Study of the anatomy and organization of the nervous system.

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Unilateral damage to vagus nerve

Context: The vagus nerves supply the neck viscera, heart, lungs and gastrointestinal tract. They join around the oesophagus to form the oesophageal plexus. Question: Would damage to one vagus nerve ...
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15 views

What information do bipolar cells encode?

Short version: I don't see what information on-centre bipolar cells are actually capturing. Longer: Actually, the question could be extended to on-centre retinal cells as well, but I'll focus on ...
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19 views

Where to go next with clustered C elegans neuronal time series

I'm doing some independent research with the C Elegans nervous system (with the OpenWorm project) and was looking for some guidance as to where I should go next. Right now, I'm dealing with calcium ...
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11 views

Could there be some safe, hypothetical way of turning on and of thermoregulation?

This is something I thought of with the whole artificial gill concept. Could a modification to the brain/nervous system allow a human to turn off their thermoregulation in air/water of the right ...
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311 views

How do duplicate brain regions (ex: left/right amygdaloid body) operate together?

I frequently hear talk about parts of the brain like "Amygdala" or "Hypothalamus", so I looked them up in an app called "essential anatomy". What I see is that there's mirror symmetry, and most of ...
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13 views

Real unipolar neurons do indeed exist in human?

I studied that the unipolar neuron in human body are not really unipolar but they're pseoudounipolar neurons. On the other hand according to what I understood from wikipedia (neuron) there are real ...
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1answer
19 views

What does it mean “specialized populations of neurons”?

I'm reading now the Campbell biology book (10th), and on page 1063 is written: In all but the simplest animals, specialized populations of neurons handle each stage of information processing. ...
3
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1answer
30 views

What are cranial nerve nuclei?

I am having a really hard time trying to understand what cranial nerve nuclei are. I have been reading/watching videos and I keep hearing, "that is where the cranial nerves make connection with the ...
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2answers
125 views

Headshot = instant kill? [closed]

While whatching a film, I've been thinking about how does a headshot kill someone, and how long does it take? For example let's say you've beeing shot by a normal (police) handfired weapon - no ...
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1answer
18 views

Are cortical columns restricted to somatosensory cortical sections?

From this previous question, it seems like evidence for the minicolumn organisation of the neocortex seems to be primarily based off observations around the sensory parts of the cortex, such as the ...
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3answers
446 views

What exactly is the neural receptive field?

Neural receptive fields map the spatial or temporal distribution of the data to individual neuron excitation, if I understand correctly, but I do not understand if receptive fields (especially in the ...
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253 views

Do taller people have larger somatosensory cortices than short people?

When we assume that peripheral touch receptor densities are equal in tall and short people, then tall people should have more touch receptors than short people, given the larger amount of skin surface ...
3
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1answer
72 views

Can the dendrites of sensory neurons be a meter long?

The typical textbook structure of neurons is a cell with a short dendritic tree and a long axon. The dendrites receive information and send it to the axon via the cell body (soma). The axon is a long ...
3
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1answer
36 views

Do axon grows after cutting/damaging of some of its part?

Do axon grows after cutting of some of its part to near original place? Do axon restores after local damaging of some of its part? I take https://class.coursera.org/neurobio-001/ classes and learn ...
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21 views

Why is the autonomic nervous system divided into parts? [closed]

Why would it be advantageous from an evolutionary perspective to develop parasympathetic and sympathetic systems?
3
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1answer
89 views

What is the role of the tissue surrounding neurons in decision making and taking control of impulses?

How does the fatty tissue surrounding neurons supports and enhances the speed of electrical impulses? How does it stabilize connections that take control of impulses and decision-making? The cells ...
7
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1answer
633 views

Why do humans alone have the capability to have religious/spiritual experiences?

What is it in our brain that makes having such experiences possible? I assume other species don't have these. Sure there are instances in the natural world where you can see individuals of the species ...
7
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1answer
6k views

What are the advantages and disadvantages of being ambidextrous?

Most of us have one dominant hand. We find it nigh on impossible to do very delicate or dextrous activities with our other-hand. This seems like an apparent weakness, and a rather odd one when you ...
6
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2answers
325 views

Why can't our eyes smoothly transition from side to side without focusing on a moving object?

Why are we not able to slowly and smoothly look from side to side, or up and down in a single and smooth transition, given that we are able to do this if our eyes are focused on a moving object?
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1answer
308 views

What is the distance between the sciatic nerve and the colon at the closest point?

Is it possible that a full colon impinges on the sciatic nerve? Is there anything that physically separates the sciatic nerve from the colon?
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26 views

Are there different types of communication and computation neurons?

I know from my basic education in neurology that the brain has various sorts of neurons. These are usually bunched into 3 different categories. I read in a recently published book including papers on ...
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218 views

What is the relationship between W, X, Y and P, M retinal ganglion cells?

In Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology (12e) the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are classified into W, X, and Y types. However, in Gray's Anatomy (40th ed.), RGS are subdivided into midget ...
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2answers
184 views

Are there nerves in the umbilical cord?

I have always imagined that cutting the umbilical cord after birth might be painful. But I have always been confused about who would feel the pain and why. It occurred to me that the mother or the ...
7
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1answer
450 views

Is the six-layer cortex model of the mammalian cortex still the most accepted model?

I've been reading a bit about the different layers of the cerebral cortex and its clear that certainly not every region of the cortex has the same number of layers. Thus, the idea that every region ...
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165 views

Do people with congenital analgesia feel cold?

There are a few diseases that cause an insensitivity to pain. This question asks about the relationship between the cold and pain, which got me thinking: Is shivering a response driven by the ...
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1answer
57 views

How does the brain regulate its temperature?

I recently ran into a bio-physical paradox while trying to solve an engineering problem, using nature's way as a guide; namely the brain. I'm working on designing a totally new system of liquid/gas ...
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1answer
4k views

Why is the brain white?

I have read many articles about how the brain is the most power-hungry organ in any living complex organism, requiring about 70% of it's oxygen supplies in the resting state. Since the usual medium ...
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1answer
831 views

Why is the pituitary gland located in the brain?

Why is the pituitary gland located in the brain in humans, instead of elsewhere in the body? Why would this be an evolutionary beneficial adaptation?
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1answer
90 views

Is Circle of Willis unique to humans? [closed]

I understand that Circle of Willis is a circulatory anastomotic system that provided blood to the brain. I want to understand if this system is unique to humans or does it exist in other species or ...
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2answers
369 views

Does learning increase the number of neurons in the brain?

I am attempting to understand neurogenesis related to learning. Does learning increase the number of neurons in the human brain? What would be some good scientific publications to read?
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75 views

A request for an overview of the cranial nerves

Is there any resource that contains motor and sensory innervations, or pathways of all the twelve cranial nerves (i.e., cranial nerve I to XII)? I have found this book chapter on the cranial nerves, ...
7
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1answer
104 views

Neuronal coordinates of C.elegans

Is there a list of neural coordinates for C.elegans? I need it to build a 3D model. Update: What is available at the moment is: full connectome for example, at openconnectome; neuron description ...
7
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3answers
325 views

What exactly is Tinnitus?

What exactly is tinnitus? What is it's cause, and why do some people hear it and others don't?
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1answer
196 views

Neuroscience of mathematicians

I've tried to google this but everything that comes up are things like "mathematical neuroscience" rather than the other way around. Specifically, I'm interested in the workings of a mathematician's ...
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1answer
321 views

Is the motor cortex identical to the sensorimotor cortex?

As far as I understand, the primary motor cortex (M1) and primary sensorimotor (SM1) are notations for the same cortical area in the brain. Am I right that there is no dedicated motor cortex, and that ...
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4answers
2k views

How and where, in the human brain, are memories stored?

Background I am a computer programmer who is fascinated by artificial intelligence and artificial neural networks, and I am becoming more curious about how biological neural networks work. Context ...
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994 views

Is there any way a human could whistle and be unable to speak?

Is there any situation anatomically, where a human could understand the speech of others perfectly, without any capabilities of speech themselves, but would retain the ability to whistle with a tune? ...
10
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1answer
828 views

Where is the aneurysm in this picture?

I'm a curious person, I've never had any medical training, but I wish to know some more about aneurysms. Aneurysms are basically weakened spots in the elastic artery wall. This can eventually result ...
4
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1answer
80 views

What (open) software there are for simulating behaviour of human (cortical) neurons?

Is there any reliable open-source software for simulating the behaviour of human cortical neurons? I am looking for serious software, so let's assume I have access to a computer with more than 10,000 ...
3
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1answer
49 views

Can an upper forearm amputee correctly control the Median and Ulnar nerves

I'm an engineer who is looking to build a robotic hand for people without their upper forearm(from center of forearm in direction of hand), controlled by the Thalmic Myo(an EMG sensor). I am first ...
0
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1answer
28 views

Relation between trigeminal and facial nerve in sympathetic response

In my neuro-anatomy course notes I found that the facial nerve "uses" the trigeminal nerve to reach its targets. However, I have yet to find any diagram or reference that indicates how this is done. ...
3
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1answer
121 views

Specific location where nerves converge

I'm looking for the "earliest" specific site where the 3 following nerves' sensory signals "converge": Trigeminal nerve Median nerve Superficial peroneal nerve By "earliest", I really mean the ...
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1answer
63 views

Spinal cord injury bypass

When the spinal cord is damaged, the connection between the brain and some part of the body may be lost. To restore this connection, researches are considering either: Repairing the damaged area so ...
2
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1answer
3k views

Nerves, Neurons, Axons and Dendrites by Example

Here is a simple diagram of a neuron: A few (very closely related) questions: Where are receptors located (for pain, pressure, temperature, etc.): in the axon terminals or the dendrite tree? ...
8
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1answer
217 views

How are bones growing, if bones are not connected to the brain?

If the bones are not connected to the brain, how is their growth controlled? This question is not a duplicate of the question Mechanisms of bone growth, as this question deals with how bone growth is ...
9
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3answers
864 views

Do memories have mass?

If it were possible to live forever, would our brains grow infinitely with the number of memories that we store? Or would we remove old memories as we create new ones?
2
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1answer
79 views

What is the mechanism responsible for the 'delay' in delayed rectifier potassium channels?

I've been trying to find a comprehensive explanation concerning the nature of the 'delay' in neurons' delayed rectifier potassium channels. As it's written in my intro to neuroscience textbook, these ...
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4answers
1k views

Are neural connections one-way?

I'm trying to think about how two neurons communicate, typically shown in pictures as an electric pulse traveling along a long, thin connective tissue. Is this depiction somewhat accurate, and if so, ...
2
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1answer
66 views

Why is the vermis of the cerebellum associated with speech?

I've found multiple sources claiming that damage or impairment as a result of alcohol to the vermis of the cerebellum results in speech impairment. I find this a bit surprising, since the only areas I ...
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1answer
1k views

What is the mechanism of reflex arcs?

When a reflex arc occurs the signal from the receptor passes straight to the motor neuron instead of being passed onto the brain. This is a rather simplistic explanation, I was hoping to make it more ...