Study of the anatomy and organization of the nervous system.

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How and where, in the human brain, are memories stored?

Background I am a computer programmer who is fascinated by artificial intelligence and artificial neural networks, and I am becoming more curious about how biological neural networks work. Context ...
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1answer
345 views

Why does regular exercise increase brain volume?

It has been shown in several studies that regular aerobic exercise increases brain volume in aging humans. The changes were observed in hippocampus and were correlated with dramatic reduction of ...
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1answer
201 views

Do taller people have larger somatosensory cortices than short people?

Do taller people have larger somatosensory cortices than short people? What about larger motor cortices? And if so, could this imply that they have less space devoted to other functions, like ...
10
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1answer
357 views

Foveal ganglion cell density (Tay-Sachs Disease)

I’m currently reading on Tay-Sachs disease and have stumbled upon something regarding the typical “cherry red” macula symptom. On the one hand it is mentioned that the macula is almost devoid of ...
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3answers
615 views

Do memories have mass?

If it were possible to live forever, would our brains grow infinitely with the number of memories that we store? Or would we remove old memories as we create new ones?
9
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1answer
803 views

Where is the aneurysm in this picture?

I'm a curious person, I've never had any medical training, but I wish to know some more about aneurysms. Aneurysms are basically weakened spots in the elastic artery wall. This can eventually result ...
8
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4answers
878 views

Is there any way a human could whistle and be unable to speak?

Is there any situation anatomically, where a human could understand the speech of others perfectly, without any capabilities of speech themselves, but would retain the ability to whistle with a tune? ...
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222 views

What exactly is Tinnitus?

What exactly is tinnitus? What is it's cause, and why do some people hear it and others don't?
7
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1answer
172 views

How are bones growing, if bones are not connected to the brain?

If the bones are not connected to the brain, how is their growth controlled? This question is not a duplicate of the question Mechanisms of bone growth, as this question deals with how bone growth is ...
7
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1answer
246 views

Are cerebellar basket and stellate neurons actually different cell types?

The title more or less says it all, but to contextualise a bit: Cerebellar molecular layer interneurons have been classified, probably since Cajal, into the basket cells, which synapse onto the soma ...
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Density of neurons/cells in the mouse brain

Could someone point out some relevant papers or resources (an online DB maybe?) describing the density of neurons (or, more in general, of cells) in different areas of the mouse brain?
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Hebbian theory “fire together” clarification

Donald Hebb states it as follows: "Let us assume that the persistence or repetition of a reverberatory activity (or "trace") tends to induce lasting cellular changes that add to its stability.… ...
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1answer
966 views

How do neurons form new connections in brain plasticity?

I've been reading about brain plasticity and how the brain can "rewire" itself. One of the things that is not clear to me - how neurons can establish new connections. Does this rewiring mean that ...
6
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1answer
279 views

Which organisms have the neuroanatomy Roger Penrose supposes play a role in consciousness?

In The Road to Reality, Roger Penrose suggests that certain brain structures might play a role in consciousness Most particularly, lattice neuronal microtubules, as originally suggested by ...
6
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1answer
83 views

Do people that don't feel pain shiver in the cold?

There are a few diseases that cause an insensitivity to pain. This question asks about the relationship between the cold and pain, which got me thinking: Is shivering a response driven by the ...
6
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1answer
131 views

Long term effects of “brain freeze” on the cerebral vasculature

According to one theory, ice cream headaches are caused by an increase in blood volume of the anterior cerebral artery: Another theory into the cause of ice-cream headaches is explained by ...
6
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1answer
120 views

Disproportion in cranial nerve innervation?

The cranial nerve innervation is highly disproportionate, as far as humans are concerned. I am not sure of the advantage of being innervated by cranial nerve versus being innervated by a normal ...
6
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2answers
212 views

Why do the brains of cocaine-users shrink faster than the brains of non-cocaine users?

http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/04/cocaine-may-age-the-brain.html?rss=1 Cocaine-dependent individuals showed a significantly greater-than-normal age-related decline in gray matter in ...
5
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1answer
366 views

Why do humans alone have the capability to have religious/spiritual experiences?

What is it in our brain that makes having such experiences possible? I assume other species don't have these. Sure there are instances in the natural world where you can see individuals of the species ...
5
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4answers
226 views

Why has evolution made neurons use spiking?

I'm going to be forward and say that I'm not a biologist. I don't claim to fully understand the functionality of a neuron from an electrical/chemical perspective... I'm curiously gazing from the ...
5
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1answer
107 views

Neuroscience of mathematicians

I've tried to google this but everything that comes up are things like "mathematical neuroscience" rather than the other way around. Specifically, I'm interested in the workings of a mathematician's ...
5
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1answer
67 views

on/off behavior of neural networks

What causes a group of disembodied neurons in a dish to fire after a silence? If there are no neurons providing a stimulus for more firing (as in a dish of disembodied rat neurons), then why don't ...
5
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1answer
60 views

Neuronal coordinates of C.elegans

Is there a list of neural coordinates for C.elegans? I need it to build a 3D model. Update: What is available at the moment is: full connectome for example, at openconnectome; neuron description ...
4
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1answer
63 views

What (open) software there are for simulating behaviour of human (cortical) neurons?

Is there any reliable open-source software for simulating the behaviour of human cortical neurons? I am looking for serious software, so let's assume I have access to a computer with more than 10,000 ...
4
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1answer
2k views

What are the advantages and disadvantages of being ambidextrous?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of being ambidextrous? We have two hands and we nearly can't use one and this seems like a weakness, and a stupid one when you first think about it. But ...
4
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2answers
352 views

Extraretinal photoreception in mammals? [duplicate]

A Finnish firm Valkee sells light-ear-plugs against thing such as jetlag. I asked a researcher in Aalto university how do they really work and he responded ...
4
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1answer
59 views

Do local field potentials (LFP) create waves on the surfaces of nerve cells?

Are waves created by the LFP on the surfaces of neurons cell bodies? Since the cells have a resting potential, do these waves create harmonic oscillation of the membranes at particular frequencies? ...
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0answers
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Is the six-layer cortex model of the mammalian cortex still the most accepted model?

I've been reading a bit about the different layers of the cerebral cortex and its clear that certainly not every region of the cortex has the same number of layers. Thus, the idea that every region ...
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0answers
138 views

How do duplicate brain regions (ex: left/right amygdaloid body) operate together?

I frequently hear talk about parts of the brain like "Amygdala" or "Hypothalamus", so I looked them up in an app called "essential anatomy". What I see is that there's mirror symmetry, and most of ...
3
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3answers
296 views

What exactly is the neural receptive field?

Neural receptive fields map the spatial or temporal distribution of the data to individual neuron excitation, if I understand correctly, but I do not understand if receptive fields (especially in the ...
3
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1answer
109 views

Specific location where nerves converge

I'm looking for the "earliest" specific site where the 3 following nerves' sensory signals "converge": Trigeminal nerve Median nerve Superficial peroneal nerve By "earliest", I really mean the ...
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0answers
18 views

Evolutionary motivation behind number of neurons in DCMMP

I'm studying neuro-anatomy right now and I was surprised to learn that there are only three neurons along the Dorsal Column Medial Lemniscal Pathway (DMLP) which relays mechanical sensations from the ...
2
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1answer
300 views

Neurons with thousands of connections: where are the extra connections coming from?

If every neuron has only one Axon but can can have thousands of (or let's say, even just ten) incoming Axon connections via its dendrites, where are the extra connections coming from? It seems to ...
2
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3answers
206 views

Mechanical cause of loss of consciousness

Consciousness is an electrical and chemical interaction in the brain, caused by neurons firing and chemical interactions. How does a mechanical "force" cause this to stop working? i.e. How does a ...
2
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1answer
25 views

What is the distance between the sciatic nerve and the colon at the closest point?

Is it possible that a full colon impinges on the sciatic nerve? Is there anything that physically separates the sciatic nerve from the colon?
2
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1answer
740 views

Difference between 'Orbit' and 'Globe' in eye anatomy?

What's the difference between 'Orbit' and 'Globe' in eye's anatomy. Do they refer to the same ? I encountered this in this text: ... ciliary ganglion, which is approximately 3 mm in size, and ...
2
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1answer
39 views

Can an upper forearm amputee correctly control the Median and Ulnar nerves

I'm an engineer who is looking to build a robotic hand for people without their upper forearm(from center of forearm in direction of hand), controlled by the Thalmic Myo(an EMG sensor). I am first ...
2
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1answer
729 views

What is the mechanism of reflex arcs?

When a reflex arc occurs the signal from the receptor passes straight to the motor neuron instead of being passed onto the brain. This is a rather simplistic explanation, I was hoping to make it more ...
2
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1answer
46 views

What is the advantage to neurons being asymmetrical?

Does having a central axon and dendrites result in any advantage compared to if the neuron was symmetrical?
2
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1answer
119 views

Can the sensory neuron network and the motor neuron network be considered separate networks?

I am reading up on the nervous system using wikipedia and trying to interpret one infographic on this page: I've always thought of the human nervous system as a singular network of neurons. This ...
2
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1answer
60 views

Spinal cord injury bypass

When the spinal cord is damaged, the connection between the brain and some part of the body may be lost. To restore this connection, researches are considering either: Repairing the damaged area so ...
2
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1answer
35 views

Why is the vermis of the cerebellum associated with speech?

I've found multiple sources claiming that damage or impairment as a result of alcohol to the vermis of the cerebellum results in speech impairment. I find this a bit surprising, since the only areas I ...
2
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1answer
40 views

What is the mechanism responsible for the 'delay' in delayed rectifier potassium channels?

I've been trying to find a comprehensive explanation concerning the nature of the 'delay' in neurons' delayed rectifier potassium channels. As it's written in my intro to neuroscience textbook, these ...
2
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0answers
52 views

Biology Experiment Data (Hodgkin-Huxley)

I'm doing research into the Hodgkin-Huxley Model from an electronics/mathematics perspective and I'm looking to find actual numerical results from experiments on squid axons. I want to compare the ...
2
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0answers
26 views

Do axon grows after cutting/damaging of some of its part?

Do axon grows after cutting of some of its part to near original place? Do axon restores after local damaging of some of its part? I take https://class.coursera.org/neurobio-001/ classes and learn ...
2
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0answers
72 views

Organisms with the most extreme sensory capabilities? (sight, smell, sound) [closed]

Background It is quite mind boggling to imagine what it would be like to be missing sight, sound, touch, smell, taste etc. Question Which organism holds the record for most extreme sensory ...
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4answers
148 views

Are neural connections one-way?

I'm trying to think about how two neurons communicate, typically shown in pictures as an electric pulse traveling along a long, thin connective tissue. Is this depiction somewhat accurate, and if so, ...
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1answer
39 views

Specifics of decussation

Beginner question here: The definition of decussation I see is the crossing through the midline of a bunch of neurons. But I was wondering if there was a little more to it than this, because I'm ...
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1answer
36 views

Is the motor cortex identical to the sensorimotor cortex?

As far as I understand, the primary motor cortex (M1) and primary sensorimotor (SM1) are notations for the same cortical area in the brain. Am I right that there is no dedicated motor cortex, and that ...
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1answer
569 views

Nerves, Neurons, Axons and Dendrites by Example

Here is a simple diagram of a neuron: A few (very closely related) questions: Where are receptors located (for pain, pressure, temperature, etc.): in the axon terminals or the dendrite tree? ...