A mechanism of evolution that leads to non-random spread of genes due to the effect that genes have on reproductive success.

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do game animals have poor eyesight?

I have been watching some bow hunting videos on youtube. When hunting with a bow, the hunter needs to get really close to the animal, sometimes less than 10 meters. It seems to me implicitly, and ...
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What are Some Classical Examples of Local Adaptation?

Question Can you please give a list of classical (textbook) examples of local adaptations? How to answer Examples don't necessarily need to include what evidence supports this specific example of ...
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Why is it beneficial for trees to grow that tall?

Why is it beneficial for trees to grow that tall? This sounds like a kid's question Mom, Dad... why are trees so tall? Costs and Benefits There are some obvious ...
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What model of epistasis best fit the reality?

In theoretical population genetics, it is very common to have to assume a model of epistatic interaction. The two most common models are the additive model and the multiplicative model. Additive ...
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How does epigenetics know to mutate which gene in order to survive? [closed]

It seems that during reproduction particular genes are targeted for modification (mutation, deletion, insertion, etc.) given environmental inputs of either or both of the parents. If a creature was ...
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Is Mutation Theory still “valid” for complex organisms?

I'm afraid like most people I suffer from having learned "A History of Evolution" in school, rather than cutting to the chase and learning the actual "up to date" version of the subject. (Imagine if ...
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Mutation-drift equilibrium and among loci variance in heterozygosity

At mutation-drift balance, the increased heterozygosity brought by new mutations is exactly equal to the loss of heterozygosity due to genetic drift. At equilibrium, the expected heterozygosity for a ...
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141 views

Selection Pressure on Orca Whale Coloration

What is the proposed selection pressure that leads to the distinctive coloration of Orca whales? I can find nothing in the literature.
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Components of the concept of Developmental Noise?

Developmental noise is a concept that correspond to the amount of possible phenotypic variance of a given genotype in a given environment. Intrinsic noise (aka Cellular noise) is a component of ...
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Why do many people seem to prefer unhealthy compared to healthy foods?

I don't have any concrete statistics on this but many of us seem to love the taste of food that is unhealthy for us. Over the centuries, wouldn't it have been a non negligible advantage to those who ...
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Intuitive explanation for Kin- and Group- selection

It is known from theoretician in the field of kin selection that kin selection (inclusive fitness theory) and group selection are actually two sides of the same coin. In other words, these two ...
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Evolution of parasite into ideal parasite [duplicate]

An ideal parasite is a parasite which thrives within a host without harming it (according to my NCERT textbook). Then, quite obviously, why hasn't that happened yet? I mean, natural selection can ...
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Genetic Diversity and Adaptation

I am somewhat new to evolutionary biology, having studied it on my free time as a computer science student. There is one particular thing that has always bothered me for which I have not seen a good ...
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Why do some bad traits evolve, and good ones don't?

If a trait would be advantageous to an organism then why hasn't it evolved yet? Conversely, if a trait is not advantageous or mildly disadvantageous, why does it exist? In other words why does ...
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Does the species of snake that eats Amphidromous inversus have chiral dimorphism?

From what I read at Schilthuizen and Davison (2005), Amphidromous inversus is a species of snail that occurs in 2 forms that are nearly mirror images of each other occurring in nearly equal ...
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How to name a case of convergent evolution where the same mutation is involved in both lineages?

Definition of Convergent evolution - from Wikipedia > Convergent Evolution Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages. Convergent ...
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Why has grey hair evolved?

A vast majority of humans get at least some grey hair as they age. As far as I know this applies to both genders and all races. Presumably this means that at least some grey haired humans have ...
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216 views

Fecundity per woman in early humans

The average fecundity per woman varies a lot from country to country. I call average fecundity per woman the average number of born children per woman. In Homo sapiens, what was the average fecundity ...
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Are there examples of selection on males influencing female phenotypes?

I've been studying selection on female body color in a sexually dimorphic species and am intrigued by the possibility that selection on males, whether it be through sexual or natural selection, may ...
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Why are there species instead of a continuum of various animals?

As I understand it, various animal traits have to evolve gradually, but what happens to the species that are "neither here nor there"? To put it differently, if a species evolved from another, it did ...
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The replicator equation vs the Lotka-Volterra equation

Background The replicator equation with $n$ strategies is given by the differential equation: \begin{equation} \dot x_{i} = x_{i} \left( \sum_{j=1}^{n} a_{ij}x_{j} - \phi \right) \qquad i = 1, ...
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Why do heterozygous individuals have increased resistance to malaria?

I am aware that there is such a thing called heterozygous advantage, which is due to the presence of a certain single allele, and that an example of this could be with "sickle-cell anemia". I am ...
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Why are the Galápagos islands so special?

Why did Darwin formulate his theory of evolution just after his visit to the Galápagos islands? Why were they so special from an evolutionary point of view?
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Have scientists ever produce a new species in laboratory by means of natural selection?

I was wondering, if scientists ever produce a more complex species from a less complex species by means of natural selection? I imagine something like, bacteria which can't photosynthesis and oxygen ...
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What is most ancestral: isogamy or anisogamy?

Sexual reproduction can be feasible with anisogamy (gametes of different sizes i.e. genders) or isogamy (gametes of same size i.e. mating types) or with undifferentiated gametes (i.e. true random ...
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Why even if all requirements for natural selection are met, it may not happen?

In the book written by John Endler Natural Selection in the Wild p. 4 it says that even if condition a, b and c are met, evolution by natural selection might occur, [...] , but not necessarily, ...
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Is there a formal definition of signature of natural selection?

I’ve searched for a definition of signature of natural selection. Unfortunately, I haven’t found any formal definition of it. The signature of positive selection ...
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How does Natural Selection shape Genetic Variation?

Background Importance of the additive genetic variance As stated here, the fundamental theorem of Natural Selection (NS) by Fisher says: The rate of increase in the mean fitness of any organism ...
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Difference/similarity between adaptive radiation and species divergence?

I've been reading various answers on different sites but I still don't know whether adaptive radiation and species divergence are different or similar. My questions: 1) On some sites, it says that ...
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Have proteins been observed to come into existence through mutations and natural selection?

A protein that catalyzes one reaction can theoretically be modified by mutations and natural selection and eventually catalyze another reaction completely unrelated to the original. Has this been ...
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How does Darwinian Evolution work?

Let me explain... A friend and I read some articles, part of a Biology book, and watched a video on evolution. We then tried to explain what Evolution is to each other. My friend said that Natural ...
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How does the modern synthesis theory explain the evolution of birds from dinosaurs? [closed]

The theory of evolution claims that birds evolved from dinosaurs only by mutation, genetic drift, migration and natural selection. However, it seems to me that wings were not selectively advantageous ...
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Games with non-uniform interaction rates

Background: Many models in evolutionary game theory assume uniform interaction rates. For instance, consider the $2\times 2$ game: \begin{array}{l c c} & A & B \\ A & a & b \\ ...
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Replicator equation for mixed strategies?

The the replicator equation is usually defined for pure strategies. More specifically, the replicator eqn for $n$ strategies is given by: \begin{equation} \dot x_{i} = x_{i} \left( \sum_{j=1}^{n} ...
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Do scouting bees get to pass their genes to offspring?

Let's say the food-scouting behavior of scouting bees are enhanced when some particular alleles are expressed. By natural selection, the allele frequency for that "good" allele should increase because ...
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Expected time for a neutral allele to reach a frequency of $p_1$ when starting at frequency $p_0$

Kimura and Ohta (1968) showed that the expected time for a neutral allele to reach fixation (given that it will reach fixation) is $$\bar t(p_0)=-4N\left(\frac{1-p_0}{p_0}\right)\ln(1-p_0),$$ where ...
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Discrete vs Continuous Replicator Dynamics

The replicator eqn in the case of discrete non-overlapping generations and asexual reproduction is given by the discrete replicator eqn: $$x_i(t+1) = x_i (t)\frac{f_i(t)}{\bar f (t)}$$ where $x_i$ is ...
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How to statistically test the predictability of evolution? [closed]

Can anyone recommend me an experimental study which tries to test the predictability of evolution? The closest works I found are the studies of fluctuation tests (f.e. classical study of Luria & ...
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Relationship between selection coefficient and frequency of elimination

I'm asking this question because I would like to model the influence of changes that take place during tumour evolution to estimate what changes are selected against. I am in effect looking at ...
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Will moths evolve to become blue if we paint walls in blue?

I know dark moths are more frequent than white moths when the environment is full of dirty (dark) walls/trees; it is a consequence of natural selection. Will moths evolve to become blue if walls/trees ...
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Why do only two sexes exist for animals?

Why, from the natural selection point of view, do only two sexes exist for animals?
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DNA adaptation in human life

Does our DNA adapt by human lifetime? Or do we have the same genetic information from birth to death? I mean: What is usually called "evolution" means "natural selection" like this: ...
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Who was the first to coin the terms of soft and hard selection?

Soft and hard selection are sometimes used with different definitions. I have been told that at first place hard and soft selection has been defined in the following way: soft selection: Each deme ...
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1answer
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What is a selective constraint?

I encountered the term selective constraint in Huber et al. 2015, page 4 (last paragraph) in: If invariable sites are included in the analysis, then both the methods of Kim and Stephan ...
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0answers
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Variance in reproductive success and effective population size

Background The effective population size $Ne$ is the size of the Wright-Fisher population that experience the same amount of drift than the population under consideration. The higher the variance in ...
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Effects of selection on effective population size

Background The effective population size ($N_e$) is a central concept of evolutionary biology and is influenced by several parameters. For example: sex ratio bias affects $N_e$ $\left(N_e = ...
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Is our genome decaying (see “Genetic Entropy”), and, if so, is this evidence for our genome being “young”?

In the book Genetic Entropy & the Mystery of the Genome the author says that the genome cannot be old because the genome is "decaying". Decay is a very subjective term, but in this case he means ...
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Is it possible there were multiple origins of life? And, if so, why did the one which became the common ancestor between all organisms prevail?

I have learned that all currently-living organisms come from a common ancestor, which I theoretically understand. However, my professor in a class mentioned that there is a chance that there were ...
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How did the double circulatory system evolve from the single circulatory system

I already learned how the mammal circulatory system (double circulatory system) evolved from the reptilian circulatory system. How did natural selection evolve the reptilian circulatory system and the ...
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Why didn't humans evolve to reproduce identical twins all the time?

According to the selfish gene theory, it seems like because identical twins sometimes get produced, a mutation to a gene that says, "if you have an identical twin, be fully altruistic towards them" ...