'm afraid like most people I suffer from having learned "A History of Evolution" in school, rather than cutting to the chase and learning the actual "up to date" version of the subject. (Imagine if ...
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1answer
18 views

Chimeric Gene vs Fusion Gene?

According to wikipedia on chimeric genes: These mutations are distinct from fusion genes which merge whole gene sequences into a single reading frame and often retain their original functions. ...
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40 views

What happens when a genome is shorter than the other? [closed]

Say there were 2 creatures of the same species. Creature 1 has a longer genome than creature 2, it may be just a few base pairs, but what would happen when the genes were crossed to create creature 3 ...
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18 views

Are there any non-harmful viruses that can alter a specific mutation?

Are there any non-harmful viruses that in going into a cell and using the cells 'machinery' and genetics to 'copy' itself actually changes some of the cells genome , maybe altering some mutations? ...
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1answer
52 views

What specific mutations can cause an apoptosis mechanism to malfunction?

What specific mutations can cause the apoptosis mechanisms in a cell to malfunction? Are any such mutations 'reversible' , somehow or are they generally permanent? what kind of mutations can happen ...
5
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1answer
69 views

Where do most mutations come from, mitosis or meiosis?

According to this (old) paper there are 10 times more mutations during meiosis than during mitosis. One reason for that is that recombination often causes replication error and therefore mutations. ...
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19 views

Genetic tests on S. cerevisiae to determine mutation locus on genes

I am studying the metabolism of galactose in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After a random mutagenesis screen, several mutant strains were isolated that grow well in glucose but are ...
2
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1answer
154 views

What is the difference between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), Mutation and Structural Variation(SV)?

This is a question which plagues many people and today I was wondering it myself while writing a grant. Indeed, I've seen many people use the terms interchangeably, but they are all very different ...
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37 views

Following DNA replication during S-phase of the cell-cycle, are all genomic regions subjected to the same stringent level of DNA-Repair?

To my (limited) understanding, there are 2 main ways that mutations can occur in DNA: Environmental (UV, etc) and mistakes during cell division. I was wondering if there is a mechanism that can give ...
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1answer
33 views

What does this mutation notation mean: MAP2K41161fs*12

I received a report that had a mutation notated as: "MAP2K41161fs*12". I'm used to seeing this sort of thing: BRAF(V600E) or BRAF(T1799TA). Can someone tell me how to interpret "MAP2K41161fs*12" ?? Is ...
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1answer
41 views

Genetic notations

Genetic testing revealed these two mutations (hypothetically): IVS11+6G>A and IVS11-4G>A Could you please explain every part of this notation, especially "+" and "-" signs.
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1answer
70 views

Is it possible to express a mutant gene only in a specific tissue?

Imagine that someone tries to develop a knockout mouse for a gene, but this result in lethality for the homozygous. Is it possible to express that mutant gene only in a specific tissue of interest to ...
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2answers
1k views

What has caused life to choose this unfathomably tiny subset of all possible proteins?

I wonder why life uses the particular proteins that it does, about 10^6 different proteins, I think? Evolution cannot explain it because the number of possible proteins is far far too large to ever ...
5
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2answers
117 views

Non Coding DNA and its effect on evolution

I had a discussion with a friend of mine; from his understanding, bacteria and other small organisms have higher amounts of "coding" DNA and, as such, are able to evolve much faster than organisms ...
5
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1answer
43 views

How can the phenotypic effects of a tumor suppressor mutation be silenced?

I've been reading a little about the "two-hit" hypothesis for tumor suppressor genes here, which mentions that some genes exhibiting haploinsufficiency are exceptions to the hypothesis. I've read ...
3
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1answer
37 views

Richard Goldschmidt's “systemic mutations”?

[TLDR] I dont understand the fault people had/have with Richard Goldscmidt's concept of systemic mutations [/TLDR] As a preface, I am a undergrad biology student, so sorry if this is a "Stupid ...
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1answer
37 views

What is the statistical relationship between radioactivity and mutation rate?

This question tries to narrow down the scope of that question. What is the statistical relationship between radioactivity and mutation rate? By how much would the mutation rate be lowered in a ...
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1answer
52 views

Do all kind of unicellular asexual reproductions let mutations happen, resulting in evolution?

I know about fission, an unicellular asexual reproduction method, where the mother cell splits into two daughter cells. Does this kind of asexual reproductions let mutations happen, leading to much ...
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1answer
135 views

Are there any mutagens that can undo the mutations they cause?

I was reading a section from my textbook about tautomeric shifts, and it seems to suggest that there are some mutagens that can be directly responsible for the phenomenon. The section is mainly ...
2
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1answer
37 views

Understanding conclusions that functional regions are under negative selection?

I am reading in notes for a comparative annotation lecture that : all DNA is subject to mutations most functional regions are under negative selection (ie., mutations are often deleterious) The ...
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1answer
86 views

Proving time travel

Consider this answer to an interesting question. It's not possible to prove completely that someone is the descendant of someone else, there's always a nonzero probability that the results are a ...
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1answer
28 views

What sort of assay could be used to identify mutants with mutator phenotype? [closed]

By mutator phenotype, I mean being more prone to mutations, for example due to mutations in genes involved in DNA repair. I was thinking about exposing the cells to agents that damage DNA (uv light, ...
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59 views

Why mutations in genes involved in general processes like DNA repair increase the risk of developing specific types of cancer?

For example, mutation in MHS2, which encodes a protein involved in the repair of mismatches that occur during DNA replication, dramatically increases the risk of developing colon cancer. (There are ...
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1answer
77 views

Why do haemophillic females $X^hX^h$ die before birth?

I just came across a statement in my book , while reading genetics, that haemophiliac females do not survive till birth (the reason not mentioned here why) . Before posting this question here I ...
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2answers
94 views

What are the major causes of mutations in DNA?

I know that point mutations can change the base sequence of a gene by altering a specific codon that codes for a particular amino acid. Are these mutations purely random events that occur when DNA is ...
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4answers
85 views

How does HIV mutate into other strains while keeping their virulent phenotype?

How does a virus like HIV mutate into so many strains, and yet all of them are harmful to our immune system? What gives this virus the ability to mutate so efficiently?
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1answer
53 views

Core architecture of the body encoding [closed]

First of all, I am not a biology guy; I am in Computer Science. But, I have a strong interest in all the mysteries of nature, from universe to human body. So, I want to ask a question related to ...
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1answer
43 views

What is the expected number of children that need to be born for every possible point mutation to occur once? [closed]

I'm reading The Perfect Health Diet, and in it the author says that the probability of a point mutation is (175/3*10^9) per new child. He then goes on to write: In the Paleolithic, with 100000 ...
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77 views

Where can I find mutation datasets for cancer (other than TCGA)?

My lab has been using TCGA data (somatic mutations and clinical data) to develop panels of genes and of mutations we expect to see in certain cancer populations. We'd like to validate our panels by ...
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1answer
38 views

The damage of cancer cells

I read about the molecular biology of cancer, and I have a mess on my head and a lot of questions.. . My primary question is- The damage of the cancer cells is in the dna sequence or in the gene ...
2
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1answer
122 views

Does increased cell turnover cause cancerous mutations?

If a certain set of cells or tissue are undergoing a lot of reproduction and repair cycles for some reason, does this inevitably lead to cancerous growths? If the mutation rate exceeds the normal ...
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2answers
240 views

How to do whole genome sequence alignment in R or Ruby/C++, any good language? [closed]

I need to perform tuberculosis mutation analysis. First step I need to do is to align sequences in fasta format against one reference file. i tried CLC genomics workstation --- it hangs on 60 000 ...
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21 views

Inter-codon mutations statistical analysis

I am looking for a statistical approach to inter-codon mutations. For example a 64*64 (64*63 actually) table, that contain the possibility of mutation from one codon to another codon (CCA to CAA or ...
3
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1answer
69 views

Mutation Rate in Multicellular Eukaryotes

I always hear people saying that the mutation rate is around $10^{-6}$ or $10^{-7}$. I don't even know if this number is the mutation rate of genes or of a single nucleotides and I actually (almost) ...
3
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1answer
231 views

Why isn't the insertion of a single nucleotide destructive for DNA?

As far as I know proteins are built by sequentially reading triplets of nucleotides. But if at a certain point a nucleotide is inserted in the sequence, the following sequence of triplets is ...
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1answer
47 views

About the apoptosis mechanisms in a cell

The apoptosis mechanisms in a cell are like a type of 'self-destruction mechanism': is this correct? As with any type of complex system with various necessary functions, if it has a set of ...
4
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1answer
122 views

Drake's Law. What is the genome-wide mutation rate and what are the estimates?

Drake's rule Drake's rule states that the genome-wide mutation rate is more or less constant across all species — from E.coli to the house sparrow. Data From what I think being Drake's original ...
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40 views

Open Source Variant Caller comparable to GATK Haplotype Caller?

Is there a Variant Caller comparable algorithmically and in performance to GATK Haplotype Caller but Open Source Compliant (non-restrictive use)?
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1answer
40 views

Somatic Mutations in meristem tissue in plants

In angiosperm, in which layer of the meristem does a new mitotic mutation occurring has chance to be found in a pollen grain or in an ovule? I also welcome some insights about non-angiosperm plants.
3
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86 views

At what rate do chromosomal rearrangements occur?

How often does chromosomal rearrangements occur? i.e. what is the rate of chromosomal rearrangements? I am interested about these kind of chromosomal rearrangements that are passed on to the ...
3
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1answer
87 views

What is the difference between a DPY-10, DPY-11, and DPY-13?

My TA mentioned these three mutations of C. elegans since we started working with the worms but seems to skip over what the differences are...
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2answers
64 views

Are there known downsides to removing UV mutation hotspots to prevent some skin cancers (Genetic sunblock)?

Khavari et al. recently demonstrated that a significant fraction of one of the major forms of skin cancer (cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas) are associated with a mutated KNSTRN gene (a protein ...
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2answers
109 views

Is the mutation rate in organisms in general consistent over the genome?

Coming from computer science with an interest in genetic programming (a process emulating evolution) I'm curious about whether the rate of mutation is homogeneous across the whole genome, or if some ...
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2answers
57 views

Does chromosomal crossover result in a mutation?

Is chromosomal crossover considered a mutation? Would this be a large-scale mutation?