A change in an organism's genomic sequence.

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term for trophy for a compound when it is not used used by that organism

A prototroph for compound X can make it, a bradytroph grows faster if X is scavenged, an auxotroph needs to scavenge it and a hyperauxotroph lacks both the biosynthetic pathway and the transporters. ...
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94 views

Is it possible to have different genes in different parts of our body?

I want to understand genetic mutation specially in the context of multicellular organisms like humans. I studied biology only till high school and I can’t fully understand wikipedia pages on this ...
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50 views

Nomenclature for mutations at specific nucleotide positions

I'm sure this is a basic question, but I couldn't find an answer anywhere. Let's say I'm provided with the location of a nucleotide as location as FGFR3:c.1843-35A>T. What does "1843-35" mean?
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1answer
25 views

Can ncRNA convert to coding RNA/mRNA by mutations?

DNA has transcribed into RNA (Non-coding). Can this RNA mutate and become a Protein-Coding one/mRNA? Have there been any such instances reported by scientists?
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Is Mutation Theory still “valid” for complex organisms?

I'm afraid like most people I suffer from having learned "A History of Evolution" in school, rather than cutting to the chase and learning the actual "up to date" version of the subject. (Imagine if ...
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73 views

Pink Grasshoppers

The area I found this grasshopper was Canyon Country, California, USA In a desert/field area. I have been reading up on grasshoppers because I recently came into possession of a pink grasshopper (It ...
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134 views

Genetic mutations and new alleles

Amongst silent, nonsense and missense genetic mutations, is the latter the only one that leads to the creation of new alleles? If we define alleles as a specific form of a gene, and a gene as a ...
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3answers
100 views

Following DNA replication during S-phase of the cell-cycle, are all genomic regions subjected to the same stringent level of DNA-Repair?

To my (limited) understanding, there are 2 main ways that mutations can occur in DNA: Environmental (UV, etc) and mistakes during cell division. I was wondering if there is a mechanism that can give ...
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12 views

Finding SNPs and Haplotypes?

I have the following alignment file. How can I identify the SNP sites and how can I find the haplotypes. I know these are related but can't seem to apply it to the below data. Any help would be ...
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49 views

mutant and variant differentiation

Can anyone clearly differentiate between a variant and a mutant in genetics. I am confusing these terms a bit, as the evolutionary aspect also comes to my mind.
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Why mutations in genes involved in general processes like DNA repair increase the risk of developing specific types of cancer?

For example, mutation in MHS2, which encodes a protein involved in the repair of mismatches that occur during DNA replication, dramatically increases the risk of developing colon cancer. (There are ...
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5k views

Difference between mutation and DNA damage

What is the strict difference between mutation and DNA damage? As far as I understand it, a mutation is an alteration in the genetic sequence, having "tricked" the repairing machinery and thus ...
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85 views

How to read this DNA inversion diagram?

In the following diagram about chromosome inversion, I don't understand: Why do we need to take the reverse complement from step 1 to 2? Isn't inversion just reversing the bases in the region? How ...
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67 views

Percentage of mutations caused by radiation?

Consider a gamete in a typical human being. In the interest of being specific, let us say that we're talking about a typical ovum in a typical middle class woman living in a developed nation. What ...
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33 views

Mutagenic Agent [closed]

This was a passage in University Degree Genetic Journal that confused me. DNA base pairs are more susceptible to mutagenic agents, so this reduces the chances of spontaneous mutations happening ...
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13 views

coverage of amplicons and mutation analysis with IGV

Q1: I want to understand why the coverage of each amplicons varies for these 4 different amplicons (exon 18 is almost 10 times lower). Is this difference caused during the amplification phase (PCR)? ...
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47 views

How can a mutator gene can cause a mutation when it is shut off? [closed]

defination of "Mutator" - a gene that increases the rate of mutation of one or more other genes. However, in the book "Molecular Biology of the Cell" (bruce alberts) it states that when a mutator is ...
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1answer
101 views

Most human-like teratoma ever recorded?

I'm curious to learn about the 'most human' teratoma ever recorded. By that I mean a teratoma which most resembles the form of a human being. I suppose there are several factors which would ...
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2answers
200 views

What does 'direction' mean in the statement “mutations are non-directional”?

I was reading the Mutation theory of De Vries; there I encountered this following statement: Mutations are discontinuous, random & non-directional.This is in contrast to Darwinism where ...
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81 views

What type of point mutation and chromosomal mutation cause Albinism in humans?

First of all, I know that OCA1 (Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 1) is autosomal recessive which means that both parents-who are unaffected-have to pass down one copy of a mutated gene in order to ...
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1answer
43 views

Whales and cancer [duplicate]

Do whales get less cancer than they should considering they have a lot more cells and tissue? If a lot of cancer formation is random because of mutations then shouldn't whales receive a lot of ...
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2answers
630 views

What are the major causes of mutations in DNA?

I know that point mutations can change the base sequence of a gene by altering a specific codon that codes for a particular amino acid. Are these mutations purely random events that occur when DNA is ...
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1answer
636 views

Can cancer cells in the same person, organ, and origin have different DNA?

Is it possible for cells from the same tumor to have different genetic material, and if so, to what degree is it possible (how fast do they mutate) ?
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Do mutant alleles result from mutation of the wild type?

The allele that encodes for the most common form of a phenotype in natural population is called a wild type allele and all the rest of the alleles encoding forms other than the wild type are called ...
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2answers
203 views

What errors can occur during DNA replication?

When there is an error in copying DNA (a mutation), what exactly goes wrong? If G goes with C and A goes with T, I don't see how that part can mess up. Is the idea that when the double helix is ...
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1answer
76 views

How do mutations actually occur?

DNA replication seems so mechanical- the DNA polymerase just running along the template strand. I just don't understand how mutations can arise. When it comes to substitutions, I get that a wrong ...
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1answer
55 views

Expected dS/dN ratio for exome

I am trying to determine whether or not my sequencing data has more/less non-synonymous mutations than would be expected. My understanding is that there is some fixed ds/dn ratio for the human exome ...
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4answers
322 views

How does Darwinian Evolution work?

Let me explain... A friend and I read some articles, part of a Biology book, and watched a video on evolution. We then tried to explain what Evolution is to each other. My friend said that Natural ...
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2answers
117 views

Question about proto-oncogenes and oncogenes?

My textbook says: Growth-promoting genes are called proto-oncogenes. Some can be changed into oncogenes by a point mutation that alters the ability of the proto-oncogene to be switched off. They ...
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1answer
49 views

Using evolution of bacteria against themselves

We know that mutations happen regularly in bacteria and also that one bacteria might get the mutation and become stronger than the others and thus survive, causing antibiotic resistance as well. Can ...
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1answer
84 views

How to statistically test the predictability of evolution? [closed]

Can anyone recommend me an experimental study which tries to test the predictability of evolution? The closest works I found are the studies of fluctuation tests (f.e. classical study of Luria & ...
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27 views

How to determine suitable Cysteine mutations?

In the lab, I'd like to generate a dimer of a protein via disulfide bonds. The interface between the two looks as follows: Now, in the interface, there isn't any cystein I could use to dimerize the ...
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1answer
37 views

Nucleoside analogs that cause mutation

I'm confused with this explanation in my book: 2-aminopurine is incorporated into DNA in place of adenine but can pair with cytosine, so an AT pair becomes a CG pair. This sentence seems odd to me. ...
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30 views

Will someone with a double mutation in the allosomes be normal?

Normally a female human has an X allosome from her father and an X allosome form her mother. What if an double mutation happened, which causes that someone has two X allosomes form her mother and no ...
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1answer
74 views

Disease causing variants and Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

Is it true that many disease causing variants/mutations do not follow Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium? If so, then please elaborate on why this may be true (or not) and provide examples. I am interested ...
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36 views

Can ' functional' stress 'forced upon' a cell actually cause cell mutations when they divide and reproduce?

If a group of cells are forced to go beyond their regular biological parameters that they should be under given ' healthy' functioning and while existing in these stressed states some of the cells ...
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26 views

Can mutation rate be increased for instance by mutagenesis targeting the DNA polymerase?

I am studying a non-cultivable bacterium living in an insect host, and I would like to generate some random mutants of this bacteria while preserving the insect. I am wondering if one way to do so ...
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33 views

There are 6 classifications of CFTR mutations. Is a causal relationship to the sweat test known?

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene for the protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The CFTR mutations are classified in 6 classes. The sweat test is ...
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1answer
81 views

Why are VAL, MET and ALA substitutions commonly used for protein behaviour and function studies?

I have seen that amino acids are commonly replaced with VAL, MET or ALA to study the effects of these specific substitutions. Why are these specific amino acids used in particular, what are the ...
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209 views

If Tumors have lots of mutations in them how is it the immune system can't detect them?

If a cancerous tumor has a lot of mutations in them why can't the immune system detect them? If a person has cancer could this somehow alter the person's immune system so it doesn't function ...
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1answer
74 views

Chimeric Gene vs Fusion Gene?

According to wikipedia on chimeric genes: These mutations are distinct from fusion genes which merge whole gene sequences into a single reading frame and often retain their original functions. ...
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78 views

What happens when a genome is shorter than the other? [closed]

Say there were 2 creatures of the same species. Creature 1 has a longer genome than creature 2, it may be just a few base pairs, but what would happen when the genes were crossed to create creature 3 ...
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119 views

What specific mutations can cause an apoptosis mechanism to malfunction?

What specific mutations can cause the apoptosis mechanisms in a cell to malfunction? Are any such mutations 'reversible' , somehow or are they generally permanent? what kind of mutations can happen ...
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51 views

Are there any non-harmful viruses that can alter a specific mutation?

Are there any non-harmful viruses that in going into a cell and using the cells 'machinery' and genetics to 'copy' itself actually changes some of the cells genome , maybe altering some mutations? ...
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375 views

Where do most mutations come from, mitosis or meiosis?

According to this (old) paper there are 10 times more mutations during meiosis than during mitosis. One reason for that is that recombination often causes replication error and therefore mutations. ...
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30 views

Genetic tests on S. cerevisiae to determine mutation locus on genes

I am studying the metabolism of galactose in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After a random mutagenesis screen, several mutant strains were isolated that grow well in glucose but are ...
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1k views

What is the difference between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), Mutation and Structural Variation(SV)?

This is a question which plagues many people and today I was wondering it myself while writing a grant. Indeed, I've seen many people use the terms interchangeably, but they are all very different ...
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1answer
49 views

How can the phenotypic effects of a tumor suppressor mutation be silenced?

I've been reading a little about the "two-hit" hypothesis for tumor suppressor genes here, which mentions that some genes exhibiting haploinsufficiency are exceptions to the hypothesis. I've read ...
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2answers
431 views

Looking for a cancer drug target database to guide sequencing of patient tumor DNA

I have a question I would like to pose to the community. I have recently received access to a bench-top ion torrent DNA sequencer. Our idea is to use this machine to sequence the DNA from patient’s ...
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178 views

Non Coding DNA and its effect on evolution

I had a discussion with a friend of mine; from his understanding, bacteria and other small organisms have higher amounts of "coding" DNA and, as such, are able to evolve much faster than organisms ...