A mechanism of evolution that leads to non-random spread of genes due to the effect that genes have on reproductive success.

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Why haven't modern grass based crops overrun wild grasses?

Modern grass based crops are significantly superior to wild grasses, they grow faster, are stronger stemmed, have larger leaves and higher seed yields in terms of individual seed size, giving ...
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60 views

What is the difference between natural selection and adaptation?

From what I've read it seems that the only actual difference is that creationists use adaptation and people who believe in evolution use natural selection. But otherwise, from my understanding, the ...
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19 views

Ecological specialization and relative abundance

I am reading Evolution in Changing Environments by R. Levin but have a hard time. Claim At page 25, Levin says as a conclusion The more efficient a caste at meeting the contingency for which it ...
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59 views

What are Some Classical Examples of Local Adaptation?

Question Can you please give a list of classical (textbook) examples of local adaptations? How to answer Examples don't necessarily need to include what evidence supports this specific example of ...
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105 views

do game animals have poor eyesight?

I have been watching some bow hunting videos on youtube. When hunting with a bow, the hunter needs to get really close to the animal, sometimes less than 10 meters. It seems to me implicitly, and ...
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28 views

What model of epistasis best fit the reality?

In theoretical population genetics, it is very common to have to assume a model of epistatic interaction. The two most common models are the additive model and the multiplicative model. Additive ...
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47 views

Determination of genes to be modified in epigenetics [closed]

It seems that during reproduction particular genes are targeted for modification (mutation, deletion, insertion, etc.) given environmental inputs of either or both of the parents. If a creature was ...
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1answer
66 views

Why do many people seem to prefer unhealthy compared to healthy foods?

I don't have any concrete statistics on this but many of us seem to love the taste of food that is unhealthy for us. Over the centuries, wouldn't it have been a non negligible advantage to those who ...
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33 views

Evolution of parasite into ideal parasite [duplicate]

An ideal parasite is a parasite which thrives within a host without harming it (according to my NCERT textbook). Then, quite obviously, why hasn't that happened yet? I mean, natural selection can ...
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39 views

Does the species of snake that eats Amphidromous inversus have chiral dimorphism?

From what I read at Schilthuizen and Davison (2005), Amphidromous inversus is a species of snail that occurs in 2 forms that are nearly mirror images of each other occurring in nearly equal ...
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2answers
96 views

How to name a case of convergent evolution where the same mutation is involved in both lineages?

Definition of Convergent evolution - from Wikipedia > Convergent Evolution Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages. Convergent ...
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84 views

Are there examples of selection on males influencing female phenotypes?

I've been studying selection on female body color in a sexually dimorphic species and am intrigued by the possibility that selection on males, whether it be through sexual or natural selection, may ...
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83 views

Why do heterozygous individuals have increased resistance to malaria?

I am aware that there is such a thing called heterozygous advantage, which is due to the presence of a certain single allele, and that an example of this could be with "sickle-cell anemia". I am ...
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136 views

Have scientists ever produce a new species in laboratory by means of natural selection?

I was wondering, if scientists ever produce a more complex species from a less complex species by means of natural selection? I imagine something like, bacteria which can't photosynthesis and oxygen (...
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98 views

Is there a formal definition of signature of natural selection?

I’ve searched for a definition of signature of natural selection. Unfortunately, I haven’t found any formal definition of it. The signature of positive selection ...
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291 views

Difference/similarity between adaptive radiation and species divergence?

I've been reading various answers on different sites but I still don't know whether adaptive radiation and species divergence are different or similar. My questions: 1) On some sites, it says that ...
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2answers
230 views

Why even if all requirements for natural selection are met, it may not happen?

In the book written by John Endler Natural Selection in the Wild p. 4 it says that even if condition a, b and c are met, evolution by natural selection might occur, [...] , but not necessarily, ...
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37 views

Games with non-uniform interaction rates

Background: Many models in evolutionary game theory assume uniform interaction rates. For instance, consider the $2\times 2$ game: \begin{array}{l c c} & A & B \\ A & a & b \\ ...
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Replicator equation for mixed strategies?

The the replicator equation is usually defined for pure strategies. More specifically, the replicator eqn for $n$ strategies is given by: \begin{equation} \dot x_{i} = x_{i} \left( \sum_{j=1}^{n} a_{...
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23 views

Do scouting bees get to pass their genes to offspring?

Let's say the food-scouting behavior of scouting bees are enhanced when some particular alleles are expressed. By natural selection, the allele frequency for that "good" allele should increase because ...
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214 views

How does the modern synthesis theory explain the evolution of birds from dinosaurs? [closed]

The theory of evolution claims that birds evolved from dinosaurs only by mutation, genetic drift, migration and natural selection. However, it seems to me that wings were not selectively advantageous ...
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337 views

How does Darwinian Evolution work?

Let me explain... A friend and I read some articles, part of a Biology book, and watched a video on evolution. We then tried to explain what Evolution is to each other. My friend said that Natural ...
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1answer
86 views

Discrete vs Continuous Replicator Dynamics

The replicator eqn in the case of discrete non-overlapping generations and asexual reproduction is given by the discrete replicator eqn: $$x_i(t+1) = x_i (t)\frac{f_i(t)}{\bar f (t)}$$ where $x_i$ is ...
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89 views

How to statistically test the predictability of evolution? [closed]

Can anyone recommend me an experimental study which tries to test the predictability of evolution? The closest works I found are the studies of fluctuation tests (f.e. classical study of Luria & ...
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23 views

Relationship between selection coefficient and frequency of elimination

I'm asking this question because I would like to model the influence of changes that take place during tumour evolution to estimate what changes are selected against. I am in effect looking at ...
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1answer
90 views

Will moths evolve to become blue if we paint walls in blue?

I know dark moths are more frequent than white moths when the environment is full of dirty (dark) walls/trees; it is a consequence of natural selection. Will moths evolve to become blue if walls/trees ...
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1answer
51 views

Who was the first to coin the terms of soft and hard selection?

Soft and hard selection are sometimes used with different definitions. I have been told that at first place hard and soft selection has been defined in the following way: soft selection: Each deme ...
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159 views

The replicator equation vs the Lotka-Volterra equation

Background The replicator equation with $n$ strategies is given by the differential equation: \begin{equation} \dot x_{i} = x_{i} \left( \sum_{j=1}^{n} a_{ij}x_{j} - \phi \right) \qquad i = 1, \...
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418 views

What is a selective constraint?

I encountered the term selective constraint in Huber et al. 2015, page 4 (last paragraph) in: If invariable sites are included in the analysis, then both the methods of Kim and Stephan (...
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52 views

Variance in reproductive success and effective population size

Background The effective population size $Ne$ is the size of the Wright-Fisher population that experience the same amount of drift than the population under consideration. The higher the variance in ...
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68 views

How did the double circulatory system evolve from the single circulatory system

I already learned how the mammal circulatory system (double circulatory system) evolved from the reptilian circulatory system. How did natural selection evolve the reptilian circulatory system and the ...
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201 views

Is it possible there were multiple origins of life? And, if so, why did the one which became the common ancestor between all organisms prevail?

I have learned that all currently-living organisms come from a common ancestor, which I theoretically understand. However, my professor in a class mentioned that there is a chance that there were ...
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3answers
183 views

Why didn't humans evolve to reproduce identical twins all the time?

According to the selfish gene theory, it seems like because identical twins sometimes get produced, a mutation to a gene that says, "if you have an identical twin, be fully altruistic towards them" ...
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4answers
573 views

Is our genome decaying (see “Genetic Entropy”), and, if so, is this evidence for our genome being “young”?

In the book Genetic Entropy & the Mystery of the Genome the author says that the genome cannot be old because the genome is "decaying". Decay is a very subjective term, but in this case he means ...
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Is Mutation Theory still “valid” for complex organisms?

I'm afraid like most people I suffer from having learned "A History of Evolution" in school, rather than cutting to the chase and learning the actual "up to date" version of the subject. (Imagine if ...
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60 views

Name/Examples of Traits whose benefit is non-obvious and/or which evolve despite apparent mal-adaptivness?

I'm a graduate student in cognitive science doing work on people's explanations and learning, particularly having to do with natural selection. Often, students misunderstand natural selection as a "...
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1answer
52 views

If a trait does not appear to be advantageous to organism, why does the organism have it? [duplicate]

Why do organisms have some traits that do not appear to have any evolutionary advantage?
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Why do some bad traits evolve, and good ones don't?

If a trait would be advantageous to an organism then why hasn't it evolved yet? Conversely, if a trait is not advantageous or mildly disadvantageous, why does it exist? In other words why does ...
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76 views

Queller's 1985 version of Hamilton's rule

Queller 1985 ("Kinship, reciprocity and synergism in the evolution of social behavior") provides a generalization of Hamilton's rule that allows for non-additivity. To accomplish that, Queller writes ...
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2answers
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How to compute the regression of individual fitness on individual phenotype

Consider a population structured in groups of two individuals. Individuals' interactions follow an additive prisoner's dilemma: \begin{array}{c |c |c|} & C & D \\ \hline \text{Cooperate (} C \...
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59 views

What is the probability of fixation for a mutant under fluctuating selection?

Here is an answer which explain how one can model the frequency of an allele that is under fluctuating selection (selection that varies through time). Not, thinking about fluctuating selection, there ...
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1answer
84 views

Modeling inclusive fitness

Consider a population of two altruist with coefficient of relatedness $r$. The average inclusive fitness of this population will be $w_{0} + br -c$. Like in this example, assignment of inclusive ...
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Current Trend in Evolution of Human Intelligence

Up front, I am specifically not interested in philosophical or ethical considerations re Eugenics and related concepts. In an effort to receive a concise answer I'll post a narrowly defined question ...
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150 views

Selection Pressure on Orca Whale Coloration

What is the proposed selection pressure that leads to the distinctive coloration of Orca whales? I can find nothing in the literature.
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222 views

Expected time for a neutral allele to reach a frequency of $p_1$ when starting at frequency $p_0$

Kimura and Ohta (1968) showed that the expected time for a neutral allele to reach fixation (given that it will reach fixation) is $$\bar t(p_0)=-4N\left(\frac{1-p_0}{p_0}\right)\ln(1-p_0),$$ where ...
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59 views

Explaining natural selection in moth [closed]

Industrial melanism is an example of natural selection. Can it be considered as a evolution due to anthropogenic action?
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567 views

What is the relationship between radiation and evolution?

There is always a certain amount of background radiation present, for example due to ionizing radiation from the sun and other stars. Also certain materials like granite may emit relatively large ...
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3k views

What's the difference between stabilizing selection and balancing selection?

I came across these terms in Darwin's "Origin of Species" and I wasn't sure what the difference is.
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183 views

Hamilton's inclusive fitness approach

The underlying intuition of Hamilton's model of inclusive fitness is that we should study social behaviors from the point of view of actors -- rather than the recipients. To build his model, Hamilton ...
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Why did humans become bipedal?

Somewhere in evolutionary history homo started walking upright and became bipedal. You hear these hypotheses that, by walking upright, they could see better across the grassy savannas to escape ...